Principles of measurement
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LESSON 1. Principles of Measurement. Let the Games Begin!. Objectives. Measurement of temperature and pressure Units of measurement Measurement devices. References. Introduction to Naval Engineering Principles of Naval Engineering. Purpose of Measuring Devices.

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Principles of Measurement

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LESSON 1

Principles of Measurement

Let the Games Begin!


Objectives

  • Measurement of temperature and pressure

  • Units of measurement

  • Measurement devices


References

  • Introduction to Naval Engineering

  • Principles of Naval Engineering


Purpose of Measuring Devices

  • Why essential to proper operation of propulsion plants?


WHAT IS TEMPERATURE?

  • An indication of the internal energy contained in a substance

    • Mono-Atomic Gases: Linearly proportional

    • Poly-Atomic Gases: translational, rotational and vibrational kinetic energy.

  • Temp is a measure of but not directly proportional to internal kinetic energy.


Measurement of Temperature

  • Relative Scales

    • Fahrenheit (°F)

    • Celsius (°C)

  • Absolute Scales

    • Rankine (°R)

    • Kelvin (K)


Temperature Relationships

(°F) = 9/5*(°C) +32

(°C) = 5/9*[(°F) –32]

(°F) = (°R) – 459.67

(°C) = (K) – 273.15


Measurement of Pressure

  • Definition: Force per unit area

  • Units of measurement

    • Pounds force per square inch (psi)

    • Inches Hg or inches H2O (“Hg)

    • Atmospheres (atm)


Pressure Relationships

  • Gage pressure (PSIG)

  • Absolute pressure (PSIA)

  • Vacuum pressure (PSIV) or (in Hg)

  • Atmospheric pressure (14.7 psi)


Pressure Relationships

Absolute Pressure = Atmospheric Press. + Gage Press.

Vacuum = Atmospheric Pressure - Absolute Pressure


Pressure Relationships

30 PSIA

15.3 PSIG

GAGE

PRESSURE

(PSIG)

ABSOLUTE

PRESSURE

(PSIA)

Atmospheric Pressure

14.7 PSIA

0 PSIG

(Average at Sea Level)

0 In. Hg

VACUUM

(in. Hg)

0 PSIA

29.92 In. Hg


Principle of OperationTemperature Devices

  • Expansion Thermometers

    • Liquid in glass

    • Bimetallic

    • Filled system/distant reading

  • Pyrometers

    • Thermocouple

    • Resistance

    • Radiation and optical pyrometers


Expansion Thermometer

  • Liquid in Glass

  • Bimetallic

  • Filled System/Distant Reading


Expansion Thermometer

  • Liquid in Glass

  • Bimetallic

  • Filled System/Distant Reading


Expansion Thermometer

  • Liquid in Glass

  • Bimetallic

  • Filled System/Distant Reading


Expansion Thermometer

  • Liquid in Glass

  • Bimetallic

  • Filled System/Distant Reading


Pyrometers

  • Thermocouple

  • Resistance

  • Radiation and Optical


Pyrometers

  • Thermocouple

  • Resistance

  • Radiation and Optical


Pyrometers

  • Thermocouple

  • Resistance

  • Radiation and Optical


Pyrometers

  • Thermocouple

  • Resistance

  • Radiation and Optical


Operation of Pressure Measuring Devices

  • Manometers

  • Bourdon tube

  • Bellows gage


Operation of Pressure Measuring Devices

  • Manometers

  • Bourdon tube

  • Bellows gage


Operation of Pressure Measuring Devices

  • Manometers

  • Bourdon tube

  • Bellows gage


Operation of Pressure Measuring Devices

  • Manometers

  • Bourdon tube

  • Bellows gage


Questions?


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