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BICH411. Biochemistry I. M W 4:00 p.m. – 5:20 p.m. Dr. Shubo Han Website:http://faculty.uncfsu.edu/shan/. Phone: 672-1303 Email: [email protected] Office Hours: MWF 2:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m. T 11:00am-1:00 pm. Grading: Total: 100 points 90% - 100% A 80% - 89% B

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Bich411 biochemistry i

BICH411. Biochemistry I

M W 4:00 p.m. – 5:20 p.m.

Dr. Shubo Han

Website:http://faculty.uncfsu.edu/shan/

Phone: 672-1303

Email: [email protected]

Office Hours: MWF 2:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m.

T 11:00am-1:00 pm


Course summary

Grading: Total: 100 points

90% - 100% A

80% - 89% B

70% - 79% C

60% - 69% D

0% - 59% F

Three hour exams (10  3) 30

Homework and quizzes 30

Final examination 40

Total 100

Course Summary

Please check the syllabus from the website of Blackboard.



What is biochemistry
What is Biochemistry?

Biochemistry is the application of chemistry to the study of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level.








Eukarya: all macroscopic organisms, including human beings as well as many microscopic, unicellular organism such as yeast.

The characteristic: a well-defined nucleus within each cell.


Unicellular organisms lacking a nucleus are prokaryotes, including

(1)Bacteria and (2) Archaea.


The mammalian cell
The Mammalian Cell including

Cytoplasm

Lipid

bilayer




plant stem cell including

skeletal muscle cell

Human erythrocytes (red blood cells)

sperm cells



Types of molecules in a cell
Types of molecules in a cell including

Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA)

Are constructed of four different kinds of monomeric units, the deoxyribonucleotides, G, A, T, C

Ribonucleic acids (RNA)

Are constructed of four different kinds of monomeric units, the ribonucleotides,

G, A, U, C

Proteins

Are composed of twenty different kinds of monomeric units, the amino acids

Lipids (Fat)

Water insoluble molecule containing fatty acids. Used for membrane structure and energy storage

Carbohydrates (sugar)

Are constructed of monomeric units called monosaccharides. Also called polysaccharides.


Molecular components of an e coli cell
Molecular Components of an including E. coli Cell


Cellular processes
Cellular Processes including

replication

DNA

transcription

RNA

translation

Proteins

Lipids

Carbohydrates


Conclusion
Conclusion: including

  • (1) Organisms are remarkably uniform at the molecular level.

  • This uniformity reveals that all organisms on earth have arisen from a common ancestor.



1. DNA chemistry.

(1) Four simple compounds constructed DNA


(2) chemistry.DNA is a linear polymer of 4 kinds of units, each consisting of the same sugar-phosphate unit, but with 4 different bases attached: A, C, G, T.



  • (4) Facts with T; G with C.

  • a. Most DNA molecules consisted of two strands.

  • b. This strands arranged in a double helix structure.

  • c. The double helix structure composed of two intertwined strands.

  • d. In the structure, the sugar-phosphate backbone lies on the outside and the bases on the inside.

  • e. Hydrogen bonds formed between the specific base pair is the major reason of two strands holding together.

  • f. The hydrogen bonds are weak enough to be reversibly broken in biochemical process and strong enough to help stabilize the double helix structure.


(5) Two properties with T; G with C.

A and T forms two hydrogen bonds.



  • Adenine only binds with Thymine (A-T) with T; G with C.

  • Guanine only binds with Cytosine (G-C)

  • Therefore, One strand determines the other strand. ( Each strand can be used as a template).


Same shape and same size, thus fitting neatly within the double helix.

For above reason DNA is used as a hereditary material.


2. RNA: double helix. RNA is an intermediate in the flow of genetic information

RNA( ribonucleic Acid)

Similar to DNA

Linear polymer

Sugar ribose, rather than deoxyribose

Uracil instead of thymine


RNA double helix. is templates for protein synthesis


3. Proteins: double helix.

Protein is the primary functional molecules in the cells.


3. Proteins: double helix.

Facts:

Proteins: structural components of cell, or enzymes

Proteins are linear polymers, just like DNA and RNA

Proteins are more complicated.


3. Proteins: double helix.

Protein is the primary functional molecules in the cells.


  • 3. Proteins: double helix.

  • Extremely Important property:

  • A protein spontaneously folds into a well defined and elaborate three-dimensional structure.

  • This 3-D structure is dictated entirely by the sequence of amino acids along its chain.


3. Proteins: double helix.

The self-folding nature of proteins constitutes the transition from the one-dimensional world of sequence information to the three-dimensional world of biological function.

Three bases along a DNA chain encode a single amino acid. (genetic code).


Questions: double helix.

1. DNA is made from _____ building blocks (Bases) . These blocks are___________________________.


Questions: double helix.

1. DNA is made from __4___ building blocks (Bases) . These blocks are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.



2. The DNA backbone is made from repeating double helix.sugar-phosphate units.


  • 4. The number of hydrogen bonds formed between A and T is

  • 1 b.2 c. 0 d.3

  • 5. The number of hydrogen bonds formed between C and G is

  • 1 b.2 c. 0 d.3



6. The fundamental groups of organisms include double helix.Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea.


7. double helix.DNA is used as a hereditary material, because:


  • 7. double helix.DNA is used as a hereditary material, because:

  • The base pairs have essentially the same shape and same size, thus fit equally well into the center of the double-helical structure.

  • The sequence of bases along one strand completely determines the sequence along the other strand.


8. double helix.RNA is constructed by ---------- building blocks, which is(are)

----------------------------------------.


8. double helix.RNA is constructed by 4 building blocks, which is(are)

adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil.


9. double helix.RNA is an ----------- in the flow of genetic information.


10. double helix.The 3-D structure of protein is dictated entirely by the ------------------- along its chain.


10. double helix.The 3-D structure of protein is dictated entirely by the sequence of amino acids along its chain.










Functional groups
Functional Groups double helix.


Functional groups1
Functional Groups double helix.


Functional groups2
Functional Groups double helix.


Functional groups3
Functional Groups double helix.


Functional groups4
Functional Groups double helix.










Atp is an energy currency atp is spent and earned
ATP is an energy currency double helix.ATP is “spent” and “earned”



Chapter 2
Chapter 2 steps that are carefully regulated

  • Water

  • pH

  • pKa

  • Buffers


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