International economics by robert j carbaugh 9th edition
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International Economics By Robert J. Carbaugh 9th Edition. Chapter 9: International Factor Movements and Multinational Enterprises. Factor movements & multinational enterprises. Factor movements.

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International economics by robert j carbaugh 9th edition

International EconomicsBy Robert J. Carbaugh9th Edition

Chapter 9:

International Factor Movements and Multinational Enterprises


Factor movements

Factor movements & multinational enterprises

Factor movements

  • International movement of factors of production (capital, labor) is a substitute for international trade in goods

  • International capital flows (investment) can substitute for trade in capital-intensive goods

  • Labor mobility can substitute for trade in labor-intensive goods

Carbaugh, Chap. 10


Multinational enterprises

Factor movements & multinational enterprises

Multinational enterprises

  • Various business operations in numerous host countries

  • Headquarters often far from operations

  • Stock ownership and management are usually multi-national

  • Frequently employ vertical integration, horizontal integration, conglomerate structure

Carbaugh, Chap. 10


Foreign direct investment

Multinational enterprises

Foreign direct investment

  • A foreign or multinational firm can buy a controlling interest in a local firm

  • Buy or build new plants or equipment overseas

  • Shift funds abroad to expand a subsidiary

  • Reinvest the earnings of a foreign subsidiary

Carbaugh, Chap. 10


Reasons for foreign direct investment

Multinational enterprises

Reasons for foreign direct investment

  • Demand factors

    • Serve different local markets

    • Respond to market competition

  • Cost factors

    • Access to key raw materials

    • Labor costs

    • Transportation costs

    • Government policies

Carbaugh, Chap. 10


Choice between export and fdi

Foreign direct investment

Choice between export and FDI

Carbaugh, Chap. 10


Choice between licensing and fdi

Foreign direct investment

Choice between licensing and FDI

Carbaugh, Chap. 10


International joint ventures

Multinational enterprises

International joint ventures

  • Two companies can operate a venture in a third country

  • A foreign firm can work with a local company

  • A foreign firm can form a venture with a unit of the local government

Carbaugh, Chap. 10


Reasons for international jvs

Multinational enterprises

Reasons for international JVs

  • Cost sharing - R&D, capital expenditures (in mining and oil, for example)

  • Avoiding restrictions on foreign ownership of local firms (ensuring local participation)

  • Forestalling pressure for protectionism

  • Problems: divided control means success of JV depends on ability of firms to work together

Carbaugh, Chap. 10


Effects of an international jv

Multinational enterprises

Effects of an international JV

Carbaugh, Chap. 10


Controversy over multinationals

Multinational enterprises

Controversy over multinationals

  • Employment

    • Host country may not gain many jobs, foreign managers often brought in; source country worries about losing jobs

  • Technology transfer

    • MNEs are reluctant to share technology with host nations; source country worries about giving away advantage

Carbaugh, Chap. 10


Controversy over multinationals cont d

Multinational enterprises

Controversy over multinationals (Cont’d)

  • National sovereignty

    • Host country worries about power of MNE to influence affairs; source country worries about ability to regulate MNE activities elsewhere

  • Balance of payments

    • MNE investments and profits (internal transfers) have impacts on the payments status of both source and host nations

Carbaugh, Chap. 10


Controversy over multinationals cont d1

Multinational enterprises

Controversy over multinationals (Cont’d)

  • Taxation

    • Source countries may have difficulty taxing MNE income stemming from foreign operations

    • Tax rate differences may discourage investment at home

  • Transfer pricing

    • Both host and source governments worry that MNEs may illegally manipulate prices paid between subsidiaries to avoid taxes

Carbaugh, Chap. 10


Transfer pricing illustrated

Multinational enterprises

Transfer pricing illustrated

Germany

(tax rate 48%)

Computer produced by parent firm for $2000. Sold to Irish subsidiary for $2000.

German tax paid: $0.

Ireland

(tax rate 4%)

Irish subsidiary resells the same computer to US subsidiary for $2500, earning $500 profit.

Irish tax paid: $20.

United States

(tax rate 34%)

US subsidiary sells computer at cost, for $2500. No profit is earned.

US tax paid: $0. Irish subsidiary then lends money to US subsidiary for expansion

Carbaugh, Chap. 10


Migration

International factor movements

Migration

  • Tends to equalize wage rates between countries

  • Shifts distribution of income between capital and labor

  • Other concerns:

    • Fiscal drain from immigration

    • Brain drain from developing countries

    • Impact of illegal migration

    • Wider gulf between skilled and unskilled workers

Carbaugh, Chap. 10


Effects of labor migration

International factor movements

Effects of labor migration

United States

Mexico

Carbaugh, Chap. 10


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