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Stability and Change in Adolescent Identity Structure. Stephen C. Peck, Jacquelynne S. Eccles, Oksana Malanchuk, Catherine L. Funk University of Michigan. Acknowledgements.

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slide1

Stability and Change in Adolescent Identity Structure

Stephen C. Peck, Jacquelynne S. Eccles, Oksana Malanchuk, Catherine L. Funk

University of Michigan

slide2

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements made (alphabetically) to Elaine Belansky, Celina Chatman, Diane Early, Kari Fraser, Katie Jodl, Ariel Kalil, Linda Kuhn, Karen Macarthy, Rob Roeser, Arnold Sameroff, Sherri Steele, Cynthia Winston, and Carol Wong.

This research is supported in part by NICHD Grant #R01 HD33437 awarded to Jacquelynne S. Eccles and Arnold J. Sameroff and in part by a grant from W.T. Grant awarded to Jacquelynne S. Eccles. The original data collection was supported by funding from the MacArthur Research Network on Successful Adolescent Development in High Risk Settings, chaired by Richard Jessor.

overview
Overview
  • The concept of “identity”
  • Identity measures from open-ended data
  • Identity complexity, stability, and change
  • Identities and activities
slide4

Jingle Jangle Jungle

ego identity

self-theory

Personal Identity

self

beliefs

values

self-portrait

self-perceptions

ability

schema

possible selves

self-definition

self-attributes

awareness of

self-sameness

self-knowledge

talents

sense of self

roles

self-representations

self-concept

theory of self

self-image

me-self

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Identity as…

Content and Process

Personal and Social

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The sense of our own personal identity…is a conclusion grounded … on the continuity before the mind, of the phenomena compared.

James, 1890

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The conscious feeling

of having a personal identity

is based on...the perception

of the selfsameness and continuity

of one’s existence in time and space.

Erikson, 1968

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Self-as-Subject

Self-as-Object

Process

Content

I - Self

Me - Self

Sense of

self-sameness

Self - Identity

Personal Identity

The knower

All-conscious

Awareness

Ego - Identity

Social Identity

slide9

Jingle Jangle Jungle

Personal Identity

ego identity

self-theory

self

beliefs

values

self-portrait

self-perceptions

schema

ability

possible selves

self-definition

self-attributes

awareness of

self-sameness

self-knowledge

talents

sense of self

roles

self-representations

self-concept

theory of self

self-image

me-self

What is “Identity” ?

slide10

Systems Theory

Structure

Function

Process

Content

Fluctuation

Context Change

Bahg, 1990

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Identity is a complex system

Identity is a system…

composed of interacting elements

Identity is a system…

that exists within the context of larger systems

slide12

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Structured Content at Varying

Levels of the Self System

Context # 1

Context # 2

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Working Self / Activated

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Rational / Conscious

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Experiential / Preconscious

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Associationistic / Unconscious

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Phenomenology of Structured Content

Context # 2

Context# 1

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Self-Reflectivity / Awareness

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stream of behavior

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B

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Explicit Identity / Self-Concept

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enduring yet malleable

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Implicit Identity / Self-Schemas

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methodology
Methodology

Morphogenic

Dimensional

Variable-Centered

Pattern-Centered

madics eccles sameroff pi s maryland adolescent development in context study
MADICS (Eccles & Sameroff, PI’s)Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study
  • 6 (plus) Waves of Longitudinal Data
  • Questionnaires, Interviews, & Conversations
  • Target Youth, PCG, SCG, & OS
  • N’s 1482 (age 12) to 900 (age 23)
  • 49% Female
  • 60% Black, 30% White, 10% Other
open ended questions
Hopes

Wishes

Heroes

Adult Traits

Desired Occupation

Fears

Million Dollars

Hero Traits

Talents

Expected Occupation

Open-Ended Questions
9 identity themes
Artist

Athlete (Jock)

Brain

Intellectual General

Leader

Religious

Social Civic

Social General

Socialite

9Identity Themes
validation of open ended questions
Validation of Open-Ended Questions

7th Grade Youth Reports

7th Grade Parent Reports

pattern centered analysis open ended identity themes
Pattern-Centered Analysis Open-ended Identity Themes
  • 9 quasi-absolute identity theme dimensions
  • Cluster analyses
    • Ward’s method; squared Euclidean distance
  • Preliminary…SPSS
  • Final… Sleipner(v2.1; Bergman, Magnusson, & El-Khouri, 2003)
    • multivariate outliers removed
    • k-means relocation on Ward’s solution
7 th grade cluster validations
7th Grade Cluster Validations

Parent Reports

Youth Reports

(Explicit Identity)

demographics
There were NO differences across the several jock versus “other” clusters

at 7th, 8th, and 11th grades in…

Parent Income

Parent Education

Parent Occupational Status

Demographics
identities and activities
Identities and Activities
  • Reciprocal relations…
    • Activities as contexts of identity development
    • Identities at activity selection factors
slide39

Percent of 8th Grade Identity Types who

Participated in 8th Grade Team Sports

slide40

Percent of 11th Grade Identity Types who

Participated in Organized Summer or

After-School Sports or Rec. Programs

longitudinal analyses of identity activity relations
Longitudinal Analyses of Identity – Activity Relations
  • Predicting Identities from Activities
  • Predicting Activities from Identities
slide45

Percent of 11th Grade Identity Types

as a function of

8th Grade Team Sports Participation

slide46

Percent of 8th Grade Identity Types

who go on to participate in

11th Grade Team Sports

summary
Summary
  • Cardinal identity structures exist
  • Identity structure is complex but coherent
  • There is intraindividual stability and change
  • Identities and activities are reciprocally related
slide49

Some closing thoughts…

http://www.rcgd.isr.umich.edu/garp/

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