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Chapter 6. The Periodic Table and Periodic Law. 6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table. 1. Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) Compiled a list of all known elements 23 know elements at that time. 6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table. 2. John Newlands (1837 – 1898)

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chapter 6

Chapter 6

The Periodic Table and

Periodic Law

6 1 development of the modern periodic table
6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table
  • 1. Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794)
    • Compiled a list of all known elements
    • 23 know elements at that time
6 1 development of the modern periodic table1
6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table
  • 2. John Newlands (1837 – 1898)
    • Law of Octaves = every 8th element repeats a common set of properties
    • Not widely accepted due to missing elements and his use of musical terminology
6 1 development of the modern periodic table2
6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table
  • 3. Dimitri Mendeleev (1834 – 1907)
    • 1869 he published 1st periodic table by atomic mass and chemical properties
    • Predicted the properties of missing elements: scandium, gallium, and germanium
6 1 development of the modern periodic table3
6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table
  • 4. Henry Moseley (1887 – 1915)
    • 1913 equated number of protons with atomic number
    • Reordered the P.T. by atomic # fising some of the elements that didn’t fit their spots based on properties
6 1 development of the modern periodic table4
6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table
  • 5. periodic law:
    • The repeating pattern of chemical and physical properties when elements are arranged by atomic number
6 1 development of the modern periodic table5
6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table
  • 6. organization
    • Groups/families:
      • Columns of/on the P.T.
6 1 development of the modern periodic table7
6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table
  • Main group/representative elements:
    • Elements in groups where the number is followed with an “A”
    • Have a wide range of chemical and physical properties
table
TABLE:
  • Metals:
    • Location = to the left of the staircase except H
    • Properties = shiny, mostly solids, good conductors of heat/electricity, and malleable/ductile
    • Examples = copper (Cu), gold (Au), iron (Fe)
table1
TABLE:
  • Nonmetals:
    • Location = to the right of the staircase plus H
    • Properties = brittle (when solid), mostly gases, poor conductors
    • Examples =helium (He), oxygen (O), Iodine (I)
table2
TABLE:
  • Semimetals/metalloids:
    • Location = along the staircase except Al
    • Properties = properties of both metals and nonmetals
    • Examples = B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At
table3
TABLE:
  • Alkali metals:
    • Location = 1A (except H)
    • Valence e- and charge = 1 ve- and +1
    • Properties = highly reactive; soft, gray solids
table4
TABLE:
  • Alkaline Earth metals:
    • Location = 2A
    • Valence e- and charge = 2 ve- and +2
    • Properties = very reactive; soft, gray solids
table5
TABLE:
  • Transition metals:
    • Location = “B” groups
    • Valence e- and charge = 2 ve- and +1,+2,+3 or +4
    • Properties = shiny, good conductors, can be polyvalent (means can have more than 1 possible charge)
table6
TABLE:
  • Halogens:
    • Location = 7A
    • Valence e- and charge = 7 ve- and -1
    • Properties = highly reactive; can be solids, liquids or gases
table7
TABLE:
  • Noble Gases:
    • Location = 8A
    • Valence e- and charge = 8 ve- and no ion formation
    • Properties = extremely unreactive, gases, full outer energy level
table8
TABLE:
  • Rare Earth metals:
    • Location = Bottom double rows
    • Valence e- and charge = 2 ve-
    • Properties = often used as phosphors (elements that emit light when struck by electrons)
    • Also know as the “Lanthanides” and “Actinides”
6 2 classification of the elements
6.2 Classification of the Elements
  • 1. Valence Electrons = electrons in the highest principle energy level
    • Within a period: elements have the same # of energy levels as the period # where they are found
    • Within a group: elements have the same # of ve-s as their group (representative elements) and all transition and rare earth elements have 2 ve-s
6 2 classification of the elements1
6.2 Classification of the Elements
  • 2. s, p, d, f blocks
    • s block: group 1A, 2A, hydrogen and helium
    • p block: groups 3A-8A but not He
    • d block: transition elements; all have 2 ve-s because d’s are 1 energy level behind
    • f block: rare earth elements; all have 2 ve-s because f’s are 2 energy levels behind
6 3 periodic trends
6.3 Periodic Trends
  • Periodicity:
    • The repeating nature of the properties of the elements creating common groups (periodic law)
6 3 periodic trends1
6.3 Periodic Trends
  • Atomic Radius
    • DEFINITION: relative size; distance from the center of the atom to the edge of the e- shell
    • PERIOD TREND:
    • GROUP TREND:
6 3 periodic trends2
6.3 Periodic Trends
  • Ionic Radius
    • DEFINITION: relative size; distance from the center of the ion to the edge of the e- shell
    • PERIOD TREND:
    • GROUP TREND:
6 3 periodic trends3
6.3 Periodic Trends
  • Ionization Energy
    • DEFINITION: the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom
    • PERIOD TREND:
    • GROUP TREND:
6 3 periodic trends4
6.3 Periodic Trends
  • Electronegativity
    • DEFINITION: the ability of an atom to attract electrons while in a chemical bond
    • PERIOD TREND:
    • GROUP TREND:
6 3 periodic trends5
6.3 Periodic Trends
  • Lower Left Large (atomic/ionic radius)
  • Lower Left Low (ionization E./electroneg.)
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