Overview of climate change financing mechanisms in cambodia lao pdr thailand and vietnam
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OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE CHANGE FINANCING MECHANISMS IN CAMBODIA, LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM. Patricia Gorin, FAO Rome Vientiane, 29 Aug 2011. General context for the region. General context for the region. Carbon markets (CDM and voluntary). Private sector. Cambodia.

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Overview of climate change financing mechanisms in cambodia lao pdr thailand and vietnam

OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE CHANGE FINANCING MECHANISMS IN CAMBODIA, LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

Patricia Gorin, FAO Rome Vientiane, 29 Aug 2011


General context for the region
General context for the region LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM


General context for the region1
General context for the region LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

Carbon markets (CDM and voluntary)

Private sector


Cambodia
Cambodia LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM


Cambodia1
Cambodia LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

Plans and Strategies:

Cambodian Climate Change Alliance (CCCA)

Development of a National Green Growth Roadmap (2009)

Climate strategies & programmes to mainstream low-carbon and environmental practices

National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) for 2010–2013. Unclear procedure, timeline, and resources

Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Strategy for Flood and Drought (2007 – 2012)

Assist with national policy development, awareness raising and project identification


Cambodia2

World Bank (WB) and Asian Development Bank (ADB) LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

Global Environment Facility (GEF) and UNDP Trust Fund

  • Support: sustainable livelihoods

  • climate adaptation & mitigation strategies

  • biodiversity conservation

Cambodia

  • Strategic Programme for Climate Resilience (SPCR) (2010-2012)

Diverse financing:

Despite SLM and SFM being a priority for the Cambodian government, it has been managed in a fragmented way, with limited coordination and collaboration


Un redd in cambodia
UN REDD in Cambodia LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

Cambodia is among the most forested countries in Southeast Asia. Approximately 59% of its land is covered with forests (10.7 million ha)

2008: one of the first countries in the region to address REDD+ with pilot activities

National target: maintaining 60% forest cover, one of the main objectives of the Royal Government of Cambodia‘s Rectangular Strategy

Cambodia’s final REDD+ Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) was submitted to the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) in March 2011. Total commitments (June 2011 – May 2014): US$ 10,905,000


Un redd in cambodia1
UN REDD in Cambodia LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

REDD mechanism is an answer to strengthen institutional capacity, sustainable financing and engagement with local communities


Carbon markets

Voluntary Market LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

Carbon Markets

  • Two REDD projects on the ground: involvement of private sector developers as well as NGOs, government and the community

Clean Development Mechanism

  • January 2006: 1st CDM project approved

  • May 2011: 4 other CDM projects registered

Innovative financing mechanism which is increasing, but still new and long methodology development, lack of knowledge, etc.

Need to strengthen country ownership by government of local organizations


Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM


LAO PDR LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

Plans and Strategies:

Capacity implementation of adaptation and mitigation actions

Nov 2008 - Oct 2011: Second National Communication on Climate Change

National Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) to be developed

CC awareness, mainstreaming & capacity building, strengthening policies & institutions

2009-2020: National Strategy and its Action Plan on Climate Change (NSCC)


The Environmental Protection Fund (EPF) ( LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAMGoL 2005): autonomous organization (WB, ADB) strengthen environmental protection, sustainable NRM, biodiversity conservation and community development

The Forestry and Forest Resource Development Fund (FRDF) (MAF 2005): management of Protected Forest Areas and National Biodiversity Conservation Forests

The Poverty Reduction Fund (PRF) (2006): financially autonomous organization ( WB, SDC). Finance small-scale infrastructure and services to strengthen local capacity

LAO PDR

3 major National State Funds related to NRM:


The Agro-Biodiversity Initiative (TABI) ( LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAMGoL, SDC 2009-2011)

  • Programme-based approach projects in agriculture, conservation and poverty reduction

LAO PDR

Diverse financing:

The Asian Development Fund (ADF) (2010-2017)

  • projects to improve agricultural productivity (sustainable use of NR) and build the capacity of Government

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) (2010-2013)

  • Capacity Enhancement for Coping with Climate Change

Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF)

  • Improving the Resilience of the Agriculture Sector in Lao PDR to Climate Change Impacts (2010-2014)

USAID, GIZ, UNEP

  • Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies


UN REDD in LAO PDR LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

Forestry Strategy 2020 and the National Action Plan and Strategy on GHG Emission Mitigation: long-term target of increasing national forest cover from currently ca. 40 to 70%.

3 REDD+ projects are currently active in the country


Voluntary Market LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

  • Information sharing increase between the GoL and the private sector to develop forest carbon projects

  • Government supports the creation of comprehensive legal framework

Carbon Markets

  • One project registered, 4 projects approved, 3 projects at validation stage, 7 projects at preparation stage

Low funding in CC issues

Need to strengthen institutional capacity, coordination and cooperation within the different sectors


Thailand LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM


Thailand LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

Plans and Strategies:

Master Plan on Climate Change (2010-2019) participation of all sectors (public and private)

Nov 2000: 1st National Communication

Feb 2011: 2nd National Communication

11th National Economic and Social Development Plan (2012-2016): low carbon economy

Support international cooperation to achieve sustainable development

Adapt to CC impacts and promote GHG mitigation activities


The UNEP / GEF’s Special Grant LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAMProgramme (SGP)

The Clean Technology Fund (CTF) Investment Plan (Jun 2011- Dec 2016)

World Bank grant

The Global Environment Facility (GEF) Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF)

  • locally-based climate risk reduction activities, embedded in the national disaster management

  • Direct and indirect investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency.

  • Natural Resources Management, GHG reductions

  • To analyze and design GHG trading programs

Thailand

Diverse financing:


The GEF Trust Fund (Jun 2011-Jun 2015) LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

Small Grants Programme (SGP)

The Asian Development Bank (ADB), SGP for adaptation

  • Strengthen national and local capacity for mainstreaming biodiversity

  • is financing Climate Risk Management Assessment forAgriculture in Thailand

  • for Operations to Promote Tropical Forests: small-scale community forest management

Thailand

Diverse financing:


UN REDD in Thailand LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

Proposal of a voluntary fund for payments towards supporting REDD.

Thailand is willing to develop a REDD national strategy and adopt a comprehensive REDD Readiness Plan (R-PP) by August 2012

Estimated costs of REDD interventions: US$ 13.74 million


Voluntary Market LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

  • The Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization (TGO, 2008) is actively working to develop a voluntary carbon market

  • The TGO promote also the CDM

  • 46 registered CDM projects and 131 projects approved

Carbon Market


Vietnam LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM


Vietnam LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

Plans and Strategies:

assess CC impacts, low-carbon economy

Action Plan Framework for Adaptation to CC in the Agriculture & Rural Development Sector (2008-2020)

National Strategy for Disaster Prevention, Response and Mitigation 2020 (adopted in 2008)


ADB, and the “ LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAMAgenceFrançaise de Développement”

The Clean Technology Fund (CTF) Investment Plan (2010- 2013)

The governments of Vietnam, Finland and the Netherlands (grants), the WB (credit)

ADB’s Trust Fund for Forests (2006-2014)

  • enhance rural livelihood opportunities, strengthening capacity of water-related service providers

  • sustainable forest management; and ADB Small Grant for Adaptation Project

  • US$ 3.195 billion (government, MDB, carbon finance and private sector)

  • 6-years project conservation of biodiversity

Vietnam

Diverse financing:


United States Agency for International Development (USAID) LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

GEF’s SCCF (2010-2014) and GEF Trust Fund

  • Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies (biodiversity conservation). 2010-2014. US$ 34,000,000

Vietnam

  • climate-resilient development planning and biodiversity

Diverse financing:


The Vietnam Environmental Protection Fund (VEPF) LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

The Vietnam Conservation Fund (VCF) funded by GEF, EC

The Trust Fund for Forests, and Forest Protection and Development Fund (FPDF)

Vietnam

3 major National Trust Funds


UN REDD in Vietnam LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

REDD+ activities outlined in the Readiness Preparation Plan. 2010-2013. US$ 3,619,000

Potential revenues from REDD+: about US$ 80-100 million per year

Challenges

  • inconsistency in forest definition,

  • land use classification ,

  • insufficient capacity for MRV,

  • lack of coordination for data discrepancy and sharing, and insufficient financing support

JICA, EU and the Finland-FAO Forest Partnership are assisting Vietnam to fully utilize its REDD+ potential


Voluntary Market LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

  • Increasing number of CDM projects: 34 CDM projects registered

  • Vietnam ranks 11th globally in registered CDM project quantity and 8th in issued CERs amount

Carbon Market

  • Private sector increasing interest in developing forest carbon projects

Numerous CC financing in Vietnam

Need to address the legal issues related to land tenure, speed up the REDD+ implementation process, and take full ownership of the multiple CC related initiatives in the country.


Thanks! LAO PDR, THAILAND, AND VIETNAM

Patricia Gorin

Climate Change and Environment Officer

FAO Rome, Investment Centre (TCID)

[email protected]


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