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Human Digestion -Ch. 21.1. Section Objectives: Interpret the different functions of the digestive system organs. Outline the pathway food follows through the digestive tract. Identify the role of enzymes in chemical digestion . Human Digestion.

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Human Digestion -Ch. 21.1

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Human digestion ch 21 1 l.jpg

Human Digestion -Ch. 21.1

Section Objectives:

Interpret the different functions of the digestive system organs.

Outline the pathway food follows through the digestive tract.

Identify the role of enzymes in chemical digestion.


Human digestion l.jpg

Human Digestion

  • This part of the life process of NUTRITION-> process by which an organism obtains and utilizes food


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Overview: Food processing occurs in four stages

  • Ingestion: taking in food

  • Digestion: mechanical and chemical breakdown of food so that it can be absorbed by the cells

  • Absorption: cells lining the digestive tract take up (absorb) small nutrient molecules

  • Elimination: undigested material passes out of the digestive tract


Human digestion a 2 part process that changes food into a form useable by the body cells l.jpg

Human Digestion~ a 2 part process that changes food into a form useable by the body cells

  • 1. Mechanical digestion – physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller ones

  • 2. Chemical digestion – hydrolysis – the splitting of large insoluble molecules in small, soluble molecules with the use of water and enzymes ( in other words; breaking complex molecules into simple ones)

    The process of chemical digestion ( hydrolysis) is regulated by enzymes


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Examples of chemical Digestion:

  • 1. Carbohydrates+ water -> simple sugars (glucose for instance)

  • 2. Proteins+ water -> amino acids

  • 3. Lipids+ water -> 3 fatty acids +gylcerol


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HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

  • Human digestive tract = GI (gastrointestinal) Consists of a continuous one way food tube (mouth to anus)


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Mouth

  • Functions

    • mechanical digestion

      • teeth

        • break up food

    • chemical digestion (saliva)

      • amylase enzyme

        • digests starch

      • mucus

        • protects soft lining of digestive system

        • lubricates food for easier swallowing

      • buffers

        • neutralizes acid to prevent tooth decay

      • anti-bacterial chemicals

        • kill bacteria that enter mouth with food

All thatin spit!


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HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

  • 1. Mouth: (oral cavity) ingests food

  • 2. Teeth: function in mechanical breakdown of food, increases surface area of food for enzyme action

  • 3.Tongue: acts as a plunger to push food back into the throat (pharynx) taste buds are located on the surface of the tongue


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mouth

break up food

digest starch

kill germs

moisten food


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HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

  • 4. Pharynx: food is pushed by tongue to back of throat, initiates swallowing – food is now in the form of a bolus

    • Epiglottis: flap that prevents choking

  • 5. Esophagus: muscular tube that moves food from mouth to the stomach by process of peristalsis:wave of muscular contractions that moves chewed food to stomach


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Swallowing (& not choking)

  • Epiglottis

    • flap of cartilage

    • closes trachea (windpipe) when swallowing

    • food travels down esophagus

  • Peristalsis

    • involuntary muscle contractions to move food along


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Stomach

  • Functions

    • disinfect food

      • hydrochloric acid = pH 2

        • kills bacteria

    • food storage

      • can stretch to fit ~2L food

    • digests protein

      • pepsin enzyme

But the stomach is made out of protein!

What stops the stomach from digesting itself?

mucus secreted by stomach cells protects stomach lining


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stomach

kills germs

break up food

digest proteins

store food

mouth

break up food

digest starch

kill germs

moisten food

sphincter

sphincter


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Ulcers

Free of H. pylori

Colonized by H. pylori

  • Used to think ulcers were caused by stress

    • tried to control with antacids

  • Now know ulcers caused by bacterial infection of stomach

    • H. pylori bacteria

    • now cure with antibiotics

inflammation of stomach

inflammation of esophagus

H. pylori

cell damaging proteins

(VacA)

inflammatory proteins

(CagA)

cytokines

helper T cells

neutrophil cells

white blood cells


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Small intestine

  • Functions

    • digestion

      • digest carbohydrates

        • amylase from pancreas

      • digest proteins

        • trypsin & chymotrypsin from pancreas

      • digest lipids (fats)

        • bile from liver & lipase from pancreas

    • absorption

      • nutrients move into body cells by:

        • diffusion

        • active transport

This iswhere all thework is done!


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Absorption in Small Intestines

  • Absorption through villi & microvilli

    • finger-like projections

    • increases surface area for absorption

SMALL INTESTINES6 meters long,but can stretchto cover a tennis court


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small intestines

breakdown food

- proteins

- starch

- fats

absorb nutrients

mouth

break up food

digest starch

kill germs

moisten food

stomach

kills germs

break up food

digest proteins

store food

liver

produces bile

- stored in gall bladder

break up fats

pancreas

produces enzymes to

digest proteins & starch


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Pancreas ~ accessory organ

  • Produces digestive enzymes

    • digest proteins

      • trypsin, chymotrypsin

    • digest starch

      • amylase

    • digest lipids

      • lipase

  • Buffers

    • neutralizes acid from stomach

smallintestine

pancreas


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pancreas

produces enzymes to

digest all foods

mouth

break up food

digest starch

kill germs

moisten food

stomach

kills germs

break up food

digest proteins

store food


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Liver & Gall Bladder ~accessory organs

  • Produces bile

    • breaks up fats

    • gallbladder only stores bile

      • that’s why you can have your gall bladder removed

bile contains colors from old red blood cells collected in liver =

iron in RBC rusts & makes feces brown


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liver

produces bile

- stored in gall bladder

break up fats

mouth

break up food

digest starch

kill germs

moisten food

stomach

kills germs

break up food

digest proteins

store food

pancreas

produces enzymes to

digest proteins & starch


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Large intestines (colon)

  • Function

    • re-absorbs water

      • use ~9 liters of water every day in digestive juices

        • if don’t reabsorb water would die of dehydration

      • > 90% of water re-absorbed

        • not enough water re-absorbed

          • diarrhea

          • can be fatal!

        • too much water re-absorbed

          • constipation

      • reabsorb by diffusion


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You’ve got company!

  • Living in the large intestine is a community of helpful bacteria

    • Escherichiacoli:E.coli

      • digest cellulose

        • digests fruits & vegetables

      • produce vitamins

        • vitamin K & B vitamins

      • BUT generate gases

        • by-product of bacterial metabolism

        • methane, hydrogen sulfide

        • STINKY!

PEE-YOO!


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large intestines

absorb water

mouth

break up food

digest starch

kill germs

moisten food

stomach

kills germs

break up food

digest proteins

store food

liver

produces bile

- stored in gall bladder

break up fats

small intestines

breakdown food

- proteins

- starch

- fats

absorb nutrients

pancreas

produces enzymes to

digest proteins & carbs


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Rectum

  • Last section of large intestines

    • eliminate feces through anus

    • what’s left over?

      • undigested materials

        • mainly cellulose from plants

        • called roughage or fiber

        • keeps everything moving & cleans out intestines

      • masses of bacteria

So don’t forget to wash your hands!


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Appendix

Vestigial organ


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SomeDigestive Homeostasis Disorders

  • 1.Constipation– person has uncomfortable or infrequent bowel movements results from sluggish peristalsis that allows excess water to be removed from feces (fecal matter hardens)- may result from insufficient fiber in diet

  • 2. Diarrhea– opposite of constipation– associated with intestinal disturbances caused by infections or stress– prolonged diarrhea may result in severe dehydration

  • 3. Gall stones– small hard particles made of cholesterol which form & collect in gall bladder- may block the bile duct and cause pain

  • 4. acid reflux -backflow of stomach contents upward into esophagus

  • 5. appendicitis- inflammation of appendix


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