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Instructional Observation Training. Day 1. Connector . On the construction paper, please put the following information: Your name Your school district Your position within the district Number of years “in education” Favorite movie “genre” (Horror, Drama, Comedy, etc.)

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Instructional Observation Training

Day 1


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Connector

  • On the construction paper, please put the following information:

    • Your name

    • Your school district

    • Your position within the district

    • Number of years “in education”

    • Favorite movie “genre” (Horror, Drama, Comedy, etc.)

    • Something about you that “few people know”

    • My favorite vacation is one that lands me at a … (beach, pool, spa, casino, cruise ship, etc.)

    • If I could spend 5 minutes with any celebrity (living or dead) it would be…


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Introduction to the Course

  • 11 Sessions

  • 3 Day Summer Introduction

  • 4 Follow-Up Face-to-Face Sessions

  • 4 Follow-Up On-Line Sessions


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Introduction to the Course

  • Session 1: Creating a Sense of Urgency – Why observing classrooms matters

  • Session 2: Exploring Options within Our Practice

  • Session 3: Learner Focused Conversations

  • Session 4: Setting Up An “Instructional Observation Protocol”


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Introduction to the Course

  • Session 5: Having Crucial Conversations

  • Session 6: On-Line Progress Monitoring & Trouble Shooting

  • Session 7: Placing Achievement at the Center of Conversations

  • Session 8: On-Line Progress Monitoring & Trouble Shooting


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Introduction to the Course

  • Session 9: On-Line - Seeking out Problems of Practice

  • Session 10: On-Line – When “reflective conversations” don’t change instructional practice. Now what?

  • Session 11: Sustainability of Instructional Observation


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Finish this sentence…

  • I hope that, as a result of the content of this course, I will be …


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Introducing…

  • Dr. Marilyn Meell, Concordia University

  • Information regarding on-line sessions


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Today’s Objectives

Objectives:

  • Reflect on the importance and changing role of instructional leadership

  • Explore the personal and collective understanding of curriculum coherence and good instruction

  • Learn and practice a protocol for quick, effective classroom observations


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Norms

  • Take care of your own comfort

  • Start on Time…Stay on Time…End on Time

  • Turn Electronics to Vibrate

  • Full Engagement but One Conversation at a Time

  • Conduct Sidebars in the Hallway

  • Have Fun


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Instructional Leadership vs. Instructional Management

  • Read – the article, The Limits of “Change”

  • Share– with your table group using the following protocol

    • What Assumptions does the author of the text hold?

    • What do you Agree with in the text?

    • What do you want to Argue with in the text?

    • What parts of the text do you want to Aspire to?

  • Create – a four part poster with your reactions

  • Share – with the whole group


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Four “A’s” Protocol


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Report out…


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Allocation of Time:

Reflecting on your experience, rank order the areas based on how much time you think principals spend there.

A four (4) means most time and one (1) means least time.

- Office & office area

- Off campus

- Classrooms

- Hallways & playgrounds


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How Principals Spend The Day

Thirteen studies reveal the following percentages:

  • 40 - 80% is spent in the office or office area

  • 23 - 40% is spent in hallways and playgrounds

  • 11% is spent off campus

  • 2.5 - 10% is spent in classrooms


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Classroom Observation #1

Video Clip #1

  • Sample Teaching Video – Secondary Humanities

  • Following the video, you will be asked to:

    • Grade the teaching (A,B,C,D or F)

    • Answer: What did I see that is consistent with good teaching?

    • Answer: What did I see (or didn’t see) that is cause for concern?


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Chart Your Responses…

  • Please write the “grade” you give the teacher on a sticky note and place it on the “letter grade” chart.


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Chart Your Responses

  • Please write on a sticky note EACH thing you observed that was “consistent with good teaching”.

  • One observation or idea per sticky note, please.


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Chart Your Responses

  • Please write on a sticky note EACH thing you observed that was “cause for concern“.

  • One observation or idea per sticky note, please.


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Defining Quality Instruction!

On the front of the handout, please write your personal definition of “quality instruction.” Consider:

  • What does it look like?

  • What does it sound like?

  • What does it produce?


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Next Step

  • Please bring your “draft” definition of quality instruction to the front of the room.

  • Please stay in the front of the room until everyone has placed their definition in the pile.


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Next Step

  • Select a definition that is not your own.

  • Read the definition carefully

  • Turn the paper over

  • Share with the author at least 1 thing you liked about his/her definition and 1 thing you believe that he/she should consider adding or subtracting.


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Repeat…

  • Select another definition that is not your own.

  • Read the definition carefully

  • Turn the paper over

  • Share with the author at least 1 thing you liked about his/her definition and 1 thing you believe that he/she should consider adding or subtracting.


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Again…

  • Select another definition that is not your own.

  • Read the definition carefully

  • Turn the paper over

  • Share with the author at least 1 thing you liked about his/her definition and 1 thing you believe that he/she should consider adding or subtracting.


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And one last time…

  • Select another definition that is not your own.

  • Read the definition carefully

  • Turn the paper over

  • Share with the author at least 1 thing you liked about his/her definition and 1 thing you believe that he/she should consider adding or subtracting.


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Authors…find your work!

Pick up your own paper. Re-read your definition. Read the comments on the back. Would you like to revise your definition?


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Group Processing

  • Please move into the groups that I have established.

  • Within your group, please use your individual definitions of quality instruction to establish a group definition that everyone in the group can support.

  • Please write your groups definition on chart paper.


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Report out…


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BREAK!!!

Please return in 15 minutes


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Reviewing Group Memory

  • Please look at the “grade distribution” from the video we observed together.

  • What do you notice about the letter grade distribution?


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Reviewing Group Memory

  • Please review the items listed on the “good teaching” chart.

  • What do you notice about these items?

  • Do you disagree with any of these items appearing on the “good teaching” list?


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Reviewing Group Memory

  • Please review the items listed on the “cause for concern” chart.

  • What do you notice about these items?

  • Do you disagree with any of these items appearing on the “cause for concern” list?


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Table Talk

At your table, discuss the following questions…

  • What does this data (the information on our charts) tell us about the challenges that we face, as a group, as we begin to observe teachers and provide feedback?

  • What challenges would any system (a school district, for example) face?


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Report out…


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LUNCH!

Please be back in 1 hour…


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Re-connector

  • Free write - As you think about the morning session, what has pushed your thinking? What has given you ideas that you have rolling around your head? What things do you wonder about?

  • Pair – Find someone who you haven’t spoken to yet today.

  • Share – your reflections


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Report out… (Create Group Memory)


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Quality Instruction

Essential Question:

What impact does poor quality instruction have on children?


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Marzano’s Research


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The Effect of School and Teacher Effectiveness on Student Achievement

*

Marzano, R. (2003). What Works in Schools pg. 74


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The Effect of School and Teacher Effectiveness on Student Achievement

*

50th

3rd

37th

63rd

96th

78th

Marzano, R. (2003). What Works in Schools pg. 74


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Essential Question…

  • In looking at Marzano’s research, what does this tell us about what we need to focus on as instructional leaders?

  • Which area of focus, creating an effective school or effective teacher, gives us the most “bang for our buck?”


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Teacher Behavior

  • What Influences Teacher Behavior?


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Reeves Research


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What is your best guess?

  • On the following scale, how influential did teachers see each of the following in terms of causing them to change an instructional practice?

    • Undergraduate Coursework ______ (1-4)

    • Professional Reading ______ (1-4)

    • Graduate Courses ______ (1-4)

    • Advice from Colleagues ______ (1-4)


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The results…

  • On the following scale, how influential did teachers see each of the following in terms of causing them to change an instructional practice?

    • Undergraduate Coursework - Mean = 1.8

    • Professional Reading – Mean = 2.3

    • Graduate Courses – Mean = 2.6

    • Advice from Colleagues - Mean = 3.6


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Video Clip

Watch Video Clip #2

  • Teaching Sample Video – ELA Classroom

  • Following the clip you will be asked to:

    • Grade the Teaching (A, B, C, D, F) and justify your grade

    • Answer: What did I see that is consistent with good teaching?

    • Answer: What did I see (or didn’t see) that is cause for concern?

    • Answer: What specific feedback would you give to this teacher?


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Essential Question…

  • Free write: Why should school administrators place a significant emphasis and spend a significant amount of time participating in instructional observations and providing meaningful feedback to teachers?

  • Pair: Find someone you haven't spoken to today and join them for a conversation.

  • Share: Share with your partner your thoughts regarding this essential question.


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Report out… (Create Group Memory)


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Benefits of Instructional Observations:

  • Opportunity for data gathering

  • Frequent sampling more valid

  • Reflective thought stimulated by follow-up

  • Reflective questions lead to on-going reflective thought

  • Lowers apprehension of formal evaluations

  • Red flags


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More Perspective:

  • Most powerful change strategy; short 2 - 3 minute interaction on a single topic.

  • Reflective question for staff to ponder which might move them toward on-going reflective thought.

  • Feedback, when given, ultimately is to move a teacher toward reflection of own practice for even higher student learning.


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More Reasons:

  • Identify common staff development needs.

  • Ongoing monitoring of staff development implementation.

  • Reinforces coach role of school-based leaders.

  • Walk the talk of district values (symbolic).


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Quadrant Chart

High Impact/Low Resistance High Impact/High Resistance

Low Impact/Low Resistance Low Impact/High Resistance


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Place the following on the Quadrant Chart

  • If you put yourself in the shoes of the teachers within your school or district, where would each of the following fall within the quadrant chart?

  • Create a sticky note for each of the following questions and place the sticky note within the appropriate quadrant.


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  • Frequent observations by a supervisor


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  • Frequent observations by other teachers


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  • Observing other teachers teaching


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  • Discussing, with a fellow teacher/colleague, what was observed during an observation


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  • Following the observation of another teacher, a discussion with a group of colleagues about what they saw within the classroom.


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Moving Within The Quadrants

  • Step 1: Share, with everyone at your table, where you placed each statement within your quadrant.

  • Step 2: Discuss, as a table, strategies that an administrator could use to move each sticky note toward the upper left quadrant.


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Report out… (Create Group Memory)


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Break

Please return in 15 minutes


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Essential Question…

  • What is the difference between an “observation” and a “judgment”?


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Judgmental Language

  • Kids appeared bored

  • Students were disengaged during the lesson

  • Students were disrespectful of the teacher

  • Instructor favors girls in terms of interactions

  • Poorly constructed questions were used

  • Students were distracting each other

  • Poor classroom management

  • Too much down time


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Observational Language…

  • Kids appeared bored/disengaged (judgmental)

    • 3 students were working on assignments for other classes

    • 2 students had their heads down during the lesson

    • 4 students (1 of the groups) were talking about their weekend plans during group work

    • Of the 32 students in the class, 4 put their hand up and volunteered to participate in the classroom discussion


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Observational Language…

  • Students were disrespectful of the teacher.

    • 8 of the 32 students were engaged in conversations with one another during direct teacher instruction.

    • John refused to take out his writers notebook when asked to do so by the teacher.

    • When Mrs. Smith asked the students to take their seats, she had to make the request 3 times and it took approximately 4 minutes before all students were seated.


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Observational Language…

  • Instructor favors girls in terms of interactions.

    • During this observation, boys were called on to answer 2 questions. Girls were called on to answer 10 questions.


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Observational Language…

  • Poorly constructed questions were used.

    • During the observation, the teacher asked the students the following questions:

      • Why did the main character go to the store?

      • Who was the main character with?

      • What did the main character purchase while at the store?

      • Where did the main character go after leaving the store?


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Observational Language…

  • Students were distracting to each other.

    • The group of three girls in the back left of the room were talking loudly with one another throughout the lesson.

    • On 3 occasions, a student interrupted the student who was reporting out to the class.

    • Jon, throughout the class, was tapping his pencil on his desk. The girl in front of him asked him to stop 4 times.


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Observational Language…

  • Poor classroom management.

    • During the group activities, 3 of the 4 groups were having conversations unrelated to the assignment given.

    • 4 students used inappropriate language, privately to another student, within the classroom.

    • While the teacher was giving instructions to the class, 6 students got up and moved about the classroom.


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Observational Language…

  • Too much down time.

    • 10:00 – 10:09am, teacher attendance and student questions at the desk.

    • 10:09 – 10:20am, teacher direct instruction

    • 10:20 – 10:29am, students move into groups

    • 10:29 – 10:50am, students work in groups

    • 10:50 – 10:55am, students return to seats

    • 10:55 – 11:00am, students line up at door awaiting dismissal bell.

    • 28/60 minutes were spent in transitions (47%)


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Looking back…

  • Pull out your notes from the second observation that we viewed.

  • Identify whether each statement you wrote down was an “observation” or a “judgment”.

  • Please re-write any “judgments” using observational language.


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The Ladder of Inference


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The Ladder of Inference

  • Please take a few moments to read the excerpt from Rick Ross book, The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook, and mark/highlight any key points within the article.


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The Ladder of Inference

From the 5th Discipline Fieldbook, Peter Senge, 1994.


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Ladder of Inference

I need to cross the street and avoid the teens as they are going to do something to me.

Groups of teenagers shouldn’t be out this late and shouldn’t be hanging out on a street corner.

The teenagers are talking quietly to one another

I see a group of teenagers standing on a street corner


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Ladder of Inference

This teacher has poor classroom management skills

The teacher is not paying attention to students that are off task

Two students are off task

Two students are playing “hangman” on the chalkboard


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The Ladder of Inference

  • Please think of three examples, from within your own previous experiences, where you have climbed the “Ladder of Inference”.

  • Please jot these three examples down so that you do not forget them.


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Report out…


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The Ladder of Inference

  • Don't Climb The Ladder – Clip (Hospital)

  • Don't Climb The Ladder – Clip (Cat)


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Formative:

Ongoing

Fluid

Growth

Coach

Improvements

Summative:

Event

Static

Status

Judge

Contract Driven

Formative vs. Summative


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Report out…


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Strategies Used

Connectors

Four “A’s” Protocol

Free writes

Individual Processing

Group Processing

Group Memory

Table Talk

Think/Pair/Share

Quadrant Chart

Objectives

Reflect on the importance and changing role of instructional leadership

Explore the personal and collective understanding of curriculum coherence and good instruction

Learn and practice a protocol for quick, effective classroom observations

Strategy Harvest – Day 1


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Evaluation

Overall Satisfaction

0 = Not worth my time

10= Great Session

+ Biggest learning today

 How could today have been better?


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Homework

  • Please read “Improving The Instructional Core” by Richard Elmore

  • What are the “key ideas” within this selection?

  • What in the selection do you agree with?

  • What would you like to challenge?

  • What questions do you have?


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Instructional Observation

Day 2


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Connector…

  • Free write

  • As you think about implementing Instructional Observations within your school, what do you believe will…

    • Go really well?

    • Be your greatest challenge?

    • Barriers that you may encounter?

    • Your biggest supporters (use names)?

    • Your greatest resisters (use names)?


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Connector

  • Please find someone who you did not talk much with yesterday and share what you wrote about in terms of the following three questions:

    • As you think about implementing Instructional Observations within your school, what do you believe will…

      • Go really well?

      • Be your greatest challenge?

      • Barriers that you may encounter?


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Session 1 Evaluation

  • Overall Satisfaction: 9.27 mean (n=11)

  • How To Improve

    • Temperature of room (IIII)

    • More High Energy Activities

    • Paper to write on

    • More on use of proper language to get point across


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Today’s Objectives

Objectives:

  • Learn a number of different approaches that can be used to effectively integrate instructional observation into the daily life of a school.

  • Reflect on your own environment or environments and determine which approach or approaches best fulfills the needs of your organization.

  • Plan the initial phase in of instructional observation within your school.

  • Continue to “calibrate” our team in terms of recognition of Quality Instruction.


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Norms

  • Take care of your own comfort

  • Start on Time…Stay on Time…End on Time

  • Turn Electronics to Vibrate

  • Full Engagement but One Conversation at a Time

  • Conduct Sidebars in the Hallway

  • Have Fun


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Three-Minute Walk-Through


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Free write…

  • During this free write, please reflect on each of the following questions:

  • When you visit a classroom…

    • What do you pay attention to first?

    • What do you do? (walk around, talk with students, etc.)

    • What are the things you “look for?”

    • What data do you gather?

    • What do you do with the data you gather?


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Group Memory…

  • Chart responses…

  • Carousel Sharing…

    • Instructions: On the wall are 5 posters. Each poster has one of the 5 questions we just responded to. Please add each of your responses to the appropriate poster. For example, you will list the “data you collect” on the “data you collect” poster.


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Break

Please return in 15 minutes


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Downey – The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

  • Step 1:

  • Student Orientation to the Work

    • Completed within the first few seconds of the observation

    • Goal: To notice whether students appear to be oriented to the work (listening, interacting, independent work, etc)

    • It is best to collect this data before the students notice that you entered the room


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Downey – The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

  • Tips…

    • Be careful not to take students off task

    • If the door places you at the front of the room, quickly move to the back

    • Clarify to teachers that they are to ignore you.


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Downey – The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

  • Step 2:

  • Curricular Decision Points

    • Goal 1: Identify Curricular Objective

    • Goal 2: Establish if curricular objectives align with the written or prescribed curriculum

    • Goal 3: To establish “If what the teacher thinks is being taught is what is actually being taught.


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Downey – The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

  • Step 3:

  • Instructional Decision Points

    • This is looking at teaching practices

    • The focus is on things like: teaching to objectives, questioning skills, grouping strategies, assessment strategies, etc.


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Downey – The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

  • Some “look-for” items in Step 3:

  • Generic Instructional Decisions

    • Comparison & Contrast

    • Assigning of Homework

    • Feedback

    • Use of Examples

    • Student Error (how it is dealt with)

    • Differentiation to the needs of the students


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Downey – The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

  • Some additional “look for” items…

  • Instructional Strategies

    • Identifying Similarities and Differences

    • Nonlinguistic Representations

    • Summarizing and Note Taking

    • Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback

    • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

    • Generating and Testing Hypotheses

    • Homework and Practice

    • Cues, Questions, and Advanced Organizers

    • Cooperative Learning

      Marzano’s 9 Instructional Strategies “That Work”


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Downey – The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

  • Focus on Effectiveness - Thirty classroom examples embed research-based practices within the teaching and learning process.

    • http://www.netc.org/focus/examples/

  • MCREL – Building Better Instruction – The Role of Technology:

    • http://www.mcrel.org/pdf/educationtechnology/9713IR_buildingbetterinstruction.pdf


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Downey – The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

  • Some additional “look for” items…

  • Subject Specific, Research Based Best Practices:

    • Inquiry based mathematics instruction

    • Use of Readers and/or Writers Workshop

    • Use of manipulatives within math or science

    • Use of artifacts and primary source materials in social studies


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Downey – The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

  • Step 4:

  • Walk The Walls

    • What do the classroom walls tell you about:

      • Curriculum objectives

      • Instructional ideas

      • Student performance or student work

    • Look beyond the walls for artifacts of learning

      • Portfolios on counters

      • Graded student papers


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Downey – The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

  • Step 5:

  • Safety & Health Issues

    • Trip Hazards

    • Blocked Aisles

    • Lighting Issues

    • Loud Unit Ventilators

    • Defective Equipment


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Free Write

  • Go back and review the free write you did earlier today. The question was:

    • When you visit a classroom…

      • What do you play attention to first?

      • What do you do? (walk around, talk with students, etc.)

      • What are the things you “look for?”

      • What data do you gather?

      • What do you do with the data you gather?


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Downey – The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

  • Free write…

  • Comparing your responses from earlier to Downey’s approach, what do you see as the strengths of Downey’s approach and what do you see as the limitations?

  • If you were to implement portions of this approach, what portions would you include?


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Report out… (Create Group Memory)


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Lunch

Please return in 1 hour


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Connector

  • Find a partner, preferably someone you haven’t spoken with a lot over the past few days, and talk about the following questions:

    • Could teachers observe other teachers using the Carolyn Downey “Walk-Through” process?

    • What would teachers gain, and how might it improve instruction within a school, to afford staff this opportunity?


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Report out…


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Involving Staff in Observations

  • Premise

    • Our most effective means of staff development does not come from listening to “experts” discuss what has worked within schools or districts with a different fingerprint and/or philosophy. Instead, our most effective learning can take place by observing one another and having reflective conversations about what works well with students at our school.


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Involving Staff in Observations

  • A Model – Carolyn Downey with Modifications

  • Process:

    • 3-5 teachers and an administrator observe classrooms together

    • 3 classroom visits are scheduled each time walk-through observations are scheduled

    • Each classroom is visited for approximately 3-5 minutes

    • Following each observation, the 3-5 teachers and the administrator will discuss, in the hallway outside the classroom, the quality things that were observed within the classroom.


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Involving Staff in Observations

  • Developing “Instructional Observation” as a form of imbedded staff development

  • Step 1:

    • Define, for staff, what “Instructional Observation” is. Use a series of “It is…” statements to accomplish this.

    • You might look back at some of our group memory from day one to help with this task.


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Involving Staff in Observations

  • Example…

    What it is…

  • It is an opportunity to watch other teachers teach.

  • It is an opportunity to observe quality teaching techniques and see the impact these techniques have on “real students.”

    Please continue the list of “It is” statements


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Report out… (Create Group Memory)


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Involving Staff in Observations

  • Developing “Instructional Observation” as a form of imbedded staff development

  • Step 2:

    • Define, for staff, what “Instructional Observation” is not. Use a series of “It is not…” statements to accomplish this.

    • You might look back at some of our group memory from day one to help with this task.


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What it is…

  • An opportunity to find expertise amongst teaching staff

  • An opportunity to reflect on ones own teaching

  • Observing connections students make with the content and the world around them

  • Ownership for the professional development within our school

  • The beginning of professional discourse on instructional practice

  • Instructional decisions that teachers make

  • Collegial experience that promotes professional and positive conversation with each other.

  • An opportunity to see a practice or strategy in action

  • An opportunity to watch students respond to another teachers instruction

  • An opportunity to learn from each other, as the expert is within our building, an opportunity to get pointers and conversations going with that teacher,

  • An opportunity for all of us to consider our practice and improve it to change student learning.

  • An opportunity to have a stronger, but still flexible learning community

  • An opportunity to celebrate the strength of our entire staff through collective observation

  • An opportunity to establish on-going peer to peer relationships

  • An opportunity to use our observation skills and take them into our own classroom for the betterment of our students.

  • An opportunity to see what is going on in the rest of our school to see the connection between what is happening in my classroom and how it fit into the bigger “whole school” picture.


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Involving Staff in Observations

  • Example…

    What it is not…

  • It is not used as part of the teacher evaluation process

  • It is not an opportunity to reflect, with colleagues, on the negative aspects of another teacher’s classroom environment or methodologies.

    Please continue the list of “It is not” statements


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It is not…

  • It is not used as part of the teacher evaluation process

  • It is not an opportunity to reflect, with colleagues, on the negative aspects of another teacher’s classroom environment or methodologies.

  • An attempt to have teachers do an administrators job

  • A tool to rank the staff

  • It is not done without your agreement

  • A replacement for a real evaluation

  • An opportunity to criticize children or teachers

  • Negative

  • Opportunity to spy on one another and/or gossip about one another

  • An opportunity for one-up-man ship

  • An opportunity to take other peoples “stuff” and use it as your own

  • An opportunity to say “gotch-ya”

  • A competition

  • Not a judgment

  • It is not a costly learning experience

  • Fad!


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Report out… (Create Group Memory)


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Involving Staff in Observations

  • Developing “Instructional Observation” as a form of imbedded staff development

  • Step 3:

    • Create a list, that could be shared with your staff, that answers the following questions:

    • What should I expect, on the day of a walk through observation, if my classroom is being observed?

    • What should I expect, on the day of a walk-through observation, if I am observing another classroom?


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Involving Staff in Observations

  • Example…

    What to expect if my classroom is being observed…

  • Approximately 5 staff members will enter your classroom quietly

  • We will have no expectation that you, or your students, will stop what they are doing to acknowledge us.

    Please continue the list of “what to expect” statements


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Report out… (Create Group Memory)


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Involving Staff in Observations

  • Example…

    What to expect if I am observing a classroom…

  • Please meet at the main office at a specified time.

  • We will visit 3 classrooms together

  • We will spend about 3-5 minutes in each classroom

    Please continue the list of “what to expect” statements


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Report out… (Create Group Memory)


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Involving Staff in Observations

  • Developing “Instructional Observation” as a form of imbedded staff development

  • Step 4:

    • Develop a list on “Conversation Starters” that can be used, with staff, following an observation that assure:

      • That they are processing the right “data”

      • That the conversation stays positive in nature

      • That the conversation encourages reflection


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Involving Staff in Observations

  • Example…

    Conversation starters…

  • What techniques or strategies were used to engage students?

  • What behavior management techniques did you see that were working effectively?

    Please continue the list of “conversation starters.”


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Conversation Starters…

  • What techniques or strategies were used to engage students?

  • What behavior/classroom management techniques did you see that were working effectively?

  • What instructional decisions did you see?

  • What curriculum decisions did you see?

  • What evidence did you see that learning was occurring?

  • What strategies, from Marzano’s 9, did you see?

  • What formative assessment strategies did you see?

  • What evidence did you see that the teacher was well prepared for instruction?

  • What techniques were used to maximize the use of instructional time (minimize down time)?

  • What strategies were used to make the content relevant to students?

  • What type of modeling did you see?

  • What connections did you see the teacher making to connect to prior learning?

  • What did you see today that you could incorporate into your own classroom?

  • How might you use a strategy you say today, during a different lesson, within your own classroom.

  • How did you see technology or visual supports being integrated to improve student learning?

  • What effective questioning techniques were used?


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Report out… (Create Group Memory)


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Break

Please return in 15 minutes


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Calibration…

  • Instructions:

    • Please watch the following classroom video. As you watch the video, please conduct a “Downey Style” observation. Remember to consider the 5 essential areas:

      • Student Orientation to the Work

      • Curricular Decision Points

      • Instructional Decision Points

      • “Walk the Walls”

      • Safety and/or Health Issues


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Classroom Observation

  • The following is an early-childhood classroom.

  • www.youtube.com/watch?v=ShwR_AVLAA4


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Report out…

Question: What comments do you have relative to the student orientation to the work? Remember, observation rather than judgment.


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Report out…

Question: What comments do you have relative to the curricular decision points? Remember, observation rather than judgment.


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Report out…

Question: What comments do you have relative to the instructional decision points? Remember, observation rather than judgment.


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Report out…

Question: What comments do you have relative to what you noticed while “Walking the Walls?” Remember, observation rather than judgment.


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Report out…

Question: What comments do you have relative to safety or health related concerns that you noted? Remember, observation rather than judgment.


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Re-connector

  • Using the classroom we just observed…

  • Look at the conversation starters that you created while working on the “Modified Downey Approach”.

  • Find a partner, someone who works at a similar grade level, and role play.

  • Person A is the administrator. Person B is a teacher who observed a colleague.

  • Try out your questions. Person B, remember to answer from the perspective of a teacher.

  • Once finished, switch roles. Person B should now ask their questions of Person A. Person A is now the teacher.


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Instructional Rounds in Education by City, Elmore, Fiarman & Teitel


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The Instructional Core…

  • “In its simplest terms, the instructional core is composed of the teacher and the student in the presence of content.


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Reflecting on “Improving the Instructional Core”


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7 Principles of the Instructional Core

  • Increases in student learning occur only as a consequence of improvements in the level of content, the teachers’ knowledge and skills, and student engagement.

  • If you change any single element of the instructional core, you have to change the other two.

  • If you can’t see it in the core, it’s not there.

  • Task predicts performance.

  • The real accountability system is in the tasks that students are asked to do.

  • We learn to do the work by doing the work, NOT by telling other people to do the work, not by having done the work at some time in the past, and not by hiring experts who can act as proxies for our knowledge about how to do the work.

  • Description before analysis, analysis before prediction, prediction before evaluation.


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Strategies Used

Connectors

Reflection Activity

Free writes

Individual Processing

Group Processing

Group Memory

Lecture Burst

Guided Practice

Carousel Sharing

Classroom Observation

Brainstorming

Objectives:

Learn a number of different approaches that can be used to effectively integrate instructional observation into the daily life of a school.

Reflect on your own environment or environments and determine which approach or approaches best fulfills the needs of your organization.

Plan the initial phase in of instructional observation within your school.

Continue to “calibrate” our team in terms of recognition of Quality Instruction.

Strategy Harvest – Day 2


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Evaluation

Overall Satisfaction

0 = Not worth my time

10= Great Session

+ Biggest learning today

 How could today have been better?


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Homework

  • None


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Instructional Observation

Day 3


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Norms

  • Take care of your own comfort

  • Start on Time…Stay on Time…End on Time

  • Turn Electronics to Vibrate

  • Full Engagement but One Conversation at a Time

  • Conduct Sidebars in the Hallway

  • Have Fun


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Session 2 Evaluation

  • Overall Satisfaction: 9.75 mean (n=12)

  • How To Improve

    • Watch more classes and discuss process as a group

    • More movement

    • Move faster – cut break times

    • More activities in the afternoon


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Today’s Objectives

Objectives:

  • Learn strategies for having reflective conversations with teachers around the achievement of their students.

  • Learn strategies for having “Learner Centered Conversations” with all school staff.

  • Learn strategies for debriefing instructional observations to increase the impact on teaching and learning.

  • Build skills in the area of have “Crucial Conversations” with staff regarding instructional practices.


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Instructional Rounds in Education by City, Elmore, Fiarman & Teitel

  • Step 1:

  • Developing a “Problem of Practice”

    • A problem of practice is something that you care about that would make a difference for student learning if you improved it.

    • The “problem of practice” becomes the central focus when visiting classrooms.


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Instructional Rounds in Education by City, Elmore, Fiarman & Teitel

  • Where does the problem of practice come from?

    • Data

    • Dialogue

    • Observation


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Instructional Rounds in Education by City, Elmore, Fiarman & Teitel

  • Some obvious sources are:

    • School Improvement Plan (needs assessment)

    • Achievement Gap Data Analysis

    • AYP Reporting

    • Reading or Math Assessments

    • MEAP


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Instructional Rounds in Education by City, Elmore, Fiarman & Teitel

  • Pitfalls to avoid in identification of a problem of practice…

    • Too much packed into the problem of practice

    • Implementation/Audit Syndrome (looking for the problem you want to fix, not the one you need to fix)

    • Too broad or vague statement of problem

    • Too little or too much context

    • The network has too little exposure or background to understand and observe the problem of practice.


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Instructional Rounds in Education by City, Elmore, Fiarman & Teitel

  • Step 2:

  • Observation of Practice

    • Purpose: The purpose of visiting classrooms is to gather data directly on the work of teaching and learning.


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Instructional Rounds in Education by City, Elmore, Fiarman & Teitel

  • Guidelines for Instructional Rounds

    • Listen; don’t interrupt the teacher or disrupt the lesson

    • It’s fine to ask students questions as long as it seems appropriate at that point in the lesson

    • Talk with other observers during the debrief, not in the classroom or in the hallway


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Instructional Rounds in Education by City, Elmore, Fiarman & Teitel

  • Remember, for the purpose of doing “Instructional Rounds” all of your focus is on the specific “problem of practice”.

  • Example problem of practice:

    • Our children often aren’t getting opportunities to practice thinking, work with one another, or engage in problem solving through different types of modalities. As a result, our students are often unmotivated, unfocused, and off task. Lessons aren’t consistently meeting the motivational and learning needs of students.


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Instructional Rounds in Education by City, Elmore, Fiarman & Teitel

  • Free write…

  • Looking at the problem of practice described on the previous slide, what would you expect to see within a classroom where the teacher was working hard to improve in this area?

  • What would you expect to see in the classroom of a teacher not committed to improving in this area?


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Report out… (Create Group Memory)


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Instructional Rounds in Education by City, Elmore, Fiarman & Teitel

  • Tips & Takeaways

    • Don’t aim for the “perfect” problem of practice. You will get better over time.

    • Look down, not up. Observe what students are doing, not what they have been asked to do.

    • Focus on the students, not the teacher.


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Instructional Rounds in Education by City, Elmore, Fiarman & Teitel

  • The Debrief of Instructional Rounds

    • Focus on the problem of practice

    • Stick to the evidence (observation v judgment)

    • Designate facilitator & timekeeper

    • Debrief by questions

    • Debrief in small groups before attempting larger groups

    • Share talk time (all voices are heard)

    • Create group memory


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Classroom Observation

  • Watch the following video and do so using the following “problem of practice” as your lense.

  • Problem of practice:

    • Our children often aren’t getting opportunities to practice thinking, work with one another, or engage in problem solving through different types of modalities. As a result, our students are often unmotivated, unfocused, and off task. Lessons aren’t consistently meeting the motivational and learning needs of students.


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Video

  • Problem of Practice

  • You have already observed this teacher once. Please remember to view her practice through the “Instructional Rounds” lens.

  • http://www.youtube.com/user/NASSPtv?blend=24&ob=5#p/u/3/xsnC4tfVlVs


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Debrief

  • Read through your notes, place a “*” next to observations that are relevant to our “problem of practice.”

  • What did you see or hear that relates to our problem of practice? Stay descriptive!!!

  • Let’s list, together, the evidence we gathered while observing this classroom.

  • Please get into groups of four


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Debrief, continued

  • Three pieces of paper are on the wall labeled:

    • Students practicing thinking

    • Students working with one another

    • Students engaging in problem solving

  • As a group, please do the following:

    • Identify evidence, from the lesson, that supports or negates each of the above.

    • Write the evidence on the appropriate chart.


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Debrief, continued

  • Do a “Gallery Walk” and read all three of the charts to identify patterns.

  • Group Sharing: What did you notice on your “Gallery Walk” that will be helpful for us in working toward improving our “problem of practice?”


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Jig-Saw “The Michigan Framework”

  • Group 1: Beginning through Foundational Principles (including Foundational Principles)

  • Group 2: The Framework Overview through the end of the “Developmental Goals” section.

  • Group 3: The Framework is divided into a three-part… through the end of the article.


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The New Teacher Evaluation Law

  • Please read the “draft” of the new evaluation law.

  • How can instructional observations assist administrators in fulfilling the requirements established within the new evaluation law?

  • How can regular “instructional observations” complement the current summative evaluation model that exists within your district to better comply with the new law?


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Learning Centered Conversations


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Three-Minute Walk-Through


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Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

  • Three Types of Feedback (Invitation)

  • Direct: Supervisor gives feedback to teacher then teaches the teacher how to use the feedback.

    • Let’s talk about how we set up evaluation processes to determine which students are learning the objectives we want them to learn.

    • I would like to chat with you about the criteria we use to select one activity over another when teaching the curriculum.


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Direct Feedback

  • There are no judgmental words

  • The focus is on the curricular or instructional practice decisions, not on the teacher behavior observed while in the classroom.

  • The focus is not on the “small picture” or focusing on the specific observation. Rather, it is “big picture” and focuses on future curriculum or instructional delivery.

    Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through


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Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

  • Indirect: Supervisor invites teacher to reflect on the lesson (the portion observed) and the supervisor follows up on those practices that the teacher brings up. The supervisor may end this type of conversation with a reflective question.


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Indirect

  • Sample Indirect Statements (Invitation):

    • I know you enjoy reflecting on your work; would you like to take a few minutes to reflect on your practice.

    • When you think about this lesson, what decisions were you making that seemed to be working well for both you and the students?

    • When you are planning for a lesson, how do you decide what you are going to teach and how you are going to teach it?


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Indirect

  • Statements should be unfocused (general) and invite reflection and inquiry

  • It should contain no judgmental language.

  • The teachers response to the indirect question should be the basis for the conversations that follow.

  • As a goal, an administrator should try to end an “indirect” session with a reflective question.

    Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through


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Indirect – Basic Format

  • Ask an unfocused question about the classroom observation.

  • Probe for the criteria the teacher uses in making a particular decision.

  • End the conversation with a reflective conversation related to the teachers response to the first question and an invitation for a follow-up conversation.

    Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through


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Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

  • Collegial: Supervisor poses reflective questions in a conversation and engages in further dialogue in the future if teacher so chooses.

    Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through


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Parts of a Reflective Question

  • Part 1: Identify Situation

    • Examples

      • When you are planning your lessons…

      • When you are teaching…

      • When you are evaluating your teaching…

        Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through


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Parts of a Reflective Question

  • Part 2: Add a condition, if necessary

    • Examples

      • Considering the grade level curriculum standards

      • For students with special needs

      • For a classroom of students at such varying instructional levels

        Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through


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Parts of a Reflective Question

  • Part 3: Teacher Reflection on Practice

    • Examples

      • And considering the many types of questions you might ask

      • And considering how you might access the prior knowledge of your students

      • And considering the variety of ways in which you can deliver the content to your students

        Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through


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Parts of a Reflective Question

  • Part 4: Choice

    • Examples

      • What criteria do you use

      • What factors do you consider

      • What thoughts are in your head

      • What considerations do you make

        Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through


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Parts of a Reflective Question

  • Part 5: Decision

    • Examples

      • To decide on the objectives to be taught

      • To decide on the questions to be asked

      • To decide on the best means of assessing student learning

      • To make decisions in terms of which strategies to use

        Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through


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Parts of a Reflective Question

  • Part 6: Student Impact

    • Examples

      • To impact student achievement

      • To increase the likelihood of student mastery

      • To assist students in learning the learning objectives

        Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through


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Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through

  • Volunteer Needed To Play The Role of Teacher!!!

  • Watch this video clip and I will model each of the three forms of dialogue…

  • Secondary Humanities Classroom


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Examples of The Types of Questions

  • Direct: I would like to chat with you about student engagement and how we decide the degree to which it takes place within a classroom.

  • Indirect: When you think about the think-aloud you did with your students today, what aspects of this lesson do you think went really well for both you and the students?


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Examples of The Types of Questions

  • Reflective: In deciding how to structure your lesson, how did you determine the best approach, given the wide variety of learners within your classroom, and taking into account your strong commitment to teaching your students the techniques good readers use to process and understand a text, to assure that the students ability to make sense of a complex text improved as a result of this lesson.


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Look Out!!!

  • Sentence starters to avoid using all three types of questions:

    • Why did you do…

    • Have you considered doing…

    • You might want to…

    • How come you…

    • What might you do differently next time…

    • Tell me how you did…

    • How do you know that…

    • Do you think it would have been different if you had…

      Downey, The Three Minute Classroom Walk-Through


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Mentoring Matters


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Principal as Instructional Coach

Coaches need to ATTEND FULLY by:

  • Pausing to provide a space for thinking

  • Paraphrasing to establish a relationship and increase understanding

  • Reflecting feelings to show empathy and build trust

  • Inquiring to invite the construction of new connections and meanings

  • Probing gently to clarify thinking and increase precision

  • Extending thinking by providing resources and information

  • Physically Engaging with non-verbal communication

    Adapted from Mentoring Matters


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The Adaptive School: Developing & Facilitating Collaborative Groups


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Seven Skills of Collaborative Work

  • Promoting a Spirit of Inquiry (Putting Inquiry at the Center)

  • Pausing

  • Paraphrasing

  • Putting Inquiry at the Center

  • Probing

  • Placing Ideas at the Table

  • Paying Attention to Self & Others

  • Presuming Positive Intent

    The Adaptive School: Developing & Facilitating Collaborative Groups


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Seven Skills of Collaborative Work

Switch to Elmo to explore each Norm in detail.


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Modeling The 7 Norms of Collaboration

Topic: A reflection with a teacher!


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Guided Practice

  • Topics…

    • If you could live anywhere in the world, where would you live (promoting a spirit of inquiry)

    • Your plans for the summer (pausing)

    • A challenge you are having (or have had) with a colleague (paraphrasing)

    • Why you prefer a _______ over a ________ (probing)

    • A challenge you have faced at work or at home (putting ideas on the table)

    • Your political affiliation (paying attention to self & others)

    • When was the last time you remember really offending or upsetting another person? (Presuming positive intent)


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Self Assessment of Norms

  • Please take a moment to self-assess yourself on each of the 7 Norms.

  • If you feel that the Norm comes naturally to you, rank that norm a 4.

  • If you feel that you seldom act in a manner that is consistent with that Norm, rank that Norm a 1.


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Crucial Conversations


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City Slickers

  • Curly: “If you want to succeed in life, you need to do one thing.”

  • Inappropriate Language Alert!!! S@!T

  • City Slickers Clip - The One Thing


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Premise – “the one thing”

“When it comes to risky, controversial, and emotional conversations, skilled people find a way to get all relevant information (from themselves and others) out into the open.


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Filling the Pool of Shared Meaning

  • When two or more people engage in a crucial conversation, they don’t share the same “pool”. Opinions, in this situation, differ.

  • People skilled in dialogue make it safe for everyone to add their meaning to the shared pool.


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Crucial Conversations, Page 28

Disneyland Example


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Challenge #1

  • When faced with a failed conversation, most of us are quick to blame others.

    • If others would change, we wouldn’t be in this situation!

    • It’s their fault, not ours!

    • If he would only take the suggestions I gave him in our post-observation conference, we wouldn’t need to be having this conversation


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Solution #1

  • People who are best at dialogue understand the principle of “work on me first.”

  • Your own words and actions are the only ones you have any control over.

  • As much as others may need to change, or we want them to change, the only person we can inspire, prod and shape is the person in the mirror.


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Challenge #2

  • When we are challenged or our “position on a topic” is challenged, we often shift our focus away from our initial goal and begin to defend ourselves instead.


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Solution #2

  • Talk to point

  • Focus on what you really want

  • Four essential questions…

    • What do I really want for myself?

    • What do I really want for others?

    • What do I really want for the relationship?

    • How would I behave if I really wanted these results?


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Challenge #3

  • Watch for safety concerns

    • When your emotions intensify, your brain function starts shutting down

    • As people begin to feel unsafe, they often start down one of two unhealthy paths:

      • Move toward “silence”

      • Move toward “violence”


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Silence

  • When a person involved in a crucial conversation purposefully withholds information from the “pool”.

  • Silence often exists in one of the following forms:

    • Masking – sarcasm, sugarcoating & couching

    • Avoiding – we talk, but without addressing the real issue(s)

    • Withdrawing – exit the conversation or exit the room


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Violence

  • Any verbal strategy that attempts to convince, control, or compel others to your point of view.

  • Violence often exists in one of the following forms:

    • Controlling – forcing views on others or controlling the conversation.

    • Labeling – putting a label on people or ideas so we can dismiss them

    • Attacking – belittling or threatening


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Work-Time

  • During the remaining time, please do the following:

    • Decide how your organization will move toward regular “instructional observations.”

    • Decide which model, models, or combination of models that you will implement within your school(s).

    • Plan the “roll-out”. What will you share with staff? What will be your process? What will be the timing of this roll-out?

    • Who should be informed of your intent before the roll-out? (HR Director, Union President, etc.)

    • What process will be used to select staff to observe or be observed?


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Strategies Used

Connectors

Reflection Activity

Free writes

Individual Processing

Group Processing

Group Memory

Lecture Burst

Guided Practice

Carousel Sharing

Classroom Observation

Brainstorming

Objectives:

Learn strategies for having reflective conversations with teachers around the achievement of their students.

Learn strategies for having “Learner Centered Conversations” with all school staff.

Learn strategies for debriefing instructional observations to increase the impact on teaching and learning.

Build skills in the area of have “Crucial Conversations” with staff regarding instructional practices.

Strategy Harvest – Day 2 & 3


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Evaluation

Overall Satisfaction

0 = Not worth my time

10= Great Session

+ Biggest learning today

 How could today have been better?


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Homework

  • Establish/Designate Learning Partner. Meet with your partner, prior to our next session, and ask if he/she will partner with you for the purpose of helping you as a learner in this process.

  • The learning partner will be agreeing to having you visit his/her classroom, have follow-up conversations, and provide you with honest feedback about your progress.


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Homework, continued

  • Begin working on an implementation plan for Instructional Observation, of some form, within your school and/or district.

  • Come to our next meeting with a status update and a reflection on what is going well and what challenges you have encountered.


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Session #4:Setting Up An “Instructional Observation Protocol”

September 28, 2011

Wayne RESA

5:30p – 8:45p

Bring Your Laptop!!!


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