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Stability and Change in Adolescent Identity Structure. Stephen C. Peck, Jacquelynne S. Eccles, Oksana Malanchuk, Catherine L. Funk University of Michigan. Acknowledgements.

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Stability and Change in Adolescent Identity Structure

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Stability and Change in Adolescent Identity Structure

Stephen C. Peck, Jacquelynne S. Eccles, Oksana Malanchuk, Catherine L. Funk

University of Michigan


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements made (alphabetically) to Elaine Belansky, Celina Chatman, Diane Early, Kari Fraser, Katie Jodl, Ariel Kalil, Linda Kuhn, Karen Macarthy, Rob Roeser, Arnold Sameroff, Sherri Steele, Cynthia Winston, and Carol Wong.

This research is supported in part by NICHD Grant #R01 HD33437 awarded to Jacquelynne S. Eccles and Arnold J. Sameroff and in part by a grant from W.T. Grant awarded to Jacquelynne S. Eccles. The original data collection was supported by funding from the MacArthur Research Network on Successful Adolescent Development in High Risk Settings, chaired by Richard Jessor.


Overview

  • The concept of “identity”

  • Identity measures from open-ended data

  • Identity complexity, stability, and change

  • Identities and activities


Jingle Jangle Jungle

ego identity

self-theory

Personal Identity

self

beliefs

values

self-portrait

self-perceptions

ability

schema

possible selves

self-definition

self-attributes

awareness of

self-sameness

self-knowledge

talents

sense of self

roles

self-representations

self-concept

theory of self

self-image

me-self


Identity as…

Content and Process

Personal and Social


The sense of our own personal identity…is a conclusion grounded … on the continuity before the mind, of the phenomena compared.

James, 1890


The conscious feeling

of having a personal identity

is based on...the perception

of the selfsameness and continuity

of one’s existence in time and space.

Erikson, 1968


Self-as-Subject

Self-as-Object

Process

Content

I - Self

Me - Self

Sense of

self-sameness

Self - Identity

Personal Identity

The knower

All-conscious

Awareness

Ego - Identity

Social Identity


Jingle Jangle Jungle

Personal Identity

ego identity

self-theory

self

beliefs

values

self-portrait

self-perceptions

schema

ability

possible selves

self-definition

self-attributes

awareness of

self-sameness

self-knowledge

talents

sense of self

roles

self-representations

self-concept

theory of self

self-image

me-self

What is “Identity” ?


Systems Theory

Structure

Function

Process

Content

Fluctuation

Context Change

Bahg, 1990


Identity is a complex system

Identity is a system…

composed of interacting elements

Identity is a system…

that exists within the context of larger systems


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B

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F

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Structured Content at Varying

Levels of the Self System

Context # 1

Context # 2

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Working Self / Activated

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B

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C

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F

Rational / Conscious

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D

A

A

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Experiential / Preconscious

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Associationistic / Unconscious

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Phenomenology of Structured Content

Context # 2

Context# 1

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Self-Reflectivity / Awareness

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stream of behavior

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B

B

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C

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F

F

Explicit Identity / Self-Concept

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D

D

A

A

A

A

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E

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E

enduring yet malleable

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Implicit Identity / Self-Schemas

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Methodology

Morphogenic

Dimensional

Variable-Centered

Pattern-Centered


MADICS (Eccles & Sameroff, PI’s)Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study

  • 6 (plus) Waves of Longitudinal Data

  • Questionnaires, Interviews, & Conversations

  • Target Youth, PCG, SCG, & OS

  • N’s 1482 (age 12) to 900 (age 23)

  • 49% Female

  • 60% Black, 30% White, 10% Other


Hopes

Wishes

Heroes

Adult Traits

Desired Occupation

Fears

Million Dollars

Hero Traits

Talents

Expected Occupation

Open-Ended Questions


Artist

Athlete (Jock)

Brain

Intellectual General

Leader

Religious

Social Civic

Social General

Socialite

9Identity Themes


Percent of 7th, 8th, and 11th Graders at 4 levels of Jock Identity Content


Stability and Change in Open-Ended Jock Identity Content


Validation of Open-Ended Questions

7th Grade Youth Reports

7th Grade Parent Reports


Pattern-Centered Analysis Open-ended Identity Themes

  • 9 quasi-absolute identity theme dimensions

  • Cluster analyses

    • Ward’s method; squared Euclidean distance

  • Preliminary…SPSS

  • Final… Sleipner(v2.1; Bergman, Magnusson, & El-Khouri, 2003)

    • multivariate outliers removed

    • k-means relocation on Ward’s solution


Increases and Explained Error Sum of Squares for 20 Possible 7th Grade Cluster Solutions


7th Grade Sleipner Identity Cluster Profiles


Close-up of the 7th Grade Jock-related Cluster Profiles

n = 182

13%

n = 130

9%

n = 128

9%


Increases and Explained Error Sum of Squares for 20 Possible 8th Grade Cluster Solutions


8th Grade Sleipner Identity Cluster Profiles


Close-up of the 8th Grade Jock-related Cluster Profiles

n = 97

10%

n = 74

7%

n = 85

9%


Close-up of the 11th Grade Jock-related Cluster Profiles

n = 80

8%

n = 105

11%


Percent in a Jock Identity Cluster Group

from 7th to 11th Grade


Percent Who Want vs. Expect a Sports-related Occupation


7th Grade Cluster Validations

Parent Reports

Youth Reports

(Explicit Identity)


7th Grade by 8th GradeIdentity Cluster Crosstabulation


7th Grade by 8th GradeIdentity Cluster Crosstabulation


8th Grade by 11th GradeIdentity Cluster Crosstabulation


8th Grade by 11th GradeIdentity Cluster Crosstabulation


There were NO differences across the several jock versus “other” clusters

at 7th, 8th, and 11th grades in…

Parent Income

Parent Education

Parent Occupational Status

Demographics


Percent of 8th Grade Black and White Males and Females in each 8th Grade Identity Cluster


Identities and Activities

  • Reciprocal relations…

    • Activities as contexts of identity development

    • Identities at activity selection factors


Percent of 8th Grade Identity Types who

Participated in 8th Grade Team Sports


Percent of 11th Grade Identity Types who

Participated in Organized Summer or

After-School Sports or Rec. Programs


11th Grade Activity Clusters(Bartko & Eccles, 2003)


Jock Identity and Activity ConfigurationsForm Significant Types


Percent of Identity Typesin Activity Groups


Longitudinal Analyses of Identity – Activity Relations

  • Predicting Identities from Activities

  • Predicting Activities from Identities


Percent of 11th Grade Identity Types

as a function of

8th Grade Team Sports Participation


Percent of 8th Grade Identity Types

who go on to participate in

11th Grade Team Sports


Reciprocal Effect Size Summary

Cramer’s V


Summary

  • Cardinal identity structures exist

  • Identity structure is complex but coherent

  • There is intraindividual stability and change

  • Identities and activities are reciprocally related


Some closing thoughts…

http://www.rcgd.isr.umich.edu/garp/


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