Effective technologies that support inclusive science instruction
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Effective Technologies that Support Inclusive Science Instruction. Dr. Matthew T. Marino Washington State University Spring 2008 [email protected] http://www.wsu.edu/~matthewmarino/index.html. Universal Design: A Theoretical Framework for Improving Access to Learning Materials.

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Effective Technologies that Support Inclusive Science Instruction

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Effective Technologies that Support Inclusive Science Instruction

Dr. Matthew T. Marino

Washington State University

Spring 2008

[email protected]


Universal Design: A Theoretical Framework for Improving Access to Learning Materials

  • Developed from architecture in the early 1970’s at North Carolina State University

  • Based on the idea that all products should be usable to the greatest extent possible by everyone, regardless of their age, ability, or status in life.

  • Examples of Universal Design include curb cuts, TV captioning, & pictorial representation on restroom doors.

Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

  • An educational application of the original architecture-based UD construct

  • Developed at the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) for K-12 students

  • UDL is designed to improve access, participation, and progress in the general education curriculum

  • UDL challenges teachers to anticipate, reduce, and/or eliminate barriers by creating flexible curricula

Premise for UDL

  • Barriers occur as diverse learners interact with curriculum (e.g., nonreaders working with text)

  • The curriculum and instruction are the problem, NOT the students

  • Curricula should consider student differences at the outset… as opposed to retrofitting existing instructional plans (Meyer & Rose, 2005)

Barriers to Student Learning

  • Prior knowledge about the concept

  • Seeing, decoding, or fluently reading text

  • Filtering extraneous sensory information

  • Keeping track of information (e.g., organization)

  • Lack of interest with the topic

  • Ability to maintain focus for an appropriate period of time

Struggling Readers Face Significant Barriers

  • 12.4 million students will experience significant difficulties learning to read(NCES, 2003)

  • Students with reading difficulties (RD) possess unique neural systems that affect metacognition(Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2004; Shaywitz & Shaywitz, 2004)

  • Poor readers have difficulty with: knowledge of print conventions, print awareness, attention, planning, concentration, and organization abilities(Fletcher et al., 1994; Stanovich and Siegel, 1994; Velutino, Scanlon, & Lyon, 2000)

  • Students with LD in reading and poor readers possess virtually indistinguishable reading growth curves in grades 1 through 12(Lyon et al., 2001)

Often lack prior knowledge (Gersten et al., 2001)

Are unaware of the text structures they are reading(Meyer, Brandt, & Bluth, 1980)

Retrieve information randomly (Wilson & Rupley, 1997)

Have difficulty determining essential information (Engert & Thomas, 1987)

Do not utilize text cues (Gersten et al, 2001)

Fail to recognize when they are not comprehending new information (Gersten et al., 2001)

Struggling Readers & Expository Texts

This leads to…

  • Low levels of reading comprehension(Gersten et at., 2001)

  • An inability to formulate questions and hypotheses(Wilson & Rupley, 1997)

  • Failure to make abstract connections(Engert & Thomas, 1987)

  • Frustration, lower motivation, expected failure(McKinney, Osborne, & Schulte, 1993)

How can we help these students?

Technology Can Provide

  • Representational illustrations of concepts (Mastropieri et al., 1996)

  • Spatial / graphic organizers (Mastropieri et al, 2003)

  • Access to background information on demand (McKenna, Reinking, Labbo, & Kieffer, 1999)

  • Translational resources (e.g., text-to-speech) (Horney & Anderson-Inman, 1999)

  • Supplemental resources (e.g., screen reading, note taking, reference tools) (Pucket, 2004)

  • Embedded assessments(Liu & Bera, 2005)

UDL +Technology + Instruction = Learning

  • Students need systematic, explicit, scaffolded instruction to utilize cognitive tools(Gersten & Baker, 1998)

  • Opportunities for students to reflect on and have immediate feedback regarding tool use(Swanson & Hoskyn, 1998)

  • Inclusion of tools that support cognitive overload and out-of-reach activities(Land, 2000; Liu, 2004; Marino, 2006, Williams & Peterson, 2004)

  • Additional technology and content area training for teachers(Sharpe & Hawes, 2003)

  • Increased collaboration between special education and regular education teachers(Moore & Keefe, 2001)

  • Improved instructional strategies (Washburn-Moses, 2005)

Teachers’ Technology Challenges

  • There has been a flood of e-learning (online, multimedia, and software) material to the market

  • Purchasing decisions are based on marketing rather than unbiased assessment

  • Where can you go for reliable peer reviewed data about technology-based learning materials?


Purchase Technology That…

  • Includes an electronic pre/posttest design and/or curriculum-based measures (CBM) that allows teachers to monitor student learning

  • Meets the teachers’ levels of technological proficiency

  • Acts as assistive technology by including tools that support students with reading difficulties (e.g., text-to-speech)

  • Provides instructional strategies for effectively teaching students to use the technology

  • Offers customer support services and free training

Washington State University Technology Resource Database

The goal of the Washington State University Technology Resource Database is to develop an internet-based e-learning resource for K-12 teachers, administrators, and researchers that will provide unbiased, peer-reviewed information about the types of e-learning products that are most efficacious for student learning.

The database is composed of three linked interfaces: 1) an online e-learning assessment survey that teachers complete after using e-learning products with their students, 2) a database comprised of the results of the survey responses, and 3) a search engine that allows teachers and researchers to access pertinent information in the database quickly and efficiently.






Student Information

Technical Aspects

Manufacturer information

E-learning Survey Domains

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