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1. Principles of Physical Fitness Chapter 2
2. Physical Activity and Exercise for Health and Fitness Physical activity levels have declined
The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported the following:
62% participate in some leisure activity
38% are physically inactive
Of those that exercise, only 12% exercise at least 5 times per week at an intense level
80% of Americans with graduate degrees exercise compared to only 40% of high school dropouts
3. Why arent more Americans active? Lack of priority
Lack of time
Lack of motivation
Lack of education
4. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure.
This includes chores and hobbies as well as structured exercises such as washing and waxing the car by hand, mowing the lawn, gardening, mopping the floors.
~ Is a subset of physical activity and is defined as planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movements done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness.
~ This includes walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, jumping rope, stair climbing, to name a few.
5. 2005 Guidelines for Americans The U.S. Dept. of Health and Humans Services recommend the following:
30 mins. of moderate intense physical activity beyond usual activity already peformed at work/home on most days of the week
Moderate physical activity consist of these types:
6. Lifestyle Physical Activity For health promotion:
ALL AMERICANS should expend about 150 caloriesequivalent to 30 minutes of brisk walking (3-4 mph)on most days, above the normal routine
For health promotion and weight management:
Engage in 60 or more daily minutes of activity to prevent unhealthy weight gain
Engage in 60-90 daily minutes of activity to sustain weight loss
7. Lifestyle Activity Walking rather than taking the bus.
Parking far from the store entrance.
Taking the stairs instead of the elevator.
Getting up to change the channel vs using a remote control.
Walking the dog.
Washing the car.
Limit sedentary activity, such as sitting at the computer or on the couch!
8. Moderate Amounts of Physical Activity
But, what is moderate? How long do I have to exercise to burn about 150 calories?
9. Current levels of physical activity among American adults
10. BENEFITS Healthy Appearance
Better posture and alignment
Fluid, easy movement
Stronger joints and firmer muscles
Lowered risk of low back pain
Decreased susceptibility to injury
Fewer aches and pains
More efficient circulatory and respiratory system
Improved blood cholesterol levels
Increased life expectancy
Decreased body fat and/or body weight
More restful sleep
Increased job productivity
More energy and vitality
11. PHYSICAL FITNESS The ability of the body to adapt to the demands of physical effort. To perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without becoming overly tired.
To develop fitness, one must perform a sufficient amount of physical activity to stress the body and cause long-term physiological changes.
FITNESS VS HEALTH BENEFITS
~ In order to become physically fit it is best to train every day. (ACSM)
~ However, smaller amounts (less frequent) can provide HEALTH benefits.
~ If you increase your level of fitness, the greater the health benefits!
12. Exercise to Develop Physical Fitness Lifestyle physical activity improves health but may not improve fitness
A structured, formal exercise program improves physical fitness and provides even greater health improvements
13. HEALTH-RELATED COMPONENTS OF FITNESS Cardio-respiratory Endurance refers to the ability of the body to take in, deliver, and extract oxygen for physical work or to perform prolonged, large muscle dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity.
Muscular Strength is the maximum force that a muscle can exert in a single contraction or with a single maximum effort.
Muscular Endurance is the capacity to exert repetitive muscular force or the ability of the muscle to remain contracted or contract repeatedly for long periods of time.
Flexibility refers to the range of motion in a specific joint or group of joints. Flexibility is related to muscle length.
Body Composition is the proportion of lean mass (muscle, bone, and water) and fat tissue in the body.
14. Skill-Related Components of Fitness Speed
These are more sport specific.
15. PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICAL TRAINING Principle of Adaptation If a specific physiological capacity is taxed by a physical training stimulus within a certain range and on a regular basis, this physiological capacity usually expands. The body improves when it is physically stressed at a higher level than it is currently use to.
Principle of Specificity The body will adapt very specifically to the type and nature of training. Ie. If you want to run a marathon, you have to do long distance running.
Principle of Progressive Overload- As the body adapts to the demands of exercise by improving, the amount of exercise needs to also progressively increase in order for fitness to continue to improve.
Placing increasing amounts of stress on the body causes adaptations that improve fitness; progression is critical!
FITT principle for overload:
TimeHow long (duration)
TypeMode of activity
16. Principles of Training Principle of Reversibility (Disuse)-When physical training is stopped or reduced, the body will adjust to the new and diminished level. When a person stops exercising, up to 50% of fitness improvements are lost within 2 months.
17. Designing Your Own Exercise Program Medical clearance
Time frame specific
18. Designing Your Own Exercise Program
Choosing activities for a balanced program
Include activities to develop health-related components of physical fitness
21. Guidelines for Training Train the way you want your body to change
Start slowly, and get in shape gradually; do not overtrain
Warm up before exercise
Cool down after exercise
22. Guidelines for Training Listen to your body, and get adequate rest
Cycle the volume and intensity of your workouts
Try training with a partner
Vary your activities
Train your mind
Fuel your activity appropriately
23. Guidelines for Training Have fun
Track your progress
Keep your exercise program in perspective
25. Tip of the Day Start today to increase your physical activity. Replace 30 minutes of inactivity with an activity that keeps the body moving!