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Task-Based Language Teaching 任务型语言教学






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Task-Based Language Teaching 任务型语言教学. 南通大学外国语学院 吴 兴 东. Task-Based Language Teaching . 《 标准 》 中提出的“任务型”教学途径 参照“活动教学法”,理解“任务型”教学途径 “任务型”语言教学的基本思想和方法. 倡导“任务型”的教学途径 , 培养学生综合语言运用能力. 本 《 标准 》 以学生“做某事”的描述方式设定各级目标要求。教师应该避免单纯传授语言知识的教学方法,尽量采用“任务型”的教学途径。
Task-Based Language Teaching 任务型语言教学

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Slide 1

Task-Based Language Teaching 任务型语言教学

南通大学外国语学院

吴 兴 东

Slide 2

Task-Based Language Teaching

  • 《标准》中提出的“任务型”教学途径

  • 参照“活动教学法”,理解“任务型”教学途径

  • “任务型”语言教学的基本思想和方法

Slide 3

倡导“任务型”的教学途径,培养学生综合语言运用能力

  • 本《标准》以学生“做某事”的描述方式设定各级目标要求。教师应该避免单纯传授语言知识的教学方法,尽量采用“任务型”的教学途径。

  • 教师应依据课程的总体目标并结合教学内容,创造性地设计贴近学生实际的教学活动,吸引和组织他们积极参与。学生通过思考、调查、讨论、交流和合作等方式,学习和使用英语,教师应注意以下几点:

    1、活动的目的要明确并具有可操作性;

  • 2、要以学生的生活经验和兴趣为出发点,内容和方式要尽量真实;

  • 3、活动要有助于学生英语知识的学习、语言技能的发展和语言实际运用能力的提高;

  • 4、活动应积极促进英语学科和其他学科间的相互渗透和联系,使学生的思维和想象力、审美情趣和艺术感受、协作和创新精神等综合素质得到发展;

  • 5、活动要能够促使学生获取、处理和使用信息并用英语与他人交流,发展他们用英语解决实际问题的能力;

  • 6、活动不仅限于课堂教学,也要延伸到课堂之外学生的学习和生活之中。

Slide 4

5.树立符合新课程要求的教学观念,优化教育教学方式

课堂教学应改变以教师为中心、单纯 传授书本知识的教学模式。教师应帮助学生发展探究知识的能力、获取知识的能力和自主学习的能力。

教师在教学中要注意发展学生的批判能力和创新精神。课堂教学活动的设计应有利于发挥学生的创造力和想象力。在教学中应增加开放性的任务型活动和探究性的学习内容,使学生有机会表达自己的看法与观点。教师要鼓励学生学会合作,发展与人沟通的能力。教师在设计教学任务时,可以根据不同学生的情况设计不同的任务,使所有的学生都能进步。

Slide 5

  • 英语教学中的任务指有利于学生用英语做事的各种语言实践活动。任务的设计一般应遵循下列原则(1)任务应有明确的目的;(2)任务应具有真实意义,即接近现实生活中的各种活动;(3)任务应涉及信息的接受、处理和传递等过程;(4)学生应在完成任务的过程中使用英语;(5)学生通过做事情完成任务;(6)完成任务后一般应有一个具体的成果。

Slide 6

Types of syllabus

A structural (or formal)syllabus

A notional/functional syllabus

A situational syllabus

A skill-based syllabus

A task-based syllabus

A content-based syllabus

Slide 7

The Activities-based Approach to Teaching English As a Foreign Language

1. Definition

2. Background

3.Theoretical Assumptions

4.Goals and Objectives

5.Areas of Study

6.Method

7.Assessment and Reporting

8.Resources

Slide 8

Definition of An activity

  • An activity involves the purposeful and active use of language where learners are required to call upon their language resource to meet the needs of a given communicative situation.

Slide 9

  • Tasks are always activities where the target language is used by the learner for a communicative purpose (goal) in order to achieve an outcome.

    (Willis 1996)

Slide 10

Definition of the Activities-based Approach

活动教学法是以活动体现教学目标、教学内容、教学手段和教学考核的语言教学方法。活动涉及有目的的积极的语言使用,学员在活动中需要利用语言材料满足特定交际情景需求。换句话说,学员在活动中以听、说、读、写等方式使用目的语达到某一目的。他们对所要表达的意思和所需用的语言没有预先的准备,必须正确处理语言加工过程和语言技能,确保所用语言在社会文化方面保持得体。活动教学法是以学生为主的语言教学方法,是交际法语言教学的分支和新发展。

Slide 11

Background

  • Social needs

  • Reconciliation between Product-oriented Communicative Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

  • Reconciliation between three Educational Value Systems: Classical humanism, Reconstructionism, Progressivism

  • Influence of Publications

  • Practical Experience of Asian Countries

Slide 12

Reconciliation between Product-oriented Communicative Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

产品定向交际法 过程定向交际法

1、重视语言交际行为, 强调程序处理能力。

2、注重社会性语言使用; 着眼于个性发展。

3 预先确定教学目标; 随时决定教学目标。

4、强调学习结果 强调学习过程。

5、以语言功能项目为纲编排教材 教材服从于活动,

6、排演预定社会活动, 建立一套程序原则

7、教师是总裁, 学生是主体,

8、标准参照考核方法, 学生的学习过程。

Slide 13

Theoretical Assumptions

  • Theory of Language

  • Theory of Education

  • Theory of Language Learning

  • Eight Principles

Slide 14

Theory of Language

1. Language is a system for the expression of meaning.

2.The primary function of language is fo4r interaction and communication.

3. The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative users.

4. The primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse. (Richards and Rodgers, 1986: 71)

Slide 15

Theory of Language

语言是表达意思的系统;

语言的基本功能是交际;

语言结构反映它的功能性和交际性用途;

语言不仅仅由基础语法结构单位组成,还有在语篇中体现出来的基本的功能和交际意义单位组成。

Slide 16

Theory of Education

The Reconstructionist concern for broad social needs and interests. Predetermined common objectives .

The progressivist concern for the personal needs and interests of the individual. learner-controlled objectives .

Predetermined common objectives in the earlier stages and learner-controlled objectives in the later stage of a course

Slide 17

Theory of Education

活动教学法阶段侧重某种语言知识和技能,以练习辅佐交际活动,继承了古典人文主义有意识学习语言形式的传统。

语言教学前期根据重建主义的大社会需求注重共同学习目标,后期更多地照顾学员个人的志向、兴趣和学习风格,给他们提供择教学目标、教学内容、教学活动和教学考核方法的机会,体现了渐进主义的宗旨。

以交际活动为纽带实现重建主义目标定向和漸进主义过程定向的统一。

综合三种教学价值体系所长,活动教学法遵循以下八条教学原则:

Slide 18

Theory of Language Learning建构主义理论

  • 学习者: 不是被动的旁观者,而是主动的参与者.

  • 教学者:不是水桶,而是一个支架.

  • 知识:不是客观的东西,而是人在实践活动中创造的暂定性的解释和假设.

  • 学习: 不是简单复制和吸入信息,而是主动解释信息和建构知识.

  • 教学: 不是传递,而是创造理想的环境促使学生自主建构知识.

Slide 19

Theory of Language Learning

  • Communication principle: Activities that involve real communication promote learning.

  • Task principle: Activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote learning.

  • Meaningfulness principle: Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process.

Slide 20

Theory of Language Learning

  • 活动教学法的提倡者认为涉及真实交际的活动能促进学习;

  • 使用语言完成有意义的任务的活动能促进学习;

  • 使用对学习者具有实际意义的语言能促进学习。

Slide 21

Eight Principles

  • Learners learn a language best when

  • 1. They are treated as individuals with their own needs and interests.

  • 2. They are provided with opportunities to participate in communicative use of the target language in a wide range of activities.

  • 3. They are exposed to communicative data which is comprehensible and relevant to their own needs and interests.

  • 4. They focus deliberately on various language forms, skills, and strategies in order to support the process of language acquisition.

  • 5. They are exposed to sociocultural data and direct experience of the culture(s) embedded within the target language.

  • 6. They become aware of the role and nature of language and of culture.

  • 7. They are provided with appropriate feedback about their progress.

  • 8. They are provided with opportunities to manage their own learning.

Slide 22

Eight Principles

1、学生为中心原则

当学生被认为具有个人需求和兴趣时,语言学习效率最高。

2、积极参与原则

当学生被提供参与大量活动进行语言交际时,语言学习效率最高。

3、沉浸原则

当学生大量接触与他们自己的需求和兴趣密切相关并可理解的交际材料时,语言学习的效率最高。

4、重点突出原则

当学生为促进语言习得过程而有重点地突出某些语言形式,技能和策略时,语言学习效率最高。

5、社会文化原则

当学生大量接触目的语传递的社会文化信息时,语言学习效率最高。

6、语言文化意识原则

当学生充分意识语言的性质和作用以及语言的文化内涵时,语言学习效率最高。

7、及时反馈原则

当学生的进步得到应得的反馈时,语言学习效率最高。

8、责任原则

当学生有机会自己管理自己的学习时,语言学习效率最高。

Slide 23

Goals and Objectives

Interrelated Broad Goals

Specific Goals of Communication

General Objectives(activity cluster)

Specific Objectives

Slide 24

Learning

how-to-learn

Socio-cultural

Communication

General knowledge

Language and cultural awareness

Interrelated Broad Goals

Slide 25

Specific Goals of Communication

Establish and maintain relationships an discuss topics of interest e. g. through the exchange of information, ideas, opinions, attitudes, feelings, experiences, and plans

  • Participate in social interaction related to solving a problem, making arrangements, making decisions with others, and transacting to obtain goods, services, and public information

  • Obtain information by searching for specific details in a spoken or written text, and then process and use the information obtained.

    Obtain information by listening to or reading a spoken or written text as a whole, and then process and use the information obtained.

  • Give information in spoken or written form e. g. give a talk, write an essay or a set of instructions

  • Listen to, read or view, and respond personally to a stimulus e. g. a story, play, film, song, poem, picture.

  • Be involved in spoken or written personal expression e.g. create a story, dramatic episode, poem, play.

Slide 26

Specific Goals of Communication

1、使学生能使用目的语建立和维持人际关系,

讨论有 趣的话题。

2、使学生能使用目的语参加社会交际。

3、使学生能使用目的语的口语或书面语获得

a、具体 信息;b、总体信息。

4、使学生能以目的语的口语或书面语形式提供信息。

5、使学生能使用目的语听、读、看各种文艺作品,

并作出个人反应。

6、使学生能使用目的语进行口头和书面的文艺创作。

Slide 27

Language Use

INTERPERSONAL USE

Modes:CONVERSATION-combination of listening and speaking skills

CORRESPONDENCE-combination of reading and writing skills

Activity-type

2

Participate in social

interaction related to solving

a problem,making

arrangements,making

decisions with others,and

transacting to obtain goods,

services,and public

information.

Activity-type

1

Establish and maintain

relationships and discuss

topics of interest e.g

through the exchange of

information ,ideas,opinions,

attitudes,feelings,

experiences,and plans.

3a

Obtain information

by searching for

specific details

Mode:Combination of listening

speaking reading and writing skills

Activities

(categorised into activity-types based on the communication goals).

Activity-type

6

Be involved in spoken or

written personal expression

e.g.create a story,dramatic

episode,poem,play

3b

Obtain information by listening to or reading a spoken or written text

Mode:Speaking or writing skills

Activity-type

5

Listen to,read or view,and

respond personally to a

stimulus e.g.a story,play,

film,song,poem,picture.

Activity-type

4

Give information in spoken

or written form e.g.give a

talk,write an essay or a set

of instructions.

'AESTHETIC'USE

INFORMATIONAL USE

Mode:Speaking or writing skills

Mode:Combination of listening,

speaking,reading,and writing skills

Slide 28

Learning

how-to-learn

Socio-

cultural

1

2

6

Activities

Language

and cultural

awareness

5

4

General

knowledge

Activity Types

Goals

Activity-types

3a

3b

Communication

Objectives

Activities

Supporting

exercises

Activities are categorised into activity-types

according to the communication goal they realise.

Slide 29

General Objectives(activity clusters)

  • In relation to communication goal(1) learners will be able to use the target language to:

  • Introduce themselves and others

  • Invite and thank others

  • Say how they feel

  • Describe their routine and that of friends and other people

  • Express likes and preferences

Slide 30

Topic: SHOPPING

General objects:

1.Students will be able to make a shopping plan within a budget.

2.Students will be able to make a market investigation.

3. Students will be able to participate in a simulated shopping.

1

Slide 31

Topic : Personal Information

  • General objectives:

  • students will be able to introduce themselves to other people.

  • Students will be able to talk about family photos.

  • Students will be able to understand and write personal resume.

  • Students will be able to look for friends with written information

Slide 32

Topic: Health

  • General objectives:

  • Students will be able to

  • learn to do an exercise.

    learn to do a first-aid.

    see a doctor and have a talk with doctor.

    fill in a health form.

Slide 33

Topic: Interests and Hobbies

  • General objectives:

  • Students will be able to know how to express likes and dislikes.

  • Students will be able to describe a most interesting activity.

  • Students will be able to make an interview on their hobbies and interests.

  • Students will be able to participate in a debate on video game .

Slide 34

Specific Objectives

Learners will be able to :

generate questions

use the future tense

use vocabulary related to the activity

Slide 35

Areas of Study

--------------------------------------------------------------------- Areas of Study

1. Discourse 2. Activities, Settings 3. Linguistic

Forms and Roles Elements

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------

Work

requirements

  ------------------

Slide 36

Activities and Roles

角色 活动

剧作家 写

剧中人物 读

演员 扮演

导演 剧本 导演

布景员 换背景

观众 看戏

剧评家 评论

Slide 37

Activities and Discourse

语言活动是靠话语进行的,话语是通过活动体现的。但是,活动和话语形式并不一一对应,一种语言交际活动可用多种话语形式进行。例如:发出邀请的语言活动可以通过书信、电话、电报或卡片话语形式进行。反之,一种话语形式也可用来进行多种活动,例如:一封信可以用来邀请客人,进行商业询盘,表达同情,作为文学课文等。常用的话语形式如下:

记叙文、广告、轶事、通知、论文、报刊文摘、自传、动画、目录、挂图、戏剧、合同、会话、文艺评论、辩论、日记、讨论、新闻、社论、散文、童话、表格、旅游指南、索要、食谱、采访记录、标签、演讲、传说、地图、菜单、电报、小说、命令、计划、诗歌、宣言、节目单、谚语、问卷、收据、推荐信、谜语、履历表、台词、小故事、招牌、标语、歌曲、总结、教科书、时间表。

Slide 38

Activities and Linguistic Elements

在活动教学法中,教学内容是按照活动选择和组织的,而不是按照语法项目或词汇的难易程度安排的。因此,根据活动需要选择语言项目,而不是按照传统教学法的惯例,根据语言项目组织活动。语言因素根据它们在使用中的重要性和所选话语形式或活动组合的相关性进行选择和组织。对于信息加工至关重要的语言因素先行练习。一些复杂的语言形式有可能相对提前教学。但在教学中可以把这些表达方式作为公式或常规来记,而它们的结构分析可相对推迟。语言因素练习是为顺利进行交际活动服务的。因此,紧接在交际活动之前,交际活动之中,或紧接在交际活动之后的练习效率最高。

Slide 39

Activities and Exercises

Real communication activities

Practice communication activities

Shaping exercises

Focusing exercises

Slide 40

The Grading of Activities

  • 预测性:语境线索多,语言形式预测性强,活动简单。反之,活动复杂。

  • 静态或动态描述:静态描述比动态描述简单。

  • 相关经历:所用语言或活动本身与学员的经历相关性强的活动简单。

  • 社会文化特殊性:活动的社会文化特殊性越强活动越复杂。

  • 外援程度:语言交流对方在内容、速度等方面的体贴、谅解、照顾和帮 助越多,活动越简单。

  • 语言加工难度:语言理解所需认知或心理语言加工过程越简单,活动也越见单。

  • 认知水平要求:完成活动所需的思维水平越高,活动越难。

  • 参与者多少:参与者少的活动简单。

  • 步骤多少:所需步骤少的活动简单。

  • 学员相关因素:学员的信心足、动机强、学习经验丰富、学习速度快、语言技能熟练、文化知识和语言知识广博,活动就显得容易。

Slide 41

The Grouping of Activities

活动可以按照主题-话题、语言技能、文体、研究项目、课文或其它学科话题组织起来。长期教学内容可按多种方式组织,短期教学内容以一种方式组织为好。最常用的是主题-话题方式。交际活动组织在话题(topic)和次话题(sub-topic)之下。话题隶属于主题(theme)。假设“人际关系”是主题,那么“自己”、“家庭”、“朋友”是话题,而“自己的兴趣爱好”、“住房”、“交朋友”则分别为上述三话题的次话题。

教师应根据学生的水平和兴趣选择话题。由于语言学习过程是循环式和螺旋式进行的过程,因此,学生在语言学习经历中可能重复接触同一话题。教师可以通过控制同一话题下的活动的难度和复杂性,满足学生在不同时期的语言学习需求。

Slide 42

Unit Development

Target group

Organizational focus Time allocation

Specific goals

Communication Sociocultural LHTL LACA Gen. Knowledge

General objectives

Activities and exercises Resources

Assessment

Specific objectives Method

Language Skill Sociocultural General

Development development knowledge

Slide 43

Method

  • The teacher/learner partnership

  • Eight principles

  • Catering for Learner Differences

  • The process approach to writing

  • Worksheets

  • Peer tutoring

  • Team teaching

  • Learning contracts

  • Use of visitor from the target language community

  • Self-access centres

  • Learning centre approach

  • Individual progress chart

Slide 44

Teaching Procedures

LC 模式:LC代表学习中心(learning center)。每单元包括一系列的个人、对子和小组活动。一个单元内的各节课形成连贯的系列,但程式相同。所需教学资源的名细以及活动和练习的说明都展现在教室的学习中心。

第一课开始时,教师介绍并和学生一起完成两到三个预先计划好的活动。然后,学员选择其中一个活动在余下的时间内完成。

在后续的每节课开头,教师组织学员重温已介绍的活动,突出重点和难点,再向全班介绍一到三个活动以及所需的语言、知识、技能和学习策略。接着学员自己完成已介绍过的一个或几个活动。

所有活动和练习的名细列表张贴在学习中心,表中说明活动和练习的类型(个人的,对子或小组的),所需的资料。活动或练习中所需的词汇和短语应另有说明。

学员可以自己决定活动的顺序,但必须在规定时间内完成一个单元的活动。学员每人有进步卡,记载自己的活动完成情况。教师备有检查表,记录全班学员的完成情况,并随时向学员提醒规定的进度。由于学员都忙于参与活动,教师有足够的时间进行巡回辅导。

Slide 45

Lesson One(Chain One)Making a shopping plan

  • Pre-task

  • Step1: The teacher sets the scene for the task.

  • Step2:The teacher helps students to acquire the necessary vocabulary items for the task.

  • Step3:The teacher explains the task and demonstrate the task procedure.

  • While-task

  • Step4: Students discuss and decide on food to buy within the budget.

  • Step5: Students prepare work sheets for reporting

  • Post-task

  • Step5:Students share the products by reporting with the class.

2

Slide 46

PPP Approach

  • Present language functions

  • Practise functional expressions

  • Produce functional expressions

Slide 47

Deep-end Approach

communicate as far present language items drills

as possible with all necessary for effective necessary

available resource communication

Slide 48

Assessment and Reporting

  • Purpose: assessing communicative competence

  • Holistic approach

  • Contents: communicative activities

    work requirements

    common assessment tasks

    Reporting: grading and description

Slide 49

Communicative competence

  • The ability of producing correct, clear, acceptable, and authentic discourse of a target language.

Slide 50

  • The mouse the cat the dog the man the woman married beat chased ate had a white tail.

Slide 51

  • You were applying to a university and needed a letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said:

  • A. “I’d appreciate it if you could write a letter of recommendation for me.” (正确,得2分)

  • B. “I want to ask you to write a letter of recommendation for me.” (语法正确,不够得体,得1分)

  • C.“I wonder if you could wrete a letter recommendation me.”(较得体,但语言有误,得1分)。

  • D. “Hey, give me recommendation letter.”(语言有误,内容不得体,不得分)。

Slide 52

英语课程评价的实施

  • 评价与教学的协调统一

  • 以形成性考核为主

  • 学员参与考核

  • 注重综合运用语言的能力

  • 成绩记录方式要体现以人为本

Slide 53

评价与教学的协调统一

  • Assessment is not something that is external to the learning process and added on at the end of a learning sequence. It should always be integrated in the planned curriculum.

  • Teaching activities

  • work requirements

  • Common assessment tasks

Slide 54

以形成性考核为主

  • 形成性考核着重考核如下三个方面:

    1)学生是否正在认真学习所教内容并充分发挥自己的潜力利用所教的语言知识、技能和策略参与交际活动。2)学习过程,包括学生对教学活动的反应和对现阶段学习的态度。3)学生自修作业的结果。

Slide 55

Basictypes of Authentic( formative) Assessment in Language learning

  • Folios of work

  • End-of- unit assessment

  • Peer assessment

  • Self assessment

  • Progress cards and checklists

  • Observation checksheets relating to particular activities, skills, strategies.etc

  • Informal interaction

  • Reading logs

  • Records of conferencing

  • Classwork and homework

Slide 56

  • Spot test

  • End of unit tests

  • Oral interview

  • Story or text retelling

  • Writing samples (with a variety of topics and registers)

  • Projects and exhibitions (presenting collaborative effort)

  • Experiments and demonstrations (with oral or written reports)

  • Constructed-response items (to open-ended questions)

Slide 57

学习档案是形成性评价的首要内容

  • 学习档案可包含以下内容:

  • 入学考试情况记录

  • 学生学习行为记录,如课上的朗读课文、朗诵诗歌、课文分角色演出等

  • 书写作业的样本,通常由学生自己决定收入自认为最满意的作品

  • 教师与家长对学生学习情况的观察评语

  • 平时测验,由教师评分或在教师指导下同学评分或自己评分

  • 对其学习态度、方法与效果的自我与同学评价意见

Slide 58

Observation

  • 观察。对学生表现的观察结果是教学改革的重要依据之一。为提高观察的效率需要预先设置观察项目和衡量的等第。下表(进步记录)是为较正式的观察设计的。

Slide 59

Informal interaction

  • 非正式交流。通过与学生的非正式交流教师能知道学生的需求、所需要的帮助、感兴趣的内容以及对某种活动的态度和进行活动的情况。下表是为非正式交流设计的问卷。

Slide 60

学员参与考核

  • 考核的主要目的之一是向学生提供有关信息,以便他们在学习内容、速度和方法等方面作出正确的决定。因此,有必要鼓励学生参与考核过程,和教师共同负责考核教学情况。

  • 学生应在多方面对自己的学习负责。就考核而言,他们应了解考核的目的和考核活动的性质。他们应和教师一起确定完成活动的标准和表现优劣的等第,一起选择考核的步骤。

Slide 61

  • 学生个人进步卡

  • 学生自评表

  • 学习档案

  • 同学互测

  • 自测材料 (学员在听、读、看的基础上 回答问题,填写 信息表等)

Slide 62

注重综合运用语言的能力

  • 评价活动的设计原则:

  • 1)活动尽可能真实

  • 2)活动多样化

  • 3)活动建立在学员的需求和兴趣之上

  • 4)让学生了解活动的背景、角色和参与者之 间的关系

  • 5)活动中所需的语言应具有适当的不可测性。

  • 6)让学员在活动中尽可能多地使用目的语解决问题

  • 7)引发学员最佳表现

Slide 63

活动中表现的评价

  • 活动中表现评价指标

  • 活动中表现评价总标准

  • 活动中表现评价具体标准

  • 活动中表现的等第划分

Slide 64

成绩记录方式要体现以人为本

  • 活动表现记录

  • 维多利亚学生英语成绩单,

Slide 65

Resources

  • Definition

  • Resources Provide Communicative data

  • Resources which promote communicative use of the target language

Slide 66

Definition

The term ‘resources’ is used to describe any published or unpublished material in any medium use for the purpose of language teaching and learning. The term refers to a variety of text-types which may or may not have been prepared specifically for the purposes of teaching and learning, and includes materials such as pictures, books, maps , audio and video cassettes, films, slides, etc., as well as hardware such as audiovisual equipment and computers,. The term also includes human resources and resources which are outside as well as inside the classroom. The teacher and the learners are themselves important resources, as are people and places in the target language community.

Slide 67

Resources Provide Communicative data

  • lTeacher talk

  • lOther classroom talk

  • lRecordings of talk (audio and video)

  • lSpecially prepared written information

  • lOther classroom written information

  • lRealia and written texts from outside the classroom

Slide 68

Communicative use of the target language is best promoted by resources which:

  • l Generate activities which serve a genuine communicative purpose and have personal relevance or are of real interest to the learner

  • l Provide a context in which learners will want and need to engage in meaningful use of the target language

  • l Generate activities which involve authentic conditions, e.g. allow the learner to employ communicative strategies

Slide 69

Resources which promote communicative use of the target language

  • Problem solving activities

  • Information /opinion/affective gap activities

  • Personalised activities

  • Games

  • Use of picture

  • Activities involving processing information from various sources

  • Literature-based activities

  • Drama activities

  • Writing activities

  • Focus and shaping exercises

  • Integration of activities

Slide 70

Examples

  • Problem solving activities:

  • “If it takes 20 minutes to go from A to B and 30 minutes to go from B to C, and if it takes 5 minutes to travel 2 kilometers, how many kilometers are there between A and C?”

Slide 71

The distraught Babysitter

  • Role A : You are a teenager. You have been offered your first babysitting job.You really want the money. Your mother has to give her permission.

  • Role B: Your teenager has been offered a babysitting job. It will be his or her first job (providing you give your permission). Will you do so? There is an important test.coming up at school tomorrow.

Slide 72

Criteria for selecting resource for whole class

  • Resources for whole class learning should allow for individual differences in learners’ ability, and for all learners to be actively involved in the learning process.

Slide 73

Criteria for selecting resource for groups

  • Does the resource provide clear directions to enable learners to complete the task? Can the direction be referred to if forgotten?

  • Are the group members assigned specific tasks? Are the roles of individuals in the group clearly specified?

  • Is there a challenge in the task for all learners?

  • Does the resource provide a purposeful context for problem solving,exchanging information, and other cognitive processes involved?

Slide 74

  • Is there an information, opinion, or affective gap to promote communicative use of the target language?

  • Is there a result required form the group? Is a conclusion to be presented for the teacher and the rest of the class?

  • Is there provision for learners to evaluate the task?

Slide 75

Criteria for selecting resource for individual work

  • Can the resource be organized in a self-access centre, and be graded and marked in an appropriate way for easy access buy individual learners?

  • Does the resource assist learners to assess their own needs, to plan their own learning program, and to assess their own progress?

Slide 76

  • Does the resource have a self-correction facility(e.g. an answer key)

  • Are the objectives of each activity or unit of work clear to learners?

  • Are there clear instructions for the activities that learners are required to perform?

Slide 77

Criteria for selecting textbooks

  • Is the textbok appropriate for :

  • -- the target group, considering the Stage at which they will be working, their language development, interests, etc?

  • -- the purpose for which it is to be used?

  • --the needs and preferences of the teacher?

  • -- other practicalities and general considerations?

  • Does the textbook allow for meaningful, purposeful, and individual use of the target language?

Slide 78

  • Does the textbook cover the five goals?What are the gaps? What imbalance will need to be redressed for the particular learning group?

  • Does it contain a combination of activities an exercises?

  • Do the activities involve combinations of reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills for language use (I.e. does it have a global approach to language learning)?

Slide 79

  • What will the learners think of the textbook? Will they find it easy to follow, helpful, boring? Does it cover what they want to learn?

  • Does the textbook allow for individualization?

  • Does it present information in such a way that learners are able to work independently with it?

Slide 80

  • Does the textbook deal with the learning needs of the particular learning group? What will be needed to supplement the textbook in this regard? Is supplementation feasible?

  • Does the textbook allow for flexible use?

Slide 81

评价教材的设计

  • Aural and/or visual clues and other contextual props, to help learners predict meaning and make sense of the text.

  • The text should not be too long.

Slide 82

Criteria for selecting, adapting and creating resources

  • the nature of the learner group

  • the purposes for which the resource is to be used

  • teacher needs and preferences

  • Practicalities and general considerations

Slide 83

Learning group

Yes No

Slide 84

Purpose of the resource

  • Yes No

Slide 85

Teacher needs and preferences

  • Yes No

Slide 86

Practicalities and general considerations

Slide 87

Materials design

  • In reality, the teacher and textbook writer will probably juggle topic, text and task elements in creating materials, beginning, perhaps with a topic such as ‘finding accommodation, collecting aural and written texts relating to the topic, and then creating activities which reflect the communicative needs of the learners in relation to the topic. This procedure is one which can be readily adopted/adapted by teachers with access to authentic sources of data. As an example of the procedure, consider the development of the following unit of work from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

Slide 88

An example of the procedure of developing of a unit of work from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

  • Step1:

  • Select topic—Finding accommodation

  • Step 2: Collect data

  • Step 3: Determine what learners will need to do in relation to the texts

  • Step4: Create pedagogical activities /procedures

  • Step 5: Analyse texts and activities to determine the language elements

  • Step 6: Create activities focusing on language elements

  • Step 7: Create activities Focusing on learning skills/strategies

  • Step 8: Create application tasks

Slide 89

An example of the procedure of developing of a unit of work from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

  • Step 1: Select topic—Finding accommodation

  • Step 2: Collect data

  • Recorded conversation between estate agent and client

  • Newspaper advertisements

  • Pictures/illustrations of different types of housing

  • Reading passage from real estate institute brochure

Slide 90

  • Step 3: Determine what learners will need to do in relation to the texts

  • For example:

  • Read newspaper ‘To Let’ advertisements

  • Make enquiries about homes to let

  • Talk about housing and furniture

  • Get basic information from newspaper articles

Slide 91

  • Step4:

  • Create pedagogical activities /procedures

  • For example:

  • Listening for gist

  • Role play

  • Information gap

Slide 92

  • Step 5: Analyse texts and activities to determine the language elements

  • For example:

  • Cohesion: I’m ringing about a semi. Is it still available?

  • Adjectives: big, close, cheap, small, new, expensive

  • Present continuous: I’ m looking for a flat

  • Wh-questions: who, what, where, how much/many

  • Existential ‘there’: There is/are

Slide 93

  • Step 6: Create activities focusing on language elements

  • For example:

  • Cloze passage

  • Sentence sequencing exercise

  • Match question and answer exercise

Slide 94

  • Step 7: Create activities Focusing on learning skills/strategies

  • For example:

  • Think about the tasks in this unit in small groups decide which useful/not useful.

  • Discuss your answers with the rest of the class.

Slide 95

  • Step 8: Create application tasks

  • For example:

  • Think about a place you would like to rent,

  • What area is it in? How many bedrooms has it got? Ls it a house.. or flat. Or a

  • Condominium? How much per week is it?

  • Buy a newspaper. Find the classified advertisements.

  • Find the ‘To Let’ section. Find a place you would to rent.

Slide 96

Task-Based Language Teaching 任务型语言教学

1. Second Language Acquisition and TBLT

2. What Are Tasks?

3. What is TBLT

4. Goals of TBLT

5. Contents of TBLT

6. Method of TBLT

7. Assessment and evaluation

8. Resources of TBLT

Slide 97

1. Second Language Acquisition Research

  • “Practice makes perfect” does not always apply to learning grammar.

  • They( students) often fail to use it correctly when expressing themselves freely. This temporary mastery seems to happen when they are paying conscious attention to form, but not when they are trying to communicate and paying attention to meaning.

  • Jane Willis

Slide 98

根据语言习得的规律1) 语法知识的记忆不能保证语言使用的正确

  • Knowledge of grammatical rules was no guarantee of being able to use those rules for communication. Learners who were able to identify instances of rule violation, and who could even state the rule, frequently violated the rules when using language for communication.

  • David Nunan (1999)

Slide 99

2)语言知识加交际的机会比仅仅讲语法更能提高学生使用语言的流利程度与语法的准确度

  • Grammar + opportunities to communicate lead to greater improvements in fluency and grammatical accuracy than grammar only.Montgomery & Eisenstein(1985)

  • (1985年作了一个实验,实验组教语法,但课外有实践的机会。另一组只讲语法。结果实验组交际能力强。而语法测试的成绩也比单讲语法的班好,虽然他们学的语法少。)

Slide 100

3) 学习者的参与与语言熟练程度的提高关系极大

  • Learner participation in class is related significantly to improvements in language proficiency.

    Lim (1992)

Slide 101

4) 基本上以“交际”为导向的课堂教学,但同时也有明确的语法讲解,要比只注重语法教学或回避语法讲解的沉浸式教学都更好

  • Classrooms that were basically “communicative”for explicit grammatical instruction, were superior to both traditional classrooms that focused heavily on grammar, and to immersion programs that eschewed explicit grammatical instruction.

Slide 102

5)当学习者积极地参与用目的语进行交际的尝试时,语言也被掌握了。当学习者所进行的任务使他们当前的语言能力发挥至极点时,习得也扩展到最佳程度

  • Language is acquired as learners actively engaged in attempting to communicate in the target language. Acquisition will be maximized when learners engage in tasks that “push” them to the limits of their current competence.

Slide 103

Four conditions of language learning

  • Exposure ( rich, comprehensible input, language in use)

  • Use ( of the language to do things, exchange meanings)

  • Motivation ( to process and use the exposure: listen & read the language; speak and write it)

  • Instruction ( chances to focus on form )

Slide 104

社会建构理论

  • 社会建构主义认为,学习和发展是社会和合作活动。这种活动是无法被教会的。知识是由学习者个人自己建构的, 而不是由他人传递的。

  • 这种建构发生在与他人交往的环境中,是社会互动的结果。它强调人的学习与发展发生在与其它人的交往和互动之中。

  • 它强调学习者个人从自身经验背景出发,建构对客观事物的主观理解和意义,重视学习过程而反对现成知识的简单传授。

  • 教学应置于有意义的情景中,而最理想的情景是所学的知识可以在其中得到运用

Slide 105

What are tasks?

  • Tasks are always activities where the

    target language is used by the learner for a communicative purpose (goal) in order to

    achieve an outcome. (Willis 1996)

    A task is a piece of work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward.

  • It is meant what people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. (Long 1985:89)

    任务是人们在日常生活中所从事的

    有目的的活动。

Slide 106

What people do in everyday life:

painting a fence,

dressing a child,

filling out a form,

buying a pair of shoes,

borrowing a library book

taking a driving test

making an airline reservation

writing a check

finding a street destination,

Slide 107

The communicative task

  • The communicative task is a piece of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the target language while their attention is focused on mobilizing their grammatical knowledge in order to convey meaning rather than to manipulate form.

  • 交际型任务是一种涉及到学习者理解,运用所学语言进行交流的课堂活动。学生的注意力主要集中在语言的意义上,而不是语言的形式上。

Slide 108

Examples of the communicative task

Listening to a weather forecast and deciding what to wear

Look at a set of pictures and

decide what should be done

Responding to a party invitation

Completing a banking application

Describing a photograph of one’s family

Slide 109

什么不是任务

  • Tasks do not include activities which involve language used for practice or display, such as ‘ Describe the picture using the words and phrases from the list below’ or ‘ Ask your partner if he likes the food listed here using the forms Do you like…? Yes, I do/ No, I don’t. where there is no outcome or purpose other than practice of pre-specified language.

Slide 110

The essential difference between task and exercise

任务活动与语言练习有着本质的区别。任务活动所谋求的效果不是一种机械的语言训练,而是侧重在执行任务中学生自我完成任务的能力和策略的培养,重视学习者在完成任务过程中的参与和在交流活动中所获得的经验。

Slide 111

The components of a task

Goals Teacher roleInput TASKS Learner role Activities Setting

Slide 112

Goal: Exchanging personal information

Input: Questionnaire on sleeping habits

Activity: 1) Reading questionnaire

2) Asking and answering

questions about sleeping habits

Teacher role: Monitor and facilitator

to specify what is regarded as

successful completion of the task

Learner role: Conversational partner

Setting: Classroom / pair work

Slide 113

What is Task-Based Language Teaching

  • Focuses on the construction, sequencing, and evaluation of particular goal-related action complexes that learners carry out either by themselves (see Prabhu’s model 1987) or jointly (see Kumaravadivelu 1993)

  • (Candlin & Murphy 1987; Nunan 1989)

Slide 114

  • The task-based approach aims at proving opportunities for the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. (香港中小学英语大纲)

Slide 115

Main Features of Task-Based Language Teaching

1. 强调通过交流来学会交际

An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.

2. 将真实的语言材料引入学习的环境

The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation.

3. 关注语言的本身,也关注学习的过程

Provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on language, but also on the learning process itself.

4. 把学习者个人的经历作为课堂学习的重要因素

An enhancement of the learners’ own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning.

5. An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activation outside the classroom.

试图把课内的语言学习与社会的语言活动结合起来。

Slide 116

教学目标九级课程目标体系

九级

普通高中毕

业要求

八级

七级

六级

9年级结束

时的要求

五级

四级

三级

6年级结束

时的要求

二级

一级

Slide 117

为什么采用9级目标体系?

  • 语言课程的目的是发展学生的语言能力;能力有高低之分,可以用级别来描述;

  • 9级目标体系有利于保证基础教育阶段英语课程的整体性和连续性

  • 9级目标体系适合我国不平衡的英语教育发展现状

  • 9级目标体系对各阶段、各层次的教学具有指导作用(包括出口级和过度级)

Slide 118

课程目标的5个方面

情感态度

国际视野祖国意识合作精神自信意志兴趣动机

文化意识

学习策略

跨文化交际

文化理解

文化知识

交际策略资源策略调控策略认知策略

综合语言运用能力

语言技能

语言知识

话题功能语法词汇语音

写读说听

Slide 119

为什么要把学习策略列为英语课程目标之一?

1、学生使用学习策略能够提高英语学习的效果

2、发展学习策略有利于学生形成自主学习的能力

学会学习  自主学习  终身学习

3、培养学习策略有利于实现个性化学习

4、学习策略与教学策略相互影响

Slide 120

学习策略的分类

1) 根据策略与认知过程的关系分类:认知策略、元认知策略、情感策略、交际策略等

2)根据策略与语言学习的关系分类

听、说、读、写的策略;语法学习策略;词汇学习策略等

3)根据策略使用者进行分类:

成功学习者与不太成功学习者的策略

初级学习者与高级学习者的策略

Slide 121

认知策略与元认知策略的比较

认知策略:我把单词按词性进行分类。

元认知策略:我认为把单词按词性进行

分类有利于加深记忆。

认知策略:我阅读时特别注意主题句。

元认知策略:我认为阅读时注意主题句有

利于抓住文章大意。

Slide 122

九级

一门外语过关

八级

普通高中课程

要求

2400-2500 单词

400-500 习惯用语

七级

六级

九年级结束时的

要求

1500-1600 单词

200-300 习惯用语

五级

四级

三级

六年级结束时的

要求

600-700 单词

50 习惯用语

二级

一级

有条件的地区或学校可以提高相应级别的要求;条件暂不具备的地区或学校可以适当降低相应级别的要求。

Slide 123

目标总体描述(1 级)

  • 对英语有好奇心,喜欢听他人说英语。能根据教师的简单指令做游戏、做动作、做事情(如涂颜色、连线)。能做简单的角色扮演。能唱简单的英文歌曲,说简单的英语歌谣。能在图片的帮助下听懂和读懂简单的小故事。能交流简单的个人信息,表达简单的情感和感觉。能写字母和单词。对英语学习中接触的外国文化习俗感兴趣。

Slide 124

目标总体描述(2 级)

对英语学习有持续的兴趣和爱好。能用简单的英语互致问候、交换有关个人、家庭和朋友的简单信息。能根据所学内容表演小对话或歌谣。能在图片的帮助下听懂、读懂并讲述简单的故事。能根据图片或提示写简单的句子。在学习中乐于参与、积极合作、主动请教。乐于了解异国的文化和习俗。

Slide 125

目标总体描述(5级)

有较明确的英语学习动机和积极主动的学习态度。能听懂教师有关熟悉话题的陈述并参与讨论。能就日常生活的各种话题与他人交换信息并陈述自己的意见。能读懂供初中学生阅读的简单读物和报刊、杂志,克服生词障碍,理解大意。能根据阅读目的运用适当的阅读策略。能根据提示起草和修改小作文。能利用多种教育资源进行学习,能与他人合作,解决问题并报告结果,共同完成学习任务。能对自己的学习进行评价,总结学习方法。进一步增强对文化差异的理解与认识。

Slide 126

目标总体描述(7级)

有明确和持续的学习动机和自主学习意识。能就熟悉的话题交流信息,提出问题并陈述自己的意见和建议。能读懂供高中学生阅读的英文原著简写本及英语报刊。具有初步的实用写作能力,例如,事务通知和邀请信等。能在教师的指导下,主动参与计划、组织和实施语言实践活动。能主动扩展和利用学习资源,从多渠道获取信息,并能利用所获得的信息进行清楚和有条理的表达。具有较强的自我评价和自我调控能力,基本形成适合自己的学习策略。理解交际中的文化差异,初步形成跨文化交际意识。

Slide 127

目标总体描述(8级)

有较强的自信心和自主学习能力。能就熟悉的话题与讲英语的人士进行比较自然的交流。能就口头或书面语言材料的内容发表评价性见解。能写出连贯且结构完整的短文。能自主策划、组织和实施各种语言实践活动,例如,商讨和制定计划、报告实验和调查结果。能有效利用网络等多种教育资源获取和处理信息,并根据需要对所获得的信息进行整理、归纳和分析。能自觉评价学习效果,形成有效的英语学习策略。了解交际中的文化内涵和背景,对异国文化能采取尊重和包容的态度。

Slide 128

目标总体描述(9级)

  • 能独立、自主地规划并实施学习任务。能听懂有关熟悉话题的演讲、讨论、辩论和报告的主要内容。能就国内外普遍关心的问题(例如环保、人口、和平与发展等)用英语进行交谈,表明自己的态度和观点。能做日常生活方面的口头翻译。能利用各种机会用英语进行真实交际。能借助词典阅读题材较为广泛的科普文章和文学作品。能用常见的应用文体完成一般的写作任务,并具有初步使用文献的能力。能自主开拓学习渠道,丰富学习资源。能关注时事,具有较强的世界意识。

Slide 129

内容标准:一级教学目标:

听做

说唱

玩演

读写

视听

Slide 130

一级: 听、做

  • 能根据听到的词语识别或指认图片或实物

  • 能听懂课堂指令并做出相应的反应

  • 能根据指令做事情,比如:指图片、涂颜色、画图、做动作、做手工等

  • 能在图片和动作的提示下听懂小故事并做出反应

Slide 131

一级: 说、唱

  • 能 听录音并进行模仿

  • 能 相互问候

  • 能 交流简单的个人信息,如:姓名、年龄

  • 能 表达简单的情感和感觉,如喜欢和不喜欢

  • 能根据表演猜意思、说词语

  • 能演唱简单的英文歌曲15-20首,说歌谣15-20首

  • 能根据图、文说出单词或短语

Slide 132

一级: 玩、演

  • 能用英语做游戏并在游戏中用英语进行交际

  • 能做角色表演

  • 能表演英文歌曲及简单的童话剧

Slide 133

一级: 读、写

  • 能看图识字

  • 能在指认物体的前提下认读所学词语

  • 能在图片的帮助下读懂小故事

  • 能正确书写单词和句子

Slide 134

一级: 视听

  • 能看懂语言简单的英文动画片或程度相当的英语教学节目,视听时间每学年不少于10小时(平均每周20-25分钟)

Slide 135

二级教学目标:

玩演视听

Slide 136

二级 听

  • 能在图片、手势的帮助下,听懂语速较慢但语调自然的话语或录音材料

  • 能 听懂简单的配图小故事

  • 能听懂课堂活动中简单的提问

  • 能听懂常用指令和要求并作出适当的反应

Slide 137

二级 说

  • 能在口头表达中做到发音清楚、重音正确、语调达意

  • 能就所熟悉的个人和家庭情况进行简短对话

  • 能恰当运用一些最常用的日常套语(如问候、告别、致谢、致歉等)

  • 能在教师的帮助下讲述小故事

Slide 138

二级 读

  • 能认读所学词语

  • 能 根据拼读规律读出简单的单词

  • 能读懂教材中简短的要求或指令

  • 能读懂问候卡等中的简单信息

  • 能借助图片读懂简单的故事或短文, 养成按意群阅读的习惯

  • 能正确朗读所学故事或短文

Slide 139

二级 写

  • 能根据要求为图片、实物等写出标题或描述

  • 能 模仿范例写句子

  • 能写出简单的问候语

  • 写句子时能正确使用大小写字母和标点符号

Slide 140

二级 玩演视听

  • 能按要求用英语做游戏

  • 能 在教师的帮助下表演小故事或童话剧

  • 能表演歌谣或简单的诗歌30-40首

  • 能演唱英文歌曲30-40首

  • 能看懂英文动画片和程度相当的英语教学节目,每学年不少于10小时(平均每周不少于20-25分钟)

Slide 141

听(5级)

  • 能根据语调和重音理解说话者的意图

  • 能听懂有关熟悉话题的谈话,并能从中提取信息和观点

  • 能借助语境克服生词障碍、理解大意

  • 能听懂接近正常语速的故事和记叙文,理解故事的因果关系

  • 能在听的过程中用适当方式做出反应

  • 能针对所听语段的内容记录简单信息

Slide 142

5 级 说

  • 能就简单的话题提供信息,表达简单的观点和意见,参与讨论

  • 能与他人沟通信息,合作完成任务

  • 能在口头表达中进行适当的自我修正

  • 能有效地询问信息和请求帮助

  • 能根据话题进行情景对话

  • 能用英语表演短剧

  • 在以上口语表达中,语音、语调自然,语气恰当

Slide 143

读(5级)

  • 能根据上下文和构词法推断、理解生词的含义

  • 能理解段落中各句子之间的逻辑关系

  • 能找出文章中的主题,理解故事的情节,预测故事情节的发展和可能的结局

  • 能读懂常见体裁的阅读材料

  • 能根据不同的阅读目的运用简单的阅读策略获取信息

  • 能利用字典等工具书进行学习

  • 除教材外,课外阅读量应累计达到15万词以上

Slide 144

写(5级)

  • 能根据写作要求,收集、准备素材

  • 能独立起草短文、短信等,并在教师的指导下进行修改

  • 能使用常见连接词表示顺序和逻辑关系

  • 能简单描述人物或事件

  • 能根据所给图示或表格写出简单的段落或操作说明

Slide 145

Contents of TBLT

Slide 146

Method of TBLT

  • 是否应该明确倡导一种教学思想?

  • 为什么要倡导任务型语言教学途径?

    为用而学,用中学,学了就用。

    有利于发展语言运用能力

    有利于提高学习动机

  • 并不排除其他教学途径和教学方法

Slide 147

任务型语言教学活动的5个要素

  • 尽可能真实:接近或类似现实生活中的活动。

  • 有明确的目标或目的

  • 必须有做事情的过程:involve doing

  • 必须使用语言并通过使用语言来获取、处理和传达信息

  • 必须有一个明确的结果(product)

Slide 148

Good learning tasks should:

1 enable learners to manipulate and practice specific features of language

2 allow learners to rehearse, in class, communicative skills they will need in the real world

3 activate psychological/psycholinguistic processes of learning

4 be suitable for mixed ability groups

5 involve learners in solving a problem, coming to a conclusion

Slide 149

6 be based on authentic or naturalistic source material

7 involve learners in sharing information

8 require the use of more than one macroskill

9 allow learners to think and talk about language and learning

10 promote skills in learning how to learn

11 have clear objectives stating what learners will be able to do as a result of taking part in the task

12 utilize the community as a resource

Slide 150

13 give learners a choice in what way they do and the order in which they do it.

14 involve learners in risk-taking

15 require learners to rehearse, rewrite and polish initial efforts

16 enable learners to share in the planning and development of the task

17 have built into them a means of evaluating the success or otherwise of the task

Slide 151

Assessment and evaluation建立能激励学生学习兴趣和自主学习能力发展的评价体系

  • 评价体系由形成性评价和终结性评价构成。强调在英语教学过程中应以形成性评价为主,注重培养和激发学生学习积极性和自信心。终结性评价应着重检测学生综合语言技能和语言应用能力。评价要有利于促进英语课程的不断发展与完善;促进教师不断提高教育教学水平;促进学生综合语言运用能力和健康人格的发展,促进学生全面发展。

Slide 152

注意小学英语教学评价的特殊性

  • 三、四年级的期末或学年评价基本不采用书面测试方式,应采用与平时教学活动相近的方式进行,通过对学生的观察和与学生交流等方式对学生作出评价。五、六年级的期末或学年考试可采用口笔试结合的方式。口试要考查学生实际运用所学语言的能力,考查内容要贴近学生生活。笔试主要考查学生听和读的技能。终结性评价可采用等级制或达标的方法记成绩,不用百分制。不要对学生的考试成绩排队并以此作为各种评比或选拔的依据。

Slide 153

Resources

  • 教材的编写原则

    • 增加了发展性和拓展性原则

  • 教材的选择权问题(不包括在标准中)

  • 教材的使用问题

  • 重新认识教材价值:消除对教材的迷信

  • 根据需要对教材进行合理的取舍

  • 重新认识教材与终结性考试之间的关系

Slide 154

广泛运用课程资源

课程资源

教材,以及学生家庭、学校和社会生活中所有有利于学生英语能力发展的各种资源。

学校教育资源

社会英语资源

图书馆

广播电视英语节目

网教络育和资远源程

语言实验室

英语报刊杂志

音像设备及资料

各种形式的活动

Slide 155

谢谢大家

吴兴东

南通大学外国语学院 226007

E-mail: wuxingdong @ sina.com.cn

Tel: 0513—3578179 (H)

0513—5015886 (O)


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