Enzymes
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Enzymes PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Enzymes. Enzymes are organic catalysts A catalyst speeds up the rate of a reaction An enzyme will speed up a reaction by lower the activation energy of the reaction. This is the energy required for a chemical reaction to start .

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Enzymes

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Enzymes

Enzymes


Enzymes

  • Enzymes are organic catalysts

    • A catalyst speeds up the rate of a reaction

  • An enzyme will speed up a reaction by lower the activation energy of the reaction. This is the energy required for a chemical reaction to start


  • Enzymes

    • Many enzymes are proteins, but not all. The way you know a compound is an enzyme is by looking at it’s name. All enzymes end in –ase.

    • To speed up a reaction an enzyme will bind to a substrate. A substrate is the substance that is going to change or react


    Enzymes

    • Enzymes bind to substrates in special locations called active sites. Each enzymes active site is unique. Only one type of substrate will fit in the enzymes active site, like a lock and key.

    • The enzyme and substrate together are called an enzyme-substrate complex and will remain together until the reaction is complete


    Enzymes

    • In a reaction enzymes

      • Do not change

      • Are not used up

      • Can be reused


    Enzymes

    In a solution, the enzymes will catalyze substrates continuously until all substrates are reacted. However, an enzyme can only react with one substrate at a time. If a solution has more substrate in it than a certain amount of enzyme can react to quickly, it is called a saturated solution.


    Enzymes

    • Coenzymes and cofactors are molecules that help the enzyme bind to the substrate. They are often vitamins


    Enzymes

    • Factors affecting enzyme activity

      • pH

      • temperature

      • substrate concentration

        • Each enzyme works best at an optimum temperature and pH. Below or above the optimum range results in decreased enzyme activity

        • Decreased activity is often the result of an enzyme becoming denatured, which is when an enzyme falls apart


    Enzymes

    • Inhibition: prevention of a reaction

    • Competitive inhibition: when a competitor molecule binds in the same place as a substrate would and blocks the substrate from binding

    • Non competitive inhibition: when a competitor molecule binds to the enzyme in a different place from where the substrate binds but causes a change in the enzyme so it can not bind to the substrate.


    Enzymes

    Without enzymes

    Without

    enzymes

    With enzyme

    with

    enzymes


    Enzymes

    substrate

    Active site

    Enzyme-substrate

    complex

    enzyme


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