College notes unit 3
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College Notes UNIT 3. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. The Industrial Revolution was…. A Shift from an Agricultural to an Industrial society. Agricultural Industrial. CAUSE #1: Growing Urban Population. Two factors that contributed to a growing Urban population were:

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College Notes UNIT 3

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College notes unit 3

College Notes UNIT 3

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION


The industrial revolution was

The Industrial Revolution was…

A Shift from an Agricultural to an Industrial society.


Agricultural industrial

Agricultural Industrial


Cause 1 growing urban population

CAUSE #1: Growing Urban Population

Two factors that contributed to a growing Urban population were:

  • Immigration from Southern & Eastern Europe

  • Rural-to-urban migration

    = cheap labor for factory work


What area did most immigrants come from after 1800

What area did most immigrants come from after 1800?


Rural to urban migration

Rural to Urban Migration


Cities grew rapidly

Cities Grew Rapidly

  • 1. Near raw materials (Northeast)

  • 2.Near Industrial areas

  • 3. Near transportation routes

  • 4. Near opportunities in the job market

  • 5. Near access to seaports

    But There were Terrible Conditions in the Cities

  • Poor sanitation and living conditions

  • Tenement apartments

  • Sweathouses


Expansion of cities

Expansion of Cities

  • Railroads linked towns that were formerly isolated.

  • Cities specialized in products that they could sell in order to make money.

  • Inventions such as electric streetcars, suburban railroads or skyscrapers met the new needs of the cities.


Urban living conditions

Urban Living Conditions


Ghettos mulberry bend new york jacob riis

GhettosMulberry Bend, New York, Jacob Riis

  • Urban neighborhoods dominated by one ethnic or racial group of immigrants were called ghettos.

  • Some ghettos formed because immigrants felt more comfortable living near people with the same language and traditions.


Working families

Working Families

  • In the 1880s, children made up more than 5 percentof the industrial labor force.

  • Children often left school at the age of 12 or 13 to work.

  • Girls sometimes took factory jobs so that their brothers could stay in school.

  • If an adult became too ill to work, children as young as 6 or 7 had to work.

  • Rarely did the government provide public assistance, and unemployment insurance didn’t exist.

  • The theory of Social Darwinism held that poverty resulted from personal weakness.

  • People had no choice but to work for a small hourly wage- “wage slavery”


The conditions of workers at the turn of the century

THE CONDITIONS OF WORKERS AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY

GENERAL WORKING CONDITIONS

  • 12 or more hours / 6 days a week

  • 4000 hours a year (about 2000 today)

  • No vacation or sick leave

  • No unemployment compensation

  • No reimbursement for injuries


The conditions of workers at the turn of the century1

THE CONDITIONS OF WORKERS AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY

WAGES (Payment) = Concentration of wealth in the hands of a few industrialists!

  • So low that all members of the family worked

  • Child--$0.27 a day for 14 hours ($5 today)

  • Woman--$269 a year ($4,500 today)

  • Men--$498 a year ($8,330 today)

  • Carnegie (a steel monopoly owner)--$23 million a year ($425 million today)


College notes unit 3

THE CONDITIONS OF WORKERS AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY

GENERAL FACTORY CONDITIONS

  • Dirty and poorly ventilated

  • Poorly lit and never heated or cooled

  • Dangerous and faulty equipment

  • Repetitive and mind numbing work

  • made accidents common


Examine the following photos closely

Examine the following photos closely.

How do these photos show the problems with working conditions during the Second Industrial Revolution 1865-1920?

Why do you think they were taken?


Child labor some of the helpers in a georgia cotton mill

Child Labor-Some of the Helpers in a Georgia Cotton Mill


Child coal miners

Child Coal Miners


Status change

Status Change

Take 2 minutes to stretch and get ready to discuss the second cause of the Industrial Revolution


Cause 2 advances in technology and innovations

CAUSE #2 – Advances in Technology and Innovations

1869 – completion of the transcontinental railroad


Cause 2 advances in technology and innovations1

CAUSE #2 – Advances in Technology and Innovations

  • Samuel F. B. Morse invented the TELEGRAPH

    • Developed in 1838 with code

    • First message sent in 1844


Cause 2 advances in technology and innovations2

CAUSE #2 – Advances in Technology and Innovations

1856-Bessemer Process

Turning IRON INTO -> STEEL

Taking the impurities out of the iron and turning it into steel


Cause 2 advances in technology and innovations3

CAUSE #2 – Advances in Technology and Innovations

  • 1876- Alexander Graham Bell developed the Telephone


Cause 2 advances in technology and innovations4

CAUSE #2 – Advances in Technology and Innovations

  • 1880- Thomas Edison developed the light bulb


Cause 3 abundance of natural resources

CAUSE #3: Abundance of Natural Resources

  • The United States had a large amount of oil, iron, and coal, which were profitable resources that generated (created) a lot of money.


Exit ticket

Exit-Ticket

  • Please complete the multiple choice questions on the worksheet individually!

  • Use the side of the paper with notes to help you answer the questions.


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