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Stability and Change in Adolescent Identity Structure. Stephen C. Peck, Jacquelynne S. Eccles, Oksana Malanchuk, Catherine L. Funk University of Michigan. Acknowledgements.

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Stability and Change in Adolescent Identity Structure

Stephen C. Peck, Jacquelynne S. Eccles, Oksana Malanchuk, Catherine L. Funk

University of Michigan


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements made (alphabetically) to Elaine Belansky, Celina Chatman, Diane Early, Kari Fraser, Katie Jodl, Ariel Kalil, Linda Kuhn, Karen Macarthy, Rob Roeser, Arnold Sameroff, Sherri Steele, Cynthia Winston, and Carol Wong.

This research is supported in part by NICHD Grant #R01 HD33437 awarded to Jacquelynne S. Eccles and Arnold J. Sameroff and in part by a grant from W.T. Grant awarded to Jacquelynne S. Eccles. The original data collection was supported by funding from the MacArthur Research Network on Successful Adolescent Development in High Risk Settings, chaired by Richard Jessor.


Overview
Overview

  • The concept of “identity”

  • Identity measures from open-ended data

  • Identity complexity, stability, and change

  • Identities and activities


Jingle Jangle Jungle

ego identity

self-theory

Personal Identity

self

beliefs

values

self-portrait

self-perceptions

ability

schema

possible selves

self-definition

self-attributes

awareness of

self-sameness

self-knowledge

talents

sense of self

roles

self-representations

self-concept

theory of self

self-image

me-self


Identity as…

Content and Process

Personal and Social


The sense of our own personal identity…is a conclusion grounded … on the continuity before the mind, of the phenomena compared.

James, 1890


The conscious feeling

of having a personal identity

is based on...the perception

of the selfsameness and continuity

of one’s existence in time and space.

Erikson, 1968


Self-as-Subject

Self-as-Object

Process

Content

I - Self

Me - Self

Sense of

self-sameness

Self - Identity

Personal Identity

The knower

All-conscious

Awareness

Ego - Identity

Social Identity


Jingle Jangle Jungle

Personal Identity

ego identity

self-theory

self

beliefs

values

self-portrait

self-perceptions

schema

ability

possible selves

self-definition

self-attributes

awareness of

self-sameness

self-knowledge

talents

sense of self

roles

self-representations

self-concept

theory of self

self-image

me-self

What is “Identity” ?


Systems Theory

Structure

Function

Process

Content

Fluctuation

Context Change

Bahg, 1990


Identity is a complex system

Identity is a system…

composed of interacting elements

Identity is a system…

that exists within the context of larger systems


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Structured Content at Varying

Levels of the Self System

Context # 1

Context # 2

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Working Self / Activated

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B

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C

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F

Rational / Conscious

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D

A

A

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E

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Experiential / Preconscious

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Associationistic / Unconscious

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Phenomenology of Structured Content

Context # 2

Context# 1

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Self-Reflectivity / Awareness

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stream of behavior

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B

B

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C

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F

F

Explicit Identity / Self-Concept

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D

D

A

A

A

A

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E

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E

enduring yet malleable

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Implicit Identity / Self-Schemas

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Methodology
Methodology

Morphogenic

Dimensional

Variable-Centered

Pattern-Centered


Madics eccles sameroff pi s maryland adolescent development in context study
MADICS (Eccles & Sameroff, PI’s)Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study

  • 6 (plus) Waves of Longitudinal Data

  • Questionnaires, Interviews, & Conversations

  • Target Youth, PCG, SCG, & OS

  • N’s 1482 (age 12) to 900 (age 23)

  • 49% Female

  • 60% Black, 30% White, 10% Other


Open ended questions

Hopes

Wishes

Heroes

Adult Traits

Desired Occupation

Fears

Million Dollars

Hero Traits

Talents

Expected Occupation

Open-Ended Questions


9 identity themes

Artist

Athlete (Jock)

Brain

Intellectual General

Leader

Religious

Social Civic

Social General

Socialite

9Identity Themes


Percent of 7 th 8 th and 11 th graders at 4 levels of jock identity content
Percent of 7th, 8th, and 11th Graders at 4 levels of Jock Identity Content



Validation of open ended questions
Validation of Open-Ended Questions

7th Grade Youth Reports

7th Grade Parent Reports


Pattern centered analysis open ended identity themes
Pattern-Centered Analysis Open-ended Identity Themes

  • 9 quasi-absolute identity theme dimensions

  • Cluster analyses

    • Ward’s method; squared Euclidean distance

  • Preliminary…SPSS

  • Final… Sleipner(v2.1; Bergman, Magnusson, & El-Khouri, 2003)

    • multivariate outliers removed

    • k-means relocation on Ward’s solution



7 7th Grade Cluster Solutions th Grade Sleipner Identity Cluster Profiles


Close up of the 7 th grade jock related cluster profiles
Close-up of the 7 7th Grade Cluster Solutions th Grade Jock-related Cluster Profiles

n = 182

13%

n = 130

9%

n = 128

9%



8 8th Grade Cluster Solutions th Grade Sleipner Identity Cluster Profiles


Close up of the 8 th grade jock related cluster profiles
Close-up of the 8 8th Grade Cluster Solutions th Grade Jock-related Cluster Profiles

n = 97

10%

n = 74

7%

n = 85

9%


Close up of the 11 th grade jock related cluster profiles
Close-up of the 11 8th Grade Cluster Solutions th Grade Jock-related Cluster Profiles

n = 80

8%

n = 105

11%


Percent in a Jock Identity Cluster Group 8th Grade Cluster Solutions

from 7th to 11th Grade


Percent who want vs expect a sports related occupation

Percent Who Want vs. Expect 8th Grade Cluster Solutions a Sports-related Occupation


7 th grade cluster validations
7 8th Grade Cluster Solutions th Grade Cluster Validations

Parent Reports

Youth Reports

(Explicit Identity)


7 th grade by 8 th grade identity cluster crosstabulation
7 8th Grade Cluster Solutions th Grade by 8th GradeIdentity Cluster Crosstabulation


7 th grade by 8 th grade identity cluster crosstabulation1
7 8th Grade Cluster Solutions th Grade by 8th GradeIdentity Cluster Crosstabulation


8 th grade by 11 th grade identity cluster crosstabulation
8 8th Grade Cluster Solutions th Grade by 11th GradeIdentity Cluster Crosstabulation


8 th grade by 11 th grade identity cluster crosstabulation1
8 8th Grade Cluster Solutions th Grade by 11th GradeIdentity Cluster Crosstabulation


Demographics

There were 8th Grade Cluster Solutions NO differences across the several jock versus “other” clusters

at 7th, 8th, and 11th grades in…

Parent Income

Parent Education

Parent Occupational Status

Demographics


Percent of 8 th grade black and white males and females in each 8th grade identity cluster
Percent of 8 8th Grade Cluster Solutions th Grade Black and White Males and Females in each 8th Grade Identity Cluster


Identities and activities
Identities and Activities 8th Grade Cluster Solutions

  • Reciprocal relations…

    • Activities as contexts of identity development

    • Identities at activity selection factors


Percent of 8 8th Grade Cluster Solutions th Grade Identity Types who

Participated in 8th Grade Team Sports


Percent of 11 8th Grade Cluster Solutions th Grade Identity Types who

Participated in Organized Summer or

After-School Sports or Rec. Programs


11 th grade activity clusters bartko eccles 2003
11 8th Grade Cluster Solutions th Grade Activity Clusters(Bartko & Eccles, 2003)


Jock identity and activity configurations form significant types
Jock Identity and Activity Configurations 8th Grade Cluster Solutions Form Significant Types


Percent of identity types in activity groups
Percent of Identity Types 8th Grade Cluster Solutions in Activity Groups


Longitudinal analyses of identity activity relations
Longitudinal Analyses of 8th Grade Cluster Solutions Identity – Activity Relations

  • Predicting Identities from Activities

  • Predicting Activities from Identities


Percent of 11 8th Grade Cluster Solutions th Grade Identity Types

as a function of

8th Grade Team Sports Participation


Percent of 8 8th Grade Cluster Solutions th Grade Identity Types

who go on to participate in

11th Grade Team Sports


Reciprocal effect size summary
Reciprocal Effect Size Summary 8th Grade Cluster Solutions

Cramer’s V


Summary
Summary 8th Grade Cluster Solutions

  • Cardinal identity structures exist

  • Identity structure is complex but coherent

  • There is intraindividual stability and change

  • Identities and activities are reciprocally related


Some closing thoughts… 8th Grade Cluster Solutions

http://www.rcgd.isr.umich.edu/garp/


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