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Disability Data in the American Community Survey. Presentation for the 2006 State-of-the-Science Conference - The Future of Disability Statistics: What We Know and Need to Know Sharon M. Stern Poverty and Health Statistics Branch U.S. Census Bureau October 5, 2006. Overview.

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Disability Data in the American Community Survey

Presentation for the 2006 State-of-the-Science Conference - The Future of Disability Statistics:

What We Know and Need to Know

Sharon M. Stern

Poverty and Health Statistics Branch

U.S. Census Bureau

October 5, 2006


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Overview

  • What is the American Community Survey (ACS)?

  • ACS Operations

  • Current disability items

  • 2006 ACS Content Test

    • How content for test was developed

    • Review of test operations

    • Selection criteria

  • Update on SIPP and DEWS


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What is the American Community Survey (ACS)?

  • The ACS is a nationwide survey designed to provide communities a fresh look at how they are changing.

  • The ACS provides a statistical snapshot of the community


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How is ACS household data collected?

Surveys are mailed every month to a systematic sample of addresses in each county

If a household does not respond in six weeks, Census Bureau staff will attempt to contact the respondent by telephone to complete the survey.

If that, too, fails, a differential sample of remaining addresses will be visited by Census Bureau staff for an in person interview.


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Response Rates By Mode

http://www.brookings.edu/metro/umi/events/20060623_Waite.pdf


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Group Quarters in ACSImplemented in 2006

  • Questionnaires, introductory letter, FAQ’s … http://www.census.gov/acs/www/SBasics/GQ/index.htm

  • Technical Paper – housing units and group quarters… http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Downloads/tp67.pdf


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ACS – Paper Form – Disability Items

Top of page 8

Bottom of page 7


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ACS Interagency CommitteeSubcommittee for the Disability Questions

  • Under the auspices of Office of Management and Budget

  • Chaired by the National Center for Health Statistics

  • Prepared recommendations for the ACS 2006 Content Test

    • Reviewed the legislative need for the data

    • Determined the main purposes of the data

    • Focused on meeting the needs given constraints

    • Conducted cognitive testing on questions


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Federal Agencies Reviewed for Statutory and/or Programmatic Requirements for Disability Data

  • Examples:

  • Department of Commerce – Telecommunications Act of 1996

  • Department of Education – National Education Reform

  • Administration on Aging – Older Americans Act

  • Department of Housing and Urban Development – National Affordable Housing Act

  • Department of Transportation – Mass transportation Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Program


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Federal Agencies Reviewed for Statutory and/or Programmatic Requirements for Disability Data - Findings

  • Examples:

  • Agencies focus on individuals with limitations in functioning who are more likely to experience a limitation in participation as well.

  • Agencies use the data for two purposes.

    • Distribution of benefits, such as SSDI Insurance or Veteran health benefits

    • Provision of opportunities such as access to education, housing, and communication.


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Definition of Disability Adapted by the Subcommittee Requirements for Disability Data - Findings

  • Based on orientation of agency mandates and using IOM Model of Disability and ICF Model of Functioning and Disability (WHO)

  • Disability - the restriction in participation that results from a lack of fit between the individual’s functional limitations and the characteristics of the physical and social environment.

    • Measuring disability then means analyzing the component concepts that make up the process.


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Purpose of Disability Measure Recognized by the Subcommittee Requirements for Disability Data - Findings

  • Equalization of opportunity - identify those who, without accommodation, are likely to experience restrictions in participation due to limitations in functioning

  • Identify the population needing assistance to maintain independence


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Basis of questions chosen for cognitive testing Requirements for Disability Data - Findings

  • Domains of functioning that identify the largest component of the population with disabilities

    • Vision

    • Hearing

    • Mobility (walking, climbing stairs)

    • Cognitive functioning

  • Monitoring independent living

    • Self-care activities (bathing, dressing)

    • Ability to move about the community without help

  • Limitation in kind or amount of work

    • Included for testing based on its previous use in the Census and assumptions of its ability to capture persons with mental health related limitations


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Cognitive Testing Requirements for Disability Data - Findings

  • “Report of Cognitive Research on Proposed American Community Survey Disability Questions” by Kristen Miller of the National Center for Health Statistics and Theresa DeMaio of U.S. Census Bureau

  • http://www.census.gov/srd/papers/pdf/ssm2006-06.pdf

    • Five rounds of testing between June 2004 and February 2005

    • Testing at NCHS

      • face-to-face and telephone interviews

    • Testing at Census

      • paper questionnaires

    • Several wordings for each domain


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Cognitive Testing – Goals Requirements for Disability Data - Findings

  • Identify respondent interpretations

  • Identify potential response errors

  • Improve test questions

  • Investigate question performance within the context of three ACS modes: self-administered paper, telephone interview, in-person interview


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Cognitive Testing – Recurring Themes Requirements for Disability Data - Findings

  • Regardless of the type of question, respondents have an internal calculation of whether a condition or limitation is “severe enough” to report

  • Some people report limitation status with assistance other report status without assistance

  • Mode tended not to impact respondent’s interpretation


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Recommendations Requirements for Disability Data - Findings

  • 16 a. Is this person deaf or does he/she have serious difficulty hearing?

  • b. Is this person blind or does he/she have serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses?

  • F) Answer question 17a if this person is 5 years old or over. Otherwise skip to the questions for Person 2 on page 12.

  • 17 a. Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions?

  • b. Does this person have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?

  • c. Does this person have difficulty dressing or bathing?

  • G) Answer questions 18 if this person is 15 years old or over. Otherwise skip to the questions for Person 2 on page 12.

  • 18. Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does this person have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping?


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2006 ACS Content Test Requirements for Disability Data - Findings

  • A variety of objectives for testing

    • Content: e.g.. disability and health insurance

    • Form layout: e.g.. horizontal v. vertical roster

  • Two versions of disability items

    • Control: ACS current production questions

    • Test: Recommendation from interagency work group

  • Research Questions

    • Does the new set have more consistent reporting?

    • Does the new set have improved item response?

    • Where do these people’s disabilities fall on a spectrum of difficulty with specific activities?


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How was the ACS Content Test data collected? Requirements for Disability Data - Findings

Surveys were mailed to a sample of addresses.

If no mail response was received, Census Bureau staff will attempt to contact the address in person to complete the survey.

All respondents were part of a content follow-up conducted by telephone.


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  • Control Requirements for Disability Data - Findings

  • (ACS Current Production)

  • Test

  • (Interagency Recommendation)

  • Label

  • Item #

  • Label

  • Item #

  • Sensory Disability

  • 16a

  • Hearing Disability

  • 16a

  • Seeing Disability

  • 16b

  • Physical Disability

  • 16b

  • Mobility Disability

  • 17b

  • Mental Disability

  • 17a

  • Cognitive Disability

  • 17a

  • Self-care Disability

  • 17b

  • Self-care Disability

  • 17c

  • Go-outside-home Disability

  • 18a

  • Independent-living Disability

  • 18

  • Employment Disability

  • 18b

  • ----------

  • ----------

Summary of Disability Topics


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Summary of How “Test” Differs from “Control”– Part 1

  • The hearing and vision concepts are separate questions in the test version

  • The hearing and vision questions on the test version include children under 5 years old, since the skip instruction was after these items.

  • The vision question includes the qualifier “even when wearing glasses.”

  • The hearing, vision, and mobility questions are simpler, omitting key terms/phrases of “long-lasting condition” and “impairment.”


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Summary of How “Test” Differs from “Control”– Part 2

  • The phrase “Does this person have [serious] difficulty” is included in the test version before each function or activity.

  • The test does not use terms like “substantially limits” or “long-lasting” or “lasting 6 months or more”

  • The test set does not include a work disability item.

Please see the information sheet for more details.


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Selection Criteria 2

  • Is the reliability for the test version equal to or better than the control?

    • For example, is the reliability for the vision and hearing questions in the test version equal to or better than the vision and hearing question in the control version?

    • Adjusted Simple Response Variance

  • Are the item nonresponse rates for the test version less than or equal to that of the control?


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SIPP 2

General Information:

http://www.sipp.census.gov/sipp/

Topical Modules

Functional Limitations and Disability, June to September 2005

Panels 1984 - 2004

http://www.sipp.census.gov/sipp/top_mod/top_mods_chart.html

DEWS

http://www.sipp.census.gov/sipp/ dews.html

Reengineering the SIPP - PDF presentation by David Johnson, Chief, HHES at the U.S. Census Bureau

Reengineering the SIPP: Brookings/Census Roundtable (MS Word document)

August 24, 2006 Stakeholder Presentation

Presentation Stakeholder matrix

Survey of Income and Program Participation – Dynamics of Economic Well Being System


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Contacts 2


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