building cyberinfrastructure in deep woods and remote watersheds
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BUILDING CYBERINFRASTRUCTURE IN DEEP WOODS AND REMOTE WATERSHEDS. Gayatri Venkatesh, Kuang-Ching Wang Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. To campus. Over Woods & Hills. In the Woods. In Woods & Ditches. Along the River. To campus. AT&T Data Coverage.

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building cyberinfrastructure in deep woods and remote watersheds

BUILDING CYBERINFRASTRUCTURE IN DEEP WOODS AND REMOTE WATERSHEDS

Gayatri Venkatesh, Kuang-Ching Wang

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

the intelligent river tm pilot sites

To

campus

Over Woods & Hills

In the Woods

In Woods & Ditches

Along the River

To

campus

AT&T Data Coverage

The Intelligent RiverTM Pilot Sites
challenges and objectives
Challenges and Objectives
  • Wireless networking challenges
    • Deep woods – impedes wireless communication range
    • Lack of cellular coverage
    • Hilly terrains – absolute blockage, often over long distances
    • Recurring cost and limited bandwidth of cellular/satellite service
  • Wireless networking objectives
    • A methodology for building wireless network infrastructure for current and future Intelligent RiverTM sites that
      • provides adequate and reliable bandwidth
      • scales to a large area physically and economically
our unique challenges and strategies
Our Unique Challenges and Strategies
  • Diverse sensing site characteristics
    • One-size-fits-all solution may not be optimal for monitoring the watersheds from sources to estuaries
    • Strategy: cost-performance trade-off among technologies
  • Pushing sensors “deeper” into the woods
    • Taming the forest rather than avoiding it
    • Strategy: assessing forest impact on wireless networks
  • Exploring network reliability and controllability
    • Accepting the fact: forest network condition changes over time
    • Strategy: identifying suitable control knobs to tune forest wireless networks
clemson forest and hunnicut creek
Clemson Forest and Hunnicut Creek
  • Explore higher bandwidth, lower cost technologies
    • Clemson Forest
      • Long range Wi-Fi (fixed direction): IEEE 802.11a & b/g
      • Wi-Fi mesh network: IEEE 802.11b/g
      • Zigbee sensor network:IEEE 802.15.4
    • Hunnicut Creek
      • Long range Wi-Fi (steerable direction): IEEE 802.11b/g
      • Wi-Fi mesh network: IEEE 802.11b/g
      • Zigbee sensor network: IEEE 802.15.4
long distance transit links
Long Distance Transit Links
  • To overcome long distance, forests, hills
    • Radio placement on high structure on both ends
    • High gain directional antenna and power amplifiers
    • Potential control parameters
      • Radio transmit power
      • Antenna direction
      • Antenna gain
      • Radio layer 2 and 3 protocol parameters
clemson forest sensor network

SensorCluster

Zigbee

Zigbee

Zigbee

Zigbee

Data

Zigbee

Long range Transit Link

Zigbee

Zigbee

Zigbee

Clemson Forest Sensor Network
  • Short range Wireless Communication:
  • ISM 2.4 GHz operating frequency .
  • 1 mW (+0 dBm) power output.
  • Up to 120m range.
  • Supports up to 16 simultaneous channels.
steerable directional antenna radio
Steerable Directional Antenna Radio
  • Potentially higher bandwidth at substantially longer distance
  • Software controls radio to focus one direction at a time
    • Fidelity Comtech Phocus System (tested 15 miles line-of-sight range)
    • Potential use as 1) forest mesh routers and 2) long range gateways
measurement studies of the links
Measurement Studies of the Links
  • Long range links: throughput v.s. direction and power
  • Forest mesh links: throughput v.s. tree obstruction distance and power
  • Steerable antenna links: throughput v.s. antenna alignment and power
  • Study leveraged help from SC Governor School summer interns
  • Study results published at ACM Wintech 2008 poster session

Long range link:

Throughput v.s. signal strength v.s.antenna direction

Long range link:

Signal strength v.s.transmit power

Forest mesh link:

Throughput v.s. signal strength v.s.distance in forest

Steerable link:

Throughput v.s. signal strength v.s.antenna direction

future work
Future Work
  • Clemson Forest and Hunnicut networks ready for integration
    • Sensor packets pushed to server successfully (server integration TBD)
    • Video camera to be installed in Clemson forest
    • Mesh routers ready for larger scale deployment
  • Reliability and controllability are key concerns for a large scale sensing system
    • Further measurement studies to develop forest model for studying wireless network performance and design
    • Further studies on assessment and control techniques for wireless network performance and reliability
    • Further studies on developing large scale wireless network management techniques and software
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Dan Schmiedt , CCIT Chief Network Engineer
  • Knight Cox, Clemson Forest Manager
  • CCIT Intelligent River Project Team
  • Clemson Public Services Activities Team
  • Cisco Systems Inc.
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