Chapter 6
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Chapter 6. The Periodic Table and Periodic Law. 6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table. 1. Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) Compiled a list of all known elements 23 know elements at that time. 6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table. 2. John Newlands (1837 – 1898)

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Chapter 6

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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

The Periodic Table and

Periodic Law


6 1 development of the modern periodic table

6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table

  • 1. Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794)

    • Compiled a list of all known elements

    • 23 know elements at that time


6 1 development of the modern periodic table1

6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table

  • 2. John Newlands (1837 – 1898)

    • Law of Octaves = every 8th element repeats a common set of properties

    • Not widely accepted due to missing elements and his use of musical terminology


6 1 development of the modern periodic table2

6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table

  • 3. Dimitri Mendeleev (1834 – 1907)

    • 1869 he published 1st periodic table by atomic mass and chemical properties

    • Predicted the properties of missing elements: scandium, gallium, and germanium


6 1 development of the modern periodic table3

6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table

  • 4. Henry Moseley (1887 – 1915)

    • 1913 equated number of protons with atomic number

    • Reordered the P.T. by atomic # fising some of the elements that didn’t fit their spots based on properties


6 1 development of the modern periodic table4

6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table

  • 5. periodic law:

    • The repeating pattern of chemical and physical properties when elements are arranged by atomic number


6 1 development of the modern periodic table5

6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table

  • 6. organization

    • Groups/families:

      • Columns of/on the P.T.


6 1 development of the modern periodic table6

6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table

  • Periods:

    • Rows of/on the P.T.


6 1 development of the modern periodic table7

6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table

  • Main group/representative elements:

    • Elements in groups where the number is followed with an “A”

    • Have a wide range of chemical and physical properties


Table

TABLE:

  • Metals:

    • Location = to the left of the staircase except H

    • Properties = shiny, mostly solids, good conductors of heat/electricity, and malleable/ductile

    • Examples = copper (Cu), gold (Au), iron (Fe)


Table1

TABLE:

  • Nonmetals:

    • Location = to the right of the staircase plus H

    • Properties = brittle (when solid), mostly gases, poor conductors

    • Examples =helium (He), oxygen (O), Iodine (I)


Table2

TABLE:

  • Semimetals/metalloids:

    • Location = along the staircase except Al

    • Properties = properties of both metals and nonmetals

    • Examples = B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At


Table3

TABLE:

  • Alkali metals:

    • Location = 1A (except H)

    • Valence e- and charge = 1 ve- and +1

    • Properties = highly reactive; soft, gray solids


Table4

TABLE:

  • Alkaline Earth metals:

    • Location = 2A

    • Valence e- and charge = 2 ve- and +2

    • Properties = very reactive; soft, gray solids


Table5

TABLE:

  • Transition metals:

    • Location = “B” groups

    • Valence e- and charge = 2 ve- and +1,+2,+3 or +4

    • Properties = shiny, good conductors, can be polyvalent (means can have more than 1 possible charge)


Table6

TABLE:

  • Halogens:

    • Location = 7A

    • Valence e- and charge = 7 ve- and -1

    • Properties = highly reactive; can be solids, liquids or gases


Table7

TABLE:

  • Noble Gases:

    • Location = 8A

    • Valence e- and charge = 8 ve- and no ion formation

    • Properties = extremely unreactive, gases, full outer energy level


Table8

TABLE:

  • Rare Earth metals:

    • Location = Bottom double rows

    • Valence e- and charge = 2 ve-

    • Properties = often used as phosphors (elements that emit light when struck by electrons)

    • Also know as the “Lanthanides” and “Actinides”


6 2 classification of the elements

6.2 Classification of the Elements

  • 1. Valence Electrons = electrons in the highest principle energy level

    • Within a period: elements have the same # of energy levels as the period # where they are found

    • Within a group: elements have the same # of ve-s as their group (representative elements) and all transition and rare earth elements have 2 ve-s


6 2 classification of the elements1

6.2 Classification of the Elements

  • 2. s, p, d, f blocks

    • s block: group 1A, 2A, hydrogen and helium

    • p block: groups 3A-8A but not He

    • d block: transition elements; all have 2 ve-s because d’s are 1 energy level behind

    • f block: rare earth elements; all have 2 ve-s because f’s are 2 energy levels behind


6 3 periodic trends

6.3 Periodic Trends

  • Periodicity:

    • The repeating nature of the properties of the elements creating common groups (periodic law)


6 3 periodic trends1

6.3 Periodic Trends

  • Atomic Radius

    • DEFINITION: relative size; distance from the center of the atom to the edge of the e- shell

    • PERIOD TREND:

    • GROUP TREND:


6 3 periodic trends2

6.3 Periodic Trends

  • Ionic Radius

    • DEFINITION: relative size; distance from the center of the ion to the edge of the e- shell

    • PERIOD TREND:

    • GROUP TREND:


6 3 periodic trends3

6.3 Periodic Trends

  • Ionization Energy

    • DEFINITION: the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom

    • PERIOD TREND:

    • GROUP TREND:


6 3 periodic trends4

6.3 Periodic Trends

  • Electronegativity

    • DEFINITION: the ability of an atom to attract electrons while in a chemical bond

    • PERIOD TREND:

    • GROUP TREND:


6 3 periodic trends5

6.3 Periodic Trends

  • Lower Left Large (atomic/ionic radius)

  • Lower Left Low (ionization E./electroneg.)


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