Enzymes
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Enzymes. Enzymes are organic catalysts A catalyst speeds up the rate of a reaction An enzyme will speed up a reaction by lower the activation energy of the reaction. This is the energy required for a chemical reaction to start .

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  • An enzyme will speed up a reaction by lower the activation energy of the reaction. This is the energy required for a chemical reaction to start



    • Enzymes bind to substrates in special locations called active sites. Each enzymes active site is unique. Only one type of substrate will fit in the enzymes active site, like a lock and key.

    • The enzyme and substrate together are called an enzyme-substrate complex and will remain together until the reaction is complete


    • In a reaction enzymes active sites. Each enzymes active site is unique. Only one type of substrate will fit in the enzymes active site, like a lock and key.

      • Do not change

      • Are not used up

      • Can be reused


    In a solution, the enzymes will catalyze substrates continuously until all substrates are reacted. However, an enzyme can only react with one substrate at a time. If a solution has more substrate in it than a certain amount of enzyme can react to quickly, it is called a saturated solution.



    • Factors affecting enzyme activity bind to the substrate. They are often vitamins

      • pH

      • temperature

      • substrate concentration

        • Each enzyme works best at an optimum temperature and pH. Below or above the optimum range results in decreased enzyme activity

        • Decreased activity is often the result of an enzyme becoming denatured, which is when an enzyme falls apart


    • Inhibition: prevention of a reaction bind to the substrate. They are often vitamins

    • Competitive inhibition: when a competitor molecule binds in the same place as a substrate would and blocks the substrate from binding

    • Non competitive inhibition: when a competitor molecule binds to the enzyme in a different place from where the substrate binds but causes a change in the enzyme so it can not bind to the substrate.


    Without enzymes bind to the substrate. They are often vitamins

    Without

    enzymes

    With enzyme

    with

    enzymes


    substrate bind to the substrate. They are often vitamins

    Active site

    Enzyme-substrate

    complex

    enzyme


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