The effects of chivalry and group size on helping behavior
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The Effects of Chivalry and Group Size on Helping Behavior. Jessica Heun Nathaniel Moore. Chivalry. A “cultural script prescribing the preferential treatment of women by men in the contexts of protection and provision” (Altermatt, 2001). Chivalry Findings.

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Chivalry
Chivalry

  • A “cultural script prescribing the preferential treatment of women by men in the contexts of protection and provision” (Altermatt, 2001).


Chivalry findings
Chivalry Findings

  • More offers of assistance were found when a stranded driver was female (Simón, 1976).

  • Men are in general less aggressive and more helpful towards women than towards men (Eagly & Steffen, 1986; Eagly & Crowley, 1986).

  • Confusion arises when women perform chivalrous acts towards men (Ventimiglia, 1982).


Chivalry and helping
Chivalry and Helping

  • Connecting factor of responsibility

  • Chivalry: cultivates responsibility to intervene in an emergency situation

  • Presence of others: counteracts that responsibility (diffusion)


Diffusion of responsibility
Diffusion of Responsibility

  • As group size increases, the less likely or more slowly any one bystander will provide assistance.

  • Epileptic Seizure Study (Darley and Latane, 1969)


Our hypothesis
Our Hypothesis!!!

  • Low chivalry more influenced by group size

  • High chivalry more resistant to outside pressure


Step 1 subject variable
Step 1: Subject Variable

  • Sample Items:

    Chivalry Scale (α = .86)

    - A man has an obligation to protect a woman who is in danger (Altermatt, 2001).

    Attitude toward Women Scale (α = .77)

    - Women should worry less about their rights and more about becoming good wives and mothers (Spence, Helmreich, & Stapp, 1974).


Step 2 manipulate group size
Step 2: Manipulate Group Size

  • Cover Story – Sign up Sheets and Backpacks


Step 3 measure helping
Step 3: Measure Helping

  • Participant (N = 30 males) taken to room to complete questionnaire.

  • Recording of the accident is played (timing begins).

  • 3 minute window



Interpretations

- Alone: situational pressure = help

- 3 others: situational pressure = don’t help

- 1 other: situation ambiguous = personality factors become more influential

- Greatest chivalry effect (difference = 1.823 minutes)

Interpretations


Future research
Future Research

  • Self-esteem research (chivalry contingency)

  • Agentic versus Virtuous women

  • Chivalry in women?

  • More than 3 minute window for helping



Sound file
Sound File

  • Sound played to participants over intercom


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