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Witness to Evolution. Witness to Evolution. Peppered Moth 2 types: dark vs. light. light. Peppered moth. Peppered moth: Evolution in action. Year % dark % light 1848 5 95 1895 98 2 1995 19 81.  clean air, light-colored bark.  pollution, dark-colored bark.

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Witness to evolution
Witness to Evolution

  • Peppered Moth

    • 2 types: dark vs. light

light

Peppered moth


Peppered moth evolution in action
Peppered moth: Evolution in action

Year% dark% light

1848595

1895982

19951981

clean air, light-colored bark

pollution, dark-colored bark

Clean Air Act, light-colored bark

industrial melanism


Peppered moth
Peppered moth

  • Why did the population change?

    • early 1800s = pre-industrial England

      • low pollution

      • lichen on trees = light colored bark

    • late 1800s = industrial

      • factories = soot coated trees

      • killed lichen = dark colored bark

    • mid 1900s = pollution controls

      • clean air laws

      • return of lichen = light colored bark


What data from the Genome Project can tell us about evolution of humans


Chromosome Numbers in the great apes:

human (Homo)46

chimpanzee (Pan) 48

gorilla (Gorilla) 48

orangutan (Pogo) 48

Change in chromosome number?

If these organisms share a common ancestor, then is there evidence in the genome for this change in chromosome number


Fusion

Homo sapiens

Inactivated centromere

Telomere sequences

Ancestral Chromosomes

Chromosome Numbers in the great apes (Hominidae):

human (Homo) 46chimpanzee (Pan) 48gorilla (Gorilla) 48orangutan (Pogo) 48

Centromere

Telomere

Testable prediction:If common ancestor had 48 chromosomes (24 pairs) then humans carry a fused chromosome; orIf common ancestor had 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) then apes carry a split chromosome.


Human Chromosome #2 shows the exact point at which this fusion took place

“Chromosome 2 is unique to the human lineage of evolution, having emerged as a result of head-to-head fusion of two acrocentric chromosomes that remained separate in other primates. The precise fusion site has been located in 2q13–2q14.1 (ref. 2; hg 16:114455823 – 114455838), where our analysis confirmed the presence of multiple subtelomeric duplications to chromosomes 1, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 19, 21 and 22 (Fig. 3; Supplementary Fig. 3a, region A). During the formation of human chromosome 2, one of the two centromeres became inactivated (2q21, which corresponds to the centromere from chimp chromosome 13) and the centromeric structure quickly deterioriated (42).”

Homo sapiens

Inactivated centromere

Telomere sequences

Chr 2

Hillier et al (2005) “Generation and Annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4,” Nature 434: 724 – 731.



Evolution is so overwhelmingly established that it has become irrational to call it a theory

Evolution is "so overwhelmingly established that it has become irrational to call it a theory."

-- Ernst Mayr What Evolution Is2001

Professor Emeritus, Evolutionary Biology

Harvard University

(1904-2005)


Survival of the fittest
Survival of the Fittest become irrational to call it a theory."


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