College notes unit 3
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College Notes UNIT 3. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. The Industrial Revolution was…. A Shift from an Agricultural to an Industrial society. Agricultural Industrial. CAUSE #1: Growing Urban Population. Two factors that contributed to a growing Urban population were:

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College Notes UNIT 3

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College Notes UNIT 3

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION


The Industrial Revolution was…

A Shift from an Agricultural to an Industrial society.


Agricultural Industrial


CAUSE #1: Growing Urban Population

Two factors that contributed to a growing Urban population were:

  • Immigration from Southern & Eastern Europe

  • Rural-to-urban migration

    = cheap labor for factory work


What area did most immigrants come from after 1800?


Rural to Urban Migration


Cities Grew Rapidly

  • 1. Near raw materials (Northeast)

  • 2.Near Industrial areas

  • 3. Near transportation routes

  • 4. Near opportunities in the job market

  • 5. Near access to seaports

    But There were Terrible Conditions in the Cities

  • Poor sanitation and living conditions

  • Tenement apartments

  • Sweathouses


Expansion of Cities

  • Railroads linked towns that were formerly isolated.

  • Cities specialized in products that they could sell in order to make money.

  • Inventions such as electric streetcars, suburban railroads or skyscrapers met the new needs of the cities.


Urban Living Conditions


GhettosMulberry Bend, New York, Jacob Riis

  • Urban neighborhoods dominated by one ethnic or racial group of immigrants were called ghettos.

  • Some ghettos formed because immigrants felt more comfortable living near people with the same language and traditions.


Working Families

  • In the 1880s, children made up more than 5 percentof the industrial labor force.

  • Children often left school at the age of 12 or 13 to work.

  • Girls sometimes took factory jobs so that their brothers could stay in school.

  • If an adult became too ill to work, children as young as 6 or 7 had to work.

  • Rarely did the government provide public assistance, and unemployment insurance didn’t exist.

  • The theory of Social Darwinism held that poverty resulted from personal weakness.

  • People had no choice but to work for a small hourly wage- “wage slavery”


THE CONDITIONS OF WORKERS AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY

GENERAL WORKING CONDITIONS

  • 12 or more hours / 6 days a week

  • 4000 hours a year (about 2000 today)

  • No vacation or sick leave

  • No unemployment compensation

  • No reimbursement for injuries


THE CONDITIONS OF WORKERS AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY

WAGES (Payment) = Concentration of wealth in the hands of a few industrialists!

  • So low that all members of the family worked

  • Child--$0.27 a day for 14 hours ($5 today)

  • Woman--$269 a year ($4,500 today)

  • Men--$498 a year ($8,330 today)

  • Carnegie (a steel monopoly owner)--$23 million a year ($425 million today)


THE CONDITIONS OF WORKERS AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY

GENERAL FACTORY CONDITIONS

  • Dirty and poorly ventilated

  • Poorly lit and never heated or cooled

  • Dangerous and faulty equipment

  • Repetitive and mind numbing work

  • made accidents common


Examine the following photos closely.

How do these photos show the problems with working conditions during the Second Industrial Revolution 1865-1920?

Why do you think they were taken?


Child Labor-Some of the Helpers in a Georgia Cotton Mill


Child Coal Miners


Status Change

Take 2 minutes to stretch and get ready to discuss the second cause of the Industrial Revolution


CAUSE #2 – Advances in Technology and Innovations

1869 – completion of the transcontinental railroad


CAUSE #2 – Advances in Technology and Innovations

  • Samuel F. B. Morse invented the TELEGRAPH

    • Developed in 1838 with code

    • First message sent in 1844


CAUSE #2 – Advances in Technology and Innovations

1856-Bessemer Process

Turning IRON INTO -> STEEL

Taking the impurities out of the iron and turning it into steel


CAUSE #2 – Advances in Technology and Innovations

  • 1876- Alexander Graham Bell developed the Telephone


CAUSE #2 – Advances in Technology and Innovations

  • 1880- Thomas Edison developed the light bulb


CAUSE #3: Abundance of Natural Resources

  • The United States had a large amount of oil, iron, and coal, which were profitable resources that generated (created) a lot of money.


Exit-Ticket

  • Please complete the multiple choice questions on the worksheet individually!

  • Use the side of the paper with notes to help you answer the questions.


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