The solution to the solar n problem
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The Solution to the Solar n Problem. Jordan A. Goodman University of Maryland January 2003 Solar Neutrinos MSW Oscillations Super-K Results SNO Results Kamland Results Overall Results. Our current view of underlying structure of matter. P is uud N is udd p + is ud k + is us

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The Solution to the Solar n Problem

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The solution to the solar n problem

The Solution to the Solar n Problem

Jordan A. Goodman

University of Maryland

January 2003

  • Solar Neutrinos

  • MSW Oscillations

  • Super-K Results

  • SNO Results

  • Kamland Results

  • Overall Results


Our current view of underlying structure of matter

Our current view of underlying structure of matter

  • P is uud

  • N is udd

  • p+ is ud

  • k+ is us

  • and so on…

}Baryons

(nucleons)

}Mesons

The Standard Model


Facts about neutrinos

Neutrinos are only weakly interacting

40 billion neutrinos continuously hit every cm2 on earth from the Sun (24hrs/day)

Interaction length is ~1 light-year of steel

1 out of 100 billion interact going through the Earth

1931 – Pauli predicts a neutral particle to explain energy and momentum non-conservation in Beta decay.

1934 - Enrico Fermi develops a comprehensive theory of radioactive decays, including Pauli's particle, Fermi calls it the neutrino (Italian: "little neutral one").

1959 - Discovery of the neutrino is announced by Clyde Cowan and Fred Reines

Facts about Neutrinos


Why do we care about neutrinos

Neutrinos

They only interact weakly

If they have mass at all – it is very small

Why do we care about neutrinos?

  • They may be small, but there sure are a lot of them!

    • 300 million per cubic meter left over from the Big Bang

    • with even a small mass they could be most of the mass in the Universe!


Solar neutrinos

Solar Neutrinos


Solar neutrino spectrum

Solar Neutrino Spectrum


Solar neutrino experiment history

Solar Neutrino Experiment History

  • Homestake - Radiochemical

    • Huge tank of Cleaning Fluid

    • ne + 37Cl e- + 37Ar

    • Mostly 8B neutrinos + some 7Be

    • 35 years at <0.5 ev/day

    • ~1/3 SSM

    • (Davis - 2002 Nobel Prize)

  • Sage/Gallex - Radiochemical

    • “All” neutrinos

    • ne + 71Ga e- + 71Ge

    • 4 years at ~0.75 ev /day

    • ~2/3 SSM

  • Kamiokande-II and -III

    • 8B neutrinos only

    • ne Elastic Scattering

    • 10 years at 0.44 ev /day

    • ~1/2 SSM

    • (Koshiba 2002 Nobel Prize)


The solar neutrino problem

The Solar Neutrino Problem


Disappearing neutrinos

Disappearing Neutrinos?

  • All of these experiments (except SNO) are sensitive mostly to ne

    • The energies are too low to produce m or t so they can only see neutral current interactions from other flavors

  • If neutrinos could transform from electron type to muon or tau type the data might be understood

  • Neutrinos can only “oscillate” if they have different masses

    • This implies that they have mass!

    • This would have significant cosmological importance

      • A neutrino mass of ~20ev would close the Universe

    • It would also imply violation of lepton flavor conservation


Detecting neutrino mass

Detecting Neutrino Mass

  • If neutrinos of one type transform to another type they must have mass:

  • The rate at which they oscillate will tell us the mass difference between the neutrinos and their mixing


Neutrino oscillations

=Electron n

=Muon n

n1n2

n1n2

Muonn

Electronn

Neutrino Oscillations


Neutrino oscillations1

Neutrino Oscillations

  • Could Neutrino Oscillations solve the solar neutrino problem?

    • Simple oscillations would require a cosmic conspiracy

    • The earth/sun distance would have to be just right to get rid of Be neutrinos

  • Another solution was proposed –

    Resonant Matter Oscillations in the sun (MSW- Mikheev, Smirnov, Wolfenstein)

  • Because electron neutrinos “feel” the effect of electrons in matter they acquire a larger effective mass

    • This is like an index of refraction


Msw oscillations

MSW Oscillations

(Mikheev, Smirnov, Wolfenstein)


Oscillation parameter space

Oscillation Parameter Space

LMA

SMA

LOW

VAC


Solar neutrinos in super k

Solar Neutrinos in Super-K

  • The ratio of NC/CC cross section is ~1/6.5


Cherenkov radiation

Cherenkov Radiation

Aircraft moves through

air faster than speed of

sound.

Sonic Boom

Sonic boom


Cherenkov radiation1

Cherenkov Radiation

When a charged particle moves through

transparent media faster

than speed of light in that

media.

Cone of

light

Cherenkov radiation


Super k

Super-K


Super kamiokande

Super-Kamiokande


Detecting neutrinos

Detecting neutrinos

Cherenkov ring on the wall

Electron or muon track

The pattern tells us the energy and type of particle

We can easily tell muons from electrons


A muon going through the detector

A muon going through the detector


A muon going through the detector1

A muon going through the detector


A muon going through the detector2

A muon going through the detector


A muon going through the detector3

A muon going through the detector


A muon going through the detector4

A muon going through the detector


A muon going through the detector5

A muon going through the detector


Stopping muon

Stopping Muon


Stopping muon decay electron

Stopping Muon – Decay Electron


Low energy electron in sk

Low Energy Electron in SK


Solar neutrinos in super k1

Solar Neutrinos in Super-K

  • 1496 day sample (22.5 kiloton fiducial volume)

  • Super-K measures:

    • The flux of 8B solar neutrinos

    • Energy spectrum and direction of recoil electron

      • Energy spectrum is flat from 0 to Tmax

    • The zenith angle distribution

    • Day / Night rates

    • Seasonal variations


Solar neutrinos1

Solar Neutrinos


Energy spectrum

Energy Spectrum


Seasonal sunspot variation

Seasonal/Sunspot Variation


Day night bp2000 new 8 b spectrum preliminary

Day / Night - BP2000+New 8B SpectrumPreliminary


Combined results n e to n m t

Combined Results netonm,t

SK+Gallium+Cholrine - flux only allowed 95% C.L.

95% excluded by SK flux-independent zenith angle energy spectrum

95% C.L allowed. - SK flux constrained w/ zenith angle energy spectrum


Combined results n e to n sterile

Combined Results netonsterile

SK+Gallium+Cholrine - flux only allowed 95% C.L.

95% excluded by SK flux-independent zenith angle energy spectrum

95% C.L allowed. - SK flux constrained w/ zenith angle energy spectrum


The solution to the solar n problem

(Like SK)


Sno cc results

SNO CC Results

Fne= (35 ± 3 )% Fssm


Combining sk and sno

Combining SK and SNO

  • SNO measures Fne= (35 ± 3 )% Fssm

  • SK Measures Fes= (47 ± .5 ± 1.6)% Fssm

  • No Oscillation to active neutrinos:

    • ~3s difference

  • If Oscillation to active neutrinos:

    • SNO Measures just Fne

      • This implies that Fnm,t= ~65% Fssm (~2/3 have oscillated)

    • SK measures Fes =(Fne + (Fnm,t)/6.5)

  • Assuming osc. SNO predicts that SK will see Fes ~ (35%+ 65%/6.5) Fssm = 45% ± 3% Fssm


Sno results nc

SNO Results (NC)


Sno results nc cc

SNO Results (NC/CC)

  • SNO Results


Sno results

SNO Results


Combined results

Combined Results


Kamland terrestrial neutrinos

Kamland – Terrestrial Neutrinos


Reactors contributing to kamland

Reactors Contributing to Kamland


Kamland results dec 2002

Kamland Results (Dec. 2002)


Kamland

Kamland


Kamland1

Kamland


All experiments combined with kamland

All Experiments Combined with Kamland


Solar neutrino conclusions

The Winner

Solar Neutrino Conclusions

  • It looks like the Solar Neutrino problem has been solved!

    • All Data (except LSND) is now consistent with the large angle MSW solution

    • We have ruled out SMA and Low solutions

    • Disfavor Sterile Neutrino solutions

  • Neutrinos have mass!

    • This confirms the atmospheric neutrino results

    • Neutrinos contribute approximately as much mass as all of the visible stars

  • Future Experiments –

    • MiniBoone – LSND effect


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