Building cyberinfrastructure in deep woods and remote watersheds
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BUILDING CYBERINFRASTRUCTURE IN DEEP WOODS AND REMOTE WATERSHEDS. Gayatri Venkatesh, Kuang-Ching Wang Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. To campus. Over Woods & Hills. In the Woods. In Woods & Ditches. Along the River. To campus. AT&T Data Coverage.

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BUILDING CYBERINFRASTRUCTURE IN DEEP WOODS AND REMOTE WATERSHEDS

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BUILDING CYBERINFRASTRUCTURE IN DEEP WOODS AND REMOTE WATERSHEDS

Gayatri Venkatesh, Kuang-Ching Wang

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering


To

campus

Over Woods & Hills

In the Woods

In Woods & Ditches

Along the River

To

campus

AT&T Data Coverage

The Intelligent RiverTM Pilot Sites


Challenges and Objectives

  • Wireless networking challenges

    • Deep woods – impedes wireless communication range

    • Lack of cellular coverage

    • Hilly terrains – absolute blockage, often over long distances

    • Recurring cost and limited bandwidth of cellular/satellite service

  • Wireless networking objectives

    • A methodology for building wireless network infrastructure for current and future Intelligent RiverTM sites that

      • provides adequate and reliable bandwidth

      • scales to a large area physically and economically


Our Unique Challenges and Strategies

  • Diverse sensing site characteristics

    • One-size-fits-all solution may not be optimal for monitoring the watersheds from sources to estuaries

    • Strategy: cost-performance trade-off among technologies

  • Pushing sensors “deeper” into the woods

    • Taming the forest rather than avoiding it

    • Strategy: assessing forest impact on wireless networks

  • Exploring network reliability and controllability

    • Accepting the fact: forest network condition changes over time

    • Strategy: identifying suitable control knobs to tune forest wireless networks


Clemson Forest and Hunnicut Creek

  • Explore higher bandwidth, lower cost technologies

    • Clemson Forest

      • Long range Wi-Fi (fixed direction): IEEE 802.11a & b/g

      • Wi-Fi mesh network: IEEE 802.11b/g

      • Zigbee sensor network:IEEE 802.15.4

    • Hunnicut Creek

      • Long range Wi-Fi (steerable direction): IEEE 802.11b/g

      • Wi-Fi mesh network: IEEE 802.11b/g

      • Zigbee sensor network: IEEE 802.15.4


Forest and Hunnicut Network Overview


Long Distance Transit Links

  • To overcome long distance, forests, hills

    • Radio placement on high structure on both ends

    • High gain directional antenna and power amplifiers

    • Potential control parameters

      • Radio transmit power

      • Antenna direction

      • Antenna gain

      • Radio layer 2 and 3 protocol parameters


SensorCluster

Zigbee

Zigbee

Zigbee

Zigbee

Data

Zigbee

Long range Transit Link

Zigbee

Zigbee

Zigbee

Clemson Forest Sensor Network

  • Short range Wireless Communication:

  • ISM 2.4 GHz operating frequency .

  • 1 mW (+0 dBm) power output.

  • Up to 120m range.

  • Supports up to 16 simultaneous channels.


Steerable Directional Antenna Radio

  • Potentially higher bandwidth at substantially longer distance

  • Software controls radio to focus one direction at a time

    • Fidelity Comtech Phocus System (tested 15 miles line-of-sight range)

    • Potential use as 1) forest mesh routers and 2) long range gateways


Measurement Studies of the Links

  • Long range links: throughput v.s. direction and power

  • Forest mesh links: throughput v.s. tree obstruction distance and power

  • Steerable antenna links: throughput v.s. antenna alignment and power

  • Study leveraged help from SC Governor School summer interns

  • Study results published at ACM Wintech 2008 poster session

Long range link:

Throughput v.s. signal strength v.s.antenna direction

Long range link:

Signal strength v.s.transmit power

Forest mesh link:

Throughput v.s. signal strength v.s.distance in forest

Steerable link:

Throughput v.s. signal strength v.s.antenna direction


Future Work

  • Clemson Forest and Hunnicut networks ready for integration

    • Sensor packets pushed to server successfully (server integration TBD)

    • Video camera to be installed in Clemson forest

    • Mesh routers ready for larger scale deployment

  • Reliability and controllability are key concerns for a large scale sensing system

    • Further measurement studies to develop forest model for studying wireless network performance and design

    • Further studies on assessment and control techniques for wireless network performance and reliability

    • Further studies on developing large scale wireless network management techniques and software


Acknowledgements

  • Dan Schmiedt , CCIT Chief Network Engineer

  • Knight Cox, Clemson Forest Manager

  • CCIT Intelligent River Project Team

  • Clemson Public Services Activities Team

  • Cisco Systems Inc.


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