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Charles Darwin. Alfred R. Wallace. Thomas Huxley. Gregor Mendel. Theo. Dobzhansky. R.A. Fisher. J.B.S. Haldane. Stephen J. Gould. Evolution…day 1. Barbara McClintock. Schedule. Feb 5:     Natural Selection & Evolution  Feb 7:     Phylogenetics & Major Transitions

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Evolution day 1 l.jpg

Charles Darwin

Alfred R. Wallace

Thomas Huxley

Gregor Mendel

Theo. Dobzhansky

R.A. Fisher

J.B.S. Haldane

Stephen J. Gould

Evolution…day 1

Barbara McClintock


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Schedule

  • Feb 5:     Natural Selection & Evolution 

  • Feb 7:     Phylogenetics & Major Transitions

    (assignment due Feb. 14: 

    Phylogeny Problem and Topic selection for paper)

  • Feb. 12:   Documentary OR day off with an evening viewing of the documentary?? Schedule?

  • Feb. 14:   Origins of Life

  • Feb. 19    Origins of Structure & Adaptation

  • Feb. 21    Origins of Species


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Great Ideas (Pyles!): Assignments

  • Problem in Phylogenetics

    • Instructions Thursday Feb. 7

    • Can be completed individually or pairs (2 only per team)

    • DUE Feb. 14th (happy valentines’ day)

  • Paper on Evolution (individual)

    • Instructions on Thursday Feb. 7

    • Topics (your topic selection due Feb. 14):

      • Homo sapiens: X = evidence of bad design?

      • Evolution of the group X

      • Evolution of the characterisic X

      • Propose something (but no politics, please)

    • DUE March 11


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When analyzing a scientific explanation, which of the following is most important?

  • Logic

  • Data

  • Source (i.e., scientific standing of the author or institution)

  • Hypothesis

  • All of the above


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FREE FLOW …. following is most important?


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The best definition of the process of EVOLUTION is: following is most important?

  • Survival of the fittest.

  • Origin of new species from existing species.

  • Different individuals leave behind different numbers of offspring.

  • Selection of new traits in a species from environmental pressures.

  • Humans descended from chimps in Africa.

  • The Strong eventually eliminate the Weak.

  • A steady march of progress from microbes to man.


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Natural Selection following is most important?

  • Some characteristics of individuals are heritable

  • Some individuals will have higher survival rates

  • Some individuals will have higher reproduction (more offspring = higher fecundity)

  • If heritable characteristics are linked to those individuals with higher fecundity…

    • THEN, the next generation will have “more” of those advantageous heritable characteristics

      Thus, differential reproduction of individuals with heritable characteristics will shift the genetic “profile” of the population, increasing those advantageous traits in the next generation…and so on, and so on…


  • Modern synthesis evolution l.jpg
    Modern Synthesis: Evolution following is most important?

    Differential reproduction (aka natural selection) can shift the genetic profile of organisms over time.

    Are there any other phenomena that can also affect the genetic profile of a group of organisms over time?

    YES!


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    Modern Synthesis: Evolution following is most important?

    • Genetics:

      • Mutations

      • Chromosomal changes

      • Duplication of a gene or genes

      • Incomplete reproductive isolation (“hybrids”)

    • Population size or composition

      • Immigration or loss of “portions” of original group

      • Emigration from “outside” sources

    • Nonrandom mating

    • Historic Contingency

      • Random events (e.g., huge meteors! disease! Fast climate change!, etc.)


    Modern synthesis evolution10 l.jpg
    Modern Synthesis: Evolution following is most important?

    Natural Selection

    Genetic mechanisms

    Population size or composition

    Nonrandom mating

    Historic Contingency


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    Misconceptions following is most important?

    HOW IT WORKS!

    • Evolution is progressive

    • Evolution is random

    • Organisms “try” to adapt

    • Natural selection gives organisms what they ”need”

    • Gaps in the fossil record disprove evolution

    • Evolution cannot be observed or tested


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    Scalae naturae following is most important? (Aristotle)


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    Survivors following is most important?

    {

    Origins & Extinctions

    Darwin’s concept of “tree of life” (1859)


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    TETRAPODA following is most important?


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    Which came first…?? following is most important?

    Of the following pairs, which came first historically?

    • FISH or AMPHIBIANS

    • MOSS or FISH

    • DINOSAURS or BIRDS

    • BEES or FLOWERS

    • EUKARYOTIC or PROKARYOTIC cells

    • CELLS or VIRUSES


    Misconceptions17 l.jpg
    Misconceptions following is most important?

    HOW IT WORKS!

    • Evolution is progressive

    • Evolution is random

    • Organisms “try” to adapt

    • Natural selection gives organisms what they ”need”

    • Gaps in the fossil record disprove evolution

    • Evolution cannot be observed or tested


    Misconceptions18 l.jpg
    Misconceptions following is most important?

    • Random?

      • Sometimes yes…

        • Mutations and genetics “jumps” (e.g., gene duplication)

        • Historic contingencies

      • Sometimes no…

        • Natural selection is NOT random

        • Nonrandom breeding is not…well, you know


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    Misconceptions following is most important?

    HOW IT WORKS!

    • Evolution is progressive

    • Evolution is random

    • Organisms “try” to adapt

    • Natural selection gives organisms what they ”need”

    • Gaps in the fossil record disprove evolution

    • Evolution cannot be observed or tested


    Misconceptions20 l.jpg
    Misconceptions following is most important?

    • Organisms can “think” ahead

      NOPE!

      • Giraffes can’t get longer necks by “stretching”

        • Giraffes with longer necks get more food and are able to reproduce more offspring

          They don’t “think” their way there…

    • Nature can “think” ahead

      NOPE! Nature can’t predict what will happen next

      METEOR!!…RUN!

      And, oh by the way…scientists can’t predict either!


    Misconceptions21 l.jpg
    Misconceptions following is most important?

    HOW IT WORKS!

    • Evolution is progressive

    • Evolution is random

    • Organisms “try” to adapt

    • Natural selection gives organisms what they ”need”

    • Gaps in the fossil record disprove evolution

    • Evolution cannot be observed or tested


    Slide22 l.jpg
    Gaps? following is most important?

    A

    A

    A

    A

    Z

    Z

    Z

    Z

    = 2 gaps

    B

    B

    B

    C

    C

    = 3 gaps

    D

    = 4 gaps

    = one gap

    “Shanks paradox” named for the author…

    At least a little logic is a requirement for any argument.


    Misconceptions23 l.jpg
    Misconceptions following is most important?

    HOW IT WORKS!

    • Evolution is progressive

    • Evolution is random

    • Organisms “try” to adapt

    • Natural selection gives organisms what they ”need”

    • Gaps in the fossil record disprove evolution

    • Evolution cannot be observed or tested


    Misconceptions24 l.jpg
    Misconceptions following is most important?

    • Science is not restricted to controlled experiments.

      • Astronomers cannot hold stars in their hands,

      • Geologists cannot go back in time,

      • Epidemiologists don’t create epidemics to study them.

        But in all cases scientists can learn a great deal by using multiple lines of evidence to make valid and useful inferences about their objects of study.


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