Science of hadith
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Science of Hadith. Introduction. Muslims are agreed that the sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is the second of the two revealed fundamental sources of Islam.

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Science of Hadith

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Science of Hadith


  • Muslims are agreed that the sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is the second of the two revealed fundamental sources of Islam.

  • During the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and after his death , his companions used to refer to him directly, when quoting his sayings.

  • The next generation to Tabi’een (successors) used to follow their steps and quote the Prophet (peace be upon him ) directly, while others would still mention the link. ( he is usually a Sahabi or senior Tabi’ee)

  • After the fitnah (civil war) happened , some sects appearedwithin the Muslim nation.

  • Various groups supported their views by fabricating some ahadeeth.

  • The need for verification of each Hadith arose.

  • Imam Malik (d.179) said : “ The first one to utilize the Isnad/sanad was Ibn Shihab Alzuhri (d.124)

  • A hadith is composed of two parts: the matn (text) and the isnad/ sanad ( chain of reporters)

  • A text may seem to be logical and reasonable but needs an authentic isnad with reliable reporters to be acceptable.

  • Imam Abdullah ibn Al-Mubarak (d.181).H said: “The isnad is part of the religion, had it not been for the isnad, whoever wished to, would have said what ever he likes.”

  • Ibn Sireen (d.110) said:” They would not ask about the isnad, but when the fitnah happened they said: Name to us your men. So the narrations of Ahla-alsunnah would be accepted, while those of Ahl-albida’h would not be accepted.”

A brief history of Mustalahal-Hadith

  • As time passed, more reporters were involved in each isnad / sanad.

  • The situation demanded strict discipline in the acceptance of Ahadith.

  • The set of rules governing this area of knowledge is called “Mustalah al-Hadith.”

  • Among the early writing about these rules, the work of Al-Imam Ashafie (d.204) in his book called Al-Risalah, Imam Muslim (d.261) in his introduction to his sahih and the notes found in Jami Atthirmithi (d.279)

  • The first work that was comprehensive and purely dedicated to the rules of Mustalah Al-Hadith is what was written by Al-Ramahurmuzi (d.360)

    ”المحدث الفاصل بين الراوي والسامع“

  • The next major contribution was Ma’rifat Ulum Al-hadeeth by Al-Hakim (d.405) H. He covered fifty classifications of Hadith, but still he left some points untouched.

  • Abu Nu’aim Al-asbahani (d.430) completed some of the missing work.

  • Then came Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdadi (d.463) with his work Al-Kifayah fi ilm Al-Riwayah.(الكفاية في علم الرواية)

    and his 2nd work (Al-Jami’ Li-Akhlaaq Al-raawy wa Adab Al-sami’)

    ( الجامع لأخلاق الراوي وآداب السامع)

  • Then came Al-Qadi Iyad (d.544) with his work

    (الإلماع في ضبط الرواية وقوانين السماع)

    “ Al-lma’ Fi thabth Al-riwayah wa Kawaneen Al-sama’ “

  • Then came Ibn salaah (d.643) with his famous work ”علوم الحديث“

    “ the science of Hadith” commonly known as Muqadimah Ibn al-salah, it contained series of lessons taught by Ibn Alsalah in Al-Ashrafiyah School in Damascus.

  • Imam Al-nawawi (d.774) summarized Al-muqqadimah in a book called Al-Irshad, and then he summarized Al-Irshad in his book Al-taqrib(التقريب)

  • Al-Imam As-suyouti wrote a commentary on Al-taqrib and called it Tadrib al-Rawy

Classification of HadithAccording to the reference to a particular authority

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