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Task-Based Language Teaching

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5.,


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Types of syllabus

A structural (or formal)syllabus

A notional/functional syllabus

A situational syllabus

A skill-based syllabus

A task-based syllabus

A content-based syllabus


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The Activities-based Approach to Teaching English As a Foreign Language

1. Definition

2. Background

3.Theoretical Assumptions

4.Goals and Objectives

5.Areas of Study

6.Method

7.Assessment and Reporting

8.Resources


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Definition of An activity Foreign Language

  • An activity involves the purposeful and active use of language where learners are required to call upon their language resource to meet the needs of a given communicative situation.


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Definition of the Activities-based Approach used by the learner for a communicative purpose (goal) in order to achieve an outcome.


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Background used by the learner for a communicative purpose (goal) in order to achieve an outcome.

  • Social needs

  • Reconciliation between Product-oriented Communicative Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

  • Reconciliation between three Educational Value Systems: Classical humanism, Reconstructionism, Progressivism

  • Influence of Publications

  • Practical Experience of Asian Countries


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Reconciliation between Product-oriented Communicative Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

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2

3

4

5

6

7

8


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Theoretical Assumptions Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

  • Theory of Language

  • Theory of Education

  • Theory of Language Learning

  • Eight Principles


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Theory of Language Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

1. Language is a system for the expression of meaning.

2.The primary function of language is fo4r interaction and communication.

3. The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative users.

4. The primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse. (Richards and Rodgers, 1986: 71)


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Theory of Language Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach


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Theory of Education Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

The Reconstructionist concern for broad social needs and interests. Predetermined common objectives .

The progressivist concern for the personal needs and interests of the individual. learner-controlled objectives .

Predetermined common objectives in the earlier stages and learner-controlled objectives in the later stage of a course


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Theory of Education Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

,


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Theory of Language Learning Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

  • : ,.

  • :,.

  • :,.

  • : ,.

  • : ,.


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Theory of Language Learning Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

  • Communication principle: Activities that involve real communication promote learning.

  • Task principle: Activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote learning.

  • Meaningfulness principle: Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process.


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Theory of Language Learning Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach


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Eight Principles Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

  • Learners learn a language best when

  • 1. They are treated as individuals with their own needs and interests.

  • 2. They are provided with opportunities to participate in communicative use of the target language in a wide range of activities.

  • 3. They are exposed to communicative data which is comprehensible and relevant to their own needs and interests.

  • 4. They focus deliberately on various language forms, skills, and strategies in order to support the process of language acquisition.

  • 5. They are exposed to sociocultural data and direct experience of the culture(s) embedded within the target language.

  • 6. They become aware of the role and nature of language and of culture.

  • 7. They are provided with appropriate feedback about their progress.

  • 8. They are provided with opportunities to manage their own learning.


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Eight Principles Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8


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Goals and Objectives Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

Interrelated Broad Goals

Specific Goals of Communication

GeneralObjectives(activity cluster)

Specific Objectives


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Learning Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

how-to-learn

Socio-cultural

Communication

General knowledge

Language and cultural awareness

Interrelated Broad Goals


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Specific Goals of Communication Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

Establish and maintain relationships an discuss topics of interest e. g. through the exchange of information, ideas, opinions, attitudes, feelings, experiences, and plans

  • Participate in social interaction related to solving a problem, making arrangements, making decisions with others, and transacting to obtain goods, services, and public information

  • Obtain information by searching for specific details in a spoken or written text, and then process and use the information obtained.

    Obtain information by listening to or reading a spoken or written text as a whole, and then process and use the information obtained.

  • Give information in spoken or written form e. g. give a talk, write an essay or a set of instructions

  • Listen to, read or view, and respond personally to a stimulus e. g. a story, play, film, song, poem, picture.

  • Be involved in spoken or written personal expression e.g. create a story, dramatic episode, poem, play.


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Specific Goals of Communication Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

1

2

3

a b

4

5

6


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Language Use Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

INTERPERSONAL USE

Modes:CONVERSATION-combination of listening and speaking skills

CORRESPONDENCE-combination of reading and writing skills

Activity-type

2

Participate in social

interaction related to solving

a problem,making

arrangements,making

decisions with others,and

transacting to obtain goods,

services,and public

information.

Activity-type

1

Establish and maintain

relationships and discuss

topics of interest e.g

through the exchange of

information ,ideas,opinions,

attitudes,feelings,

experiences,and plans.

3a

Obtain information

by searching for

specific details

Mode:Combination of listening

speaking reading and writing skills

Activities

(categorised into activity-types based on the communication goals).

Activity-type

6

Be involved in spoken or

written personal expression

e.g.create a story,dramatic

episode,poem,play

3b

Obtain information by listening to or reading a spoken or written text

Mode:Speaking or writing skills

Activity-type

5

Listen to,read or view,and

respond personally to a

stimulus e.g.a story,play,

film,song,poem,picture.

Activity-type

4

Give information in spoken

or written form e.g.give a

talk,write an essay or a set

of instructions.

'AESTHETIC'USE

INFORMATIONAL USE

Mode:Speaking or writing skills

Mode:Combination of listening,

speaking,reading,and writing skills


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Learning Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

how-to-learn

Socio-

cultural

1

2

6

Activities

Language

and cultural

awareness

5

4

General

knowledge

Activity Types

Goals

Activity-types

3a

3b

Communication

Objectives

Activities

Supporting

exercises

Activities are categorised into activity-types

according to the communication goal they realise.


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General Objectives Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach(activity clusters)

  • In relation to communication goal(1) learners will be able to use the target language to:

  • Introduce themselves and others

  • Invite and thank others

  • Say how they feel

  • Describe their routine and that of friends and other people

  • Express likes and preferences


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Topic: SHOPPING Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

General objects:

1.Students will be able to make a shopping plan within a budget.

2.Students will be able to make a market investigation.

3. Students will be able to participate in a simulated shopping.

1


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Topic : Personal Information Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

  • General objectives:

  • students will be able to introduce themselves to other people.

  • Students will be able to talk about family photos.

  • Students will be able to understand and write personal resume.

  • Students will be able to look for friends with written information


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Topic: Health Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

  • General objectives:

  • Students will be able to

  • learn to do an exercise.

    learn to do a first-aid.

    see a doctor and have a talk with doctor.

    fill in a health form.


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Topic: Interests and Hobbies Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

  • General objectives:

  • Students will be able to know how to express likes and dislikes.

  • Students will be able to describe a most interesting activity.

  • Students will be able to make an interview on their hobbies and interests.

  • Students will be able to participate in a debate on video game .


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Specific Objectives Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

Learners will be able to :

generate questions

use the future tense

use vocabulary related to the activity


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Areas of Study Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

--------------------------------------------------------------------- Areas of Study

1. Discourse 2. Activities, Settings 3. Linguistic

Forms and Roles Elements

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------

Work

requirements

------------------


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Activities and Roles Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach


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Activities and Discourse Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach


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Activities and Linguistic Elements Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach


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Activities and Exercises Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

Real communication activities

Practice communication activities

Shaping exercises

Focusing exercises


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The Grading of Activities Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach


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The Grouping of Activities Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

--topicsub-topictheme


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Unit Development Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

Target group

Organizational focus Time allocation

Specific goals

Communication Sociocultural LHTL LACA Gen. Knowledge

General objectives

Activities and exercises Resources

Assessment

Specific objectives Method

Language Skill Sociocultural General

Development development knowledge


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Method Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

  • The teacher/learner partnership

  • Eight principles

  • Catering for Learner Differences

  • The process approach to writing

  • Worksheets

  • Peer tutoring

  • Team teaching

  • Learning contracts

  • Use of visitor from the target language community

  • Self-access centres

  • Learning centre approach

  • Individual progress chart


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Teaching Procedures Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

LC LC(learning center)


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Lesson One(Chain One) Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative ApproachMaking a shopping plan

  • Pre-task

  • Step1: The teacher sets the scene for the task.

  • Step2:The teacher helps students to acquire the necessary vocabulary items for the task.

  • Step3:The teacher explains the task and demonstrate the task procedure.

  • While-task

  • Step4: Students discuss and decide on food to buy within the budget.

  • Step5: Students prepare work sheets for reporting

  • Post-task

  • Step5:Students share the products by reporting with the class.

2


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PPP Approach Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

  • Present language functions

  • Practise functional expressions

  • Produce functional expressions


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Deep-end Approach Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

communicate as far present language items drills

as possible with all necessary for effective necessary

available resource communication


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Assessment and Reporting Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

  • Purpose: assessing communicative competence

  • Holistic approach

  • Contents: communicative activities

    work requirements

    common assessment tasks

    Reporting: grading and description


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Communicative competence Approach and the Process-oriented Communicative Approach

  • The ability of producing correct, clear, acceptable, and authentic discourse of a target language.


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  • You were applying to a university and needed a letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said

  • A. Id appreciate it if you could write a letter of recommendation for me. (2)

  • B. I want to ask you to write a letter of recommendation for me. (1)

  • CI wonder if you could wrete a letter recommendation me.(1)

  • D. Hey, give me recommendation letter.()


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letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said


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letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said

  • Assessment is not something that is external to the learning process and added on at the end of a learning sequence. It should always be integrated in the planned curriculum.

  • Teaching activities

  • work requirements

  • Common assessment tasks


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letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said

  • 123


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Basic letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and saidtypes of Authentic( formative) Assessment in Language learning

  • Folios of work

  • End-of- unit assessment

  • Peer assessment

  • Self assessment

  • Progress cards and checklists

  • Observation checksheets relating to particular activities, skills, strategies.etc

  • Informal interaction

  • Reading logs

  • Records of conferencing

  • Classwork and homework


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  • Spot test letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said

  • End of unit tests

  • Oral interview

  • Story or text retelling

  • Writing samples (with a variety of topics and registers)

  • Projects and exhibitions (presenting collaborative effort)

  • Experiments and demonstrations (with oral or written reports)

  • Constructed-response items (to open-ended questions)


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letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said


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Observation letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said


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Informal interaction letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said


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letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said


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  • letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said


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letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

  • 5

  • 6

  • 7


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letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said


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letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said


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Resources letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said

  • Definition

  • Resources Provide Communicative data

  • Resources which promote communicative use of the target language


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Definition letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said

The term resources is used to describe any published or unpublished material in any medium use for the purpose of language teaching and learning. The term refers to a variety of text-types which may or may not have been prepared specifically for the purposes of teaching and learning, and includes materials such as pictures, books, maps , audio and video cassettes, films, slides, etc., as well as hardware such as audiovisual equipment and computers,. The term also includes human resources and resources which are outside as well as inside the classroom. The teacher and the learners are themselves important resources, as are people and places in the target language community.


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Resources Provide Communicative data letter of recommendation. You went to a professor, who was also your friend, and said

  • lTeacher talk

  • lOther classroom talk

  • lRecordings of talk (audio and video)

  • lSpecially prepared written information

  • lOther classroom written information

  • lRealia and written texts from outside the classroom


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Communicative use of the target language is best promoted by resources which:

  • lGenerate activities which serve a genuine communicative purpose and have personal relevance or are of real interest to the learner

  • lProvide a context in which learners will want and need to engage in meaningful use of the target language

  • lGenerate activities which involve authentic conditions, e.g. allow the learner to employ communicative strategies


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Resources which promote communicative use of the target language

  • Problem solving activities

  • Information /opinion/affective gap activities

  • Personalised activities

  • Games

  • Use of picture

  • Activities involving processing information from various sources

  • Literature-based activities

  • Drama activities

  • Writing activities

  • Focus and shaping exercises

  • Integration of activities


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Examples language

  • Problem solving activities:

  • If it takes 20 minutes to go from A to B and 30 minutes to go from B to C, and if it takes 5 minutes to travel 2 kilometers, how many kilometers are there between A and C?


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The distraught Babysitter language

  • Role A : You are a teenager. You have been offered your first babysitting job.You really want the money. Your mother has to give her permission.

  • Role B: Your teenager has been offered a babysitting job. It will be his or her first job (providing you give your permission). Will you do so? There is an important test.coming up at school tomorrow.


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Criteria for selecting resource for whole class language

  • Resources for whole class learning should allow for individual differences in learners ability, and for all learners to be actively involved in the learning process.


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Criteria for selecting resource for groups language

  • Does the resource provide clear directions to enable learners to complete the task? Can the direction be referred to if forgotten?

  • Are the group members assigned specific tasks? Are the roles of individuals in the group clearly specified?

  • Is there a challenge in the task for all learners?

  • Does the resource provide a purposeful context for problem solving,exchanging information, and other cognitive processes involved?


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  • Is there an information, opinion, or affective gap to promote communicative use of the target language?

  • Is there a result required form the group? Is a conclusion to be presented for the teacher and the rest of the class?

  • Is there provision for learners to evaluate the task?


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Criteria for selecting resource for individual work promote communicative use of the target language?

  • Can the resource be organized in a self-access centre, and be graded and marked in an appropriate way for easy access buy individual learners?

  • Does the resource assist learners to assess their own needs, to plan their own learning program, and to assess their own progress?


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Criteria for selecting textbooks answer key)

  • Is the textbok appropriate for :

  • -- the target group, considering the Stage at which they will be working, their language development, interests, etc?

  • -- the purpose for which it is to be used?

  • --the needs and preferences of the teacher?

  • -- other practicalities and general considerations?

  • Does the textbook allow for meaningful, purposeful, and individual use of the target language?


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  • Does the textbook cover the five goals?What are the gaps? What imbalance will need to be redressed for the particular learning group?

  • Does it contain a combination of activities an exercises?

  • Do the activities involve combinations of reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills for language use (I.e. does it have a global approach to language learning)?


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particular learning group? What will be needed to supplement the textbook in this regard? Is supplementation feasible?

  • Aural and/or visual clues and other contextual props, to help learners predict meaning and make sense of the text.

  • The text should not be too long.


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Criteria for selecting, adapting and creating resources particular learning group? What will be needed to supplement the textbook in this regard? Is supplementation feasible?

  • the nature of the learner group

  • the purposes for which the resource is to be used

  • teacher needs and preferences

  • Practicalities and general considerations


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Learning group particular learning group? What will be needed to supplement the textbook in this regard? Is supplementation feasible?

Yes No


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Purpose of the resource particular learning group? What will be needed to supplement the textbook in this regard? Is supplementation feasible?

  • Yes No


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Teacher needs and preferences particular learning group? What will be needed to supplement the textbook in this regard? Is supplementation feasible?

  • Yes No


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Practicalities and general considerations particular learning group? What will be needed to supplement the textbook in this regard? Is supplementation feasible?


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Materials design particular learning group? What will be needed to supplement the textbook in this regard? Is supplementation feasible?

  • In reality, the teacher and textbook writer will probably juggle topic, text and task elements in creating materials, beginning, perhaps with a topic such as finding accommodation, collecting aural and written texts relating to the topic, and then creating activities which reflect the communicative needs of the learners in relation to the topic. This procedure is one which can be readily adopted/adapted by teachers with access to authentic sources of data. As an example of the procedure, consider the development of the following unit of work from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.


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An example of the procedure of developing of a unit of work from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

  • Step1:

  • Select topicFinding accommodation

  • Step 2: Collect data

  • Step 3: Determine what learners will need to do in relation to the texts

  • Step4: Create pedagogical activities /procedures

  • Step 5: Analyse texts and activities to determine the language elements

  • Step 6: Create activities focusing on language elements

  • Step 7: Create activities Focusing on learning skills/strategies

  • Step 8: Create application tasks


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An example of the procedure of developing of a unit of work from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

  • Step 1: Select topicFinding accommodation

  • Step 2: Collect data

  • Recorded conversation between estate agent and client

  • Newspaper advertisements

  • Pictures/illustrations of different types of housing

  • Reading passage from real estate institute brochure


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  • Step 3 from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.: Determine what learners will need to do in relation to the texts

  • For example:

  • Read newspaper To Let advertisements

  • Make enquiries about homes to let

  • Talk about housing and furniture

  • Get basic information from newspaper articles


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  • Step4: from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

  • Create pedagogical activities /procedures

  • For example:

  • Listening for gist

  • Role play

  • Information gap


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  • Step 5: from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task. Analyse texts and activities to determine the language elements

  • For example:

  • Cohesion: Im ringing about a semi. Is it still available?

  • Adjectives: big, close, cheap, small, new, expensive

  • Present continuous: I m looking for a flat

  • Wh-questions: who, what, where, how much/many

  • Existential there: There is/are


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  • Step 6: from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.Create activities focusing on language elements

  • For example:

  • Cloze passage

  • Sentence sequencing exercise

  • Match question and answer exercise


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  • Step 7: from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task. Create activities Focusing on learning skills/strategies

  • For example:

  • Think about the tasks in this unit in small groups decide which useful/not useful.

  • Discuss your answers with the rest of the class.


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  • Step 8: from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task. Create application tasks

  • For example:

  • Think about a place you would like to rent,

  • What area is it in? How many bedrooms has it got? Ls it a house.. or flat. Or a

  • Condominium? How much per week is it?

  • Buy a newspaper. Find the classified advertisements.

  • Find the To Let section. Find a place you would to rent.


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Task-Based Language Teaching from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

1. Second Language Acquisition and TBLT

2. What Are Tasks?

3. What is TBLT

4. Goals of TBLT

5. Contents of TBLT

6. Method of TBLT

7. Assessment and evaluation

8. Resources of TBLT


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1. Second Language Acquisition Research from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

  • Practice makes perfect does not always apply to learning grammar.

  • They( students) often fail to use it correctly when expressing themselves freely. This temporary mastery seems to happen when they are paying conscious attention to form, but not when they are trying to communicate and paying attention to meaning.

  • Jane Willis


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from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.1)

  • Knowledge of grammatical rules was no guarantee of being able to use those rules for communication. Learners who were able to identify instances of rule violation, and who could even state the rule, frequently violated the rules when using language for communication.

  • David Nunan (1999)


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2) from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

  • Grammar + opportunities to communicate lead to greater improvements in fluency and grammatical accuracy than grammar only.Montgomery & Eisenstein(1985)

  • (1985


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3 from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.)

  • Learner participation in class is related significantly to improvements in language proficiency.

    Lim (1992)


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4) from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

  • Classrooms that were basically communicativefor explicit grammatical instruction, were superior to both traditional classrooms that focused heavily on grammar, and to immersion programs that eschewed explicit grammatical instruction.


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5) from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

  • Language is acquired as learners actively engaged in attempting to communicate in the target language. Acquisition will be maximized when learners engage in tasks that push them to the limits of their current competence.


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Four conditions of language learning from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

  • Exposure ( rich, comprehensible input, language in use)

  • Use ( of the language to do things, exchange meanings)

  • Motivation ( to process and use the exposure: listen & read the language; speak and write it)

  • Instruction ( chances to focus on form )


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from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.


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What are tasks? from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

  • Tasks are always activities where the

    target language is used by the learner for a communicative purpose (goal) in order to

    achieve an outcome. (Willis 1996)

    A task is a piece of work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward.

  • It is meant what people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. (Long 1985:89)


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What people do in everyday life: from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

painting a fence,

dressing a child,

filling out a form,

buying a pair of shoes,

borrowing a library book

taking a driving test

making an airline reservation

writing a check

finding a street destination,


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The communicative task from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

  • The communicative task is a piece of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending manipulating, producing or interacting in the target language while their attention is focused on mobilizing their grammatical knowledge in order to convey meaning rather than to manipulate form.


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Examples of the communicative task from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

Listening to a weather forecast and deciding what to wear

Look at a set of pictures and

decide what should be done

Responding to a party invitation

Completing a banking application

Describing a photograph of ones family


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from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

  • Tasks do not include activities which involve language used for practice or display, such as Describe the picture using the words and phrases from the list below or Ask your partner if he likes the food listed here using the forms Do you like? Yes, I do/ No, I dont. where there is no outcome or purpose other than practice of pre-specified language.


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The essential difference between task and exercise from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.


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The components of a task from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

Goals Teacher roleInput TASKS Learner role Activities Setting


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Goal from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.: Exchanging personal information

Input: Questionnaire on sleeping habits

Activity: 1) Reading questionnaire

2) Asking and answering

questions about sleeping habits

Teacher role: Monitor and facilitator

to specify what is regarded as

successful completion of the task

Learner role: Conversational partner

Setting: Classroom / pair work


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What is Task-Based Language Teaching from a set of draft materials based on topic, text and task.

  • Focuses on the construction, sequencing, and evaluation of particular goal-related action complexes that learners carry out either by themselves (see Prabhus model 1987) or jointly (see Kumaravadivelu 1993)

  • (Candlin & Murphy 1987; Nunan 1989)


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  • The task-based approach aims at proving opportunities for the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.


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Main Features of Task-Based Language Teaching the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.

1.

An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.

2.

The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation.

3.

Provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on language, but also on the learning process itself.

4.

An enhancement of the learners own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning.

5. An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activation outside the classroom.


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.

9

6


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. 9

  • 9

  • 9

  • 9


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. 5


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.

1

2

3

4


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.

1)

2

3


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.

2400-2500

400-500

1500-1600

200-300

600-700

50


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. 1


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. 2


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. 5


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. 7


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. 8


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. 9


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.

  • 15-2015-20


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.

  • 1020-25


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.

  • 30-40

  • 30-40

  • 1020-25


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. 5


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5 the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. 5

  • 15


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.

5


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Contents of TBLT the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.


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Method of TBLT the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.


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the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. 5

  • involve doing

  • (product)


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Good learning tasks should: the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.

1 enable learners to manipulate and practice specific features of language

2 allow learners to rehearse, in class, communicative skills they will need in the real world

3 activate psychological/psycholinguistic processes of learning

4 be suitable for mixed ability groups

5 involve learners in solving a problem, coming to a conclusion


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6 be based on authentic or naturalistic source material the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes.

7 involve learners in sharing information

8 require the use of more than one macroskill

9 allow learners to think and talk about language and learning

10 promote skills in learning how to learn

11 have clear objectives stating what learners will be able to do as a result of taking part in the task

12 utilize the community as a resource


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13 give learners a choice in what way they do and the order in which they do it.

14 involve learners in risk-taking

15 require learners to rehearse, rewrite and polish initial efforts

16 enable learners to share in the planning and development of the task

17 have built into them a means of evaluating the success or otherwise of the task


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Assessment and evaluation in which they do it.

  • ,


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in which they do it.


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Resources in which they do it.


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in which they do it.


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in which they do it.

226007

E-mail: wuxingdong @ sina.com.cn

Tel: 05133578179 (H)

05135015886 (O)


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