Chapter 1 the science of chemistry
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Chapter 1 The Science of Chemistry. Chemistry is:. Chemistry is the study of matter and all the changes it undergoes or fails to do. Name 3 chemicals. Should we ban chemicals?. A. States/Phases of Matter. Solids (s) Held tightly Vibrate slightly Fixed volume & shape Draw.

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Chapter 1 The Science of Chemistry

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Chapter 1 the science of chemistry

Chapter 1 The Science of Chemistry

Chemistry is:


Chapter 1 the science of chemistry

Chemistry is the study of matter and all the changes it undergoes or fails to do.


Name 3 chemicals

Name 3 chemicals

Should we ban chemicals?


A states phases of matter

A. States/Phases of Matter

  • Solids (s)

  • Held tightly

  • Vibrate slightly

  • Fixed volume & shape

  • Draw


Chapter 1 the science of chemistry

Liquids (l)

Attraction moderate

Can flow/move

Definite volume & No shape

Draw


Chapter 1 the science of chemistry

Gases (g)

Attraction: little/none

Movement independently

No definite volume or shape

Draw


B changes of matter

B. Changes of matter

  • Physical: no new substance made

    Ex. Phase change slg ice melting

    Ex. Dissolve sugar/salt in water


Chapter 1 the science of chemistry

2. Chemical New substance made

Ex. Burning, rusting

Ex water  hydrogen + oxygen

Reactant(s)- Left side of equation what exist before rxn

Product(s)-Right side of equation what exist after rxn


C evidence of chemical change

C. Evidence of Chemical Change

  • Make gas ex. Bubbling, change in odor

    2.Make precipitate (ppt)- when 2 chemicals don’t mix & one settles at bottom

    3. Release/absorb energy (heat)

    4. Might be a color change ex. rust


Chapter 1 the science of chemistry

Conversion factors

1L =1,000mL

1kg=1,000g

1g=1,000mg

1km=1,000m

1m=1,000mm

1m=100cm

1m=10dm


Chapter 1 the science of chemistry

1a. .765g x 1kg = .000765kg

1,000g

1b. 1.34g x 1,000mg = 1,340 mg

1g

1c. 34.2mg x 1g = .034g

1,000mg

1d. 23,745kg x 1,000g =23,745,000g x 1,000mg =

1kg 1g


Chapter 1 the science of chemistry

23,745,000,000mg

2a 17.3m x 100cm = 1,730cm

1m

2b. 2.56m x 1km =.00256km

1,000m

2c 567dm x 1m= 56.7m

10dm

2d 5.13m x 1,000mm = 5,130mm

1m


Classify matter

Classify Matter

  • Define matter: anything that has mass & volume

  • atom: the smallest unit of an element

    Pure Substance: a sample of matter, an element or a compound that has definite chemical & physical properties, always the same, pure.


Chapter 1 the science of chemistry

element: only one type of atom.

Define:simplest form of matter that cannot be broken down

Some elements may be monoatomic consist of one atom such as He, Al, or Ca.

Some elements may be molecules:2 or more atoms combined in a definite ratio

Ex. H, O,N,F, Cl,Br,I are diatomics!!! Mark your periodic tables!!!! HON all Group 17

Some elements have more than one form, Allotropes(define)same element, same phase of matter but different physical & chemical properties

Example(book) O2(g O3(g) (also Carbon-coal, diamond, graphite, all solids but different forms)


Chapter 1 the science of chemistry

Compound (cmpd); 2 or more elements chemically combined

Molecular formula: condensed formula C6H12O6

Subscript; # placed lower right of element/cmpd; tells us how many atoms

Structural formula: (draw out) shows arrangement


Chapter 1 the science of chemistry

Mixture: 2 or more substances (elements/cmpds) physically combined

Ex. Alloy= solid mixture: 10, 12, 14, 18K gold

Stainless steel: homogeneous

Brass= Cu + Zn

Homogeneous; same throughout; uniform. Solns, air

Heterogeneous: not uniform; different amounts or parts ex. Italian salad dressing, sand in water


Chapter 1 the science of chemistry

Classify:

  • Salt dissolved in water, alcohol dissolved in water, air are?

  • Salt and sand, iron and sulfur, soil are?


Chapter 1 the science of chemistry

Classify:

  • Salt dissolved in water, alcohol dissolved in water, air are Homogeneous

  • Salt and sand, iron and sulfur, soil are hetergeneous


Separating mixtures

Separating mixtures

  • Filter

  • Distill: purify at different boiling points

  • Magnet

  • Evaporate

  • Chromatography: separates by differences in attraction


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