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Chabot College. ELEC 99.05 Ethernet Switches. Ethernet Switch Basics. Layer 2 device Uses MAC addressing to control traffic flow Supports multiple simultaneous conversations Reduces needless LAN traffic. Basics: Layer 2 Device. Switch understands layer 2 addresses (MAC addresses):.

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Chabot college l.jpg

Chabot College

ELEC 99.05

Ethernet Switches


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Ethernet Switch Basics

  • Layer 2 device

  • Uses MAC addressing to control traffic flow

  • Supports multiple simultaneous conversations

  • Reduces needless LAN traffic


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Basics: Layer 2 Device

  • Switch understands layer 2 addresses (MAC addresses):

00-C0-F0-56-BD-98


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Basics: MAC Address Use

  • Switch does not act like hub!

  • Switch forwards frames based on MACaddress tables.


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Basics: MAC Address Use

  • Switch “learns” MAC addresses of hosts connected to switch ports as it receives frames from those ports:


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Basics: Multiple Data Paths

  • Switch can create several simultaneous data paths or “conversations”:


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Switches Reduce Needless LAN Traffic

  • Each switch port defines a collision domain.

  • Users on hub Aonly see trafficfrom/to theirworkgroup.


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Advanced Features

  • Switching matrix

  • Addressing

  • Multiple data rates

  • Full duplex

  • Port trunking

  • VLANs

  • Inter-switch communications

  • Modular Chassis


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Switching Matrix (Fabric)

  • Store & Forward

    • stores entire incoming frame in memory buffer

    • performs error detection

    • drops bad frames

    • forwards good frames to destination port based on MAC address

    • takes time - “high latency”


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Switching Matrix (Fabric)

  • Cut-through (cross-point)

    • reads frame only as far as destination address field

    • immediately forwards all frames to destination port based on MAC address

    • no error checking; forwards bad frames(usually not a serious problem)

    • fast - “low latency” (“wire speed”)


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Addressing Capability

  • 1 MAC address per port

    • used with “port switching”

    • microsegmentation


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Addressing Capability

  • 1 MAC address per port

    • used with “port switching”

    • microsegmentation

  • Multiple MAC addresses per port

    • used with “segment switching”


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Multiple Data Transfer Rates

  • Ports at 10mb/s and 100 mb/s

  • Requires “flow control”

Otherwise, a fast server on a 100 mb portcould overflow the buffer of a 10 mb port.


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Full Duplex Ports

  • Ports can transmit & receive simultaneously.

  • Useful mainly for servers.

  • Possible only when there is one host per port (no collisions).

  • Modern NICs “auto-sense” a full-duplex switch port& turn on FD.


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Port Trunking

  • Ports can “trunked” (linked together) to form a high bandwidth channel between switches:


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Tiered Bandwidth

  • Bandwidth can be placed where it is needed most:


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VLANs

  • Switch ports can be separated into groups called VLANs (virtual LANs)


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VLANs

  • Each VLAN forms a broadcast domain.

  • Each VLAN is a separate Local Area Network


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VLANs

  • VLAN can be cross-connected by routers.(just like LANs)


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Inter-Switch Communication

  • Vendor-specific frame technologies allow switches to communicate.

  • Cisco’s version is ISL (Inter Switch Link)

  • Allows VLANs to span several switches.

  • Hosts G, I, J, K are all part of VLAN 2:


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Modular Chassis

  • Large switches often use a modular chassis that accepts various:

    • “switching engines”

    • interface modules

    • power supplies

  • The Cisco Catalyst 5000 and 5505 are examples used on the Chabot campus


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Catalyst 5000 Chassis


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