Normal rain ph 5 6
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Normal Rain (pH 5.6) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Normal Rain (pH 5.6). CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l)  H 2 CO 3 (aq). carbonic acid (a weak acid). Acid Rain (pH < 5.6). NO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l)  HNO 3 (aq). nitric acid (a strong acid). Transportation 60%. 2 SO 2 (g) + O 2 (g)  2 SO 3 (g). SO 3 (g) + H 2 O (l)  H 2 SO 4 (aq).

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Normal Rain (pH 5.6)

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Normal rain ph 5 6

Normal Rain (pH 5.6)

CO2 (g) + H2O (l) H2CO3(aq)

carbonic acid

(a weak acid)


Normal rain ph 5 6

Acid Rain (pH < 5.6)

NO2(g) + H2O (l) HNO3(aq)

nitric acid

(a strong acid)

Transportation

60%


Normal rain ph 5 6

2 SO2(g) + O2(g) 2 SO3(g)

SO3(g) + H2O (l) H2SO4(aq)

sulfuric acid

(a strong acid)

Electric Utilities

27%

Industrial Sources

68%


Normal rain ph 5 6

Effects of Acid Rain

1.Damage to Structures Made of Limestone, CaCO3


Normal rain ph 5 6

2. Damage to Plants

Acid rain damages the

surfaces of leafs. This

leaves the plant unable

to make food & more

susceptible to pests &

diseases.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Acid rain also causesleaching(removal) of minerals from the soil.

Aluminum can block

the uptake of the few

remaining minerals in

the soil.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Acid rain can kill

thedecomposers

in soil.


Normal rain ph 5 6

3.Damage to Fish Populations

Fish (especially their eggs &

fry) are very sensitive to changes

in pH. Acid rain can cause

pH shockas the snow & ice

melts in the spring.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Acid rain can cause the aluminum in soil to enter ponds & lakes. Fish respond to the aluminum by producing excess mucous on the surface of their gills. The result is death by suffocation.


Normal rain ph 5 6

4.Harm to Human Beings

We depend upon the forestry, fishing,

& agricultural sectorsnot only for

food, paper, & building materials,

but also for jobs & recreation.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Nitrogen & sulfur oxides

can react with the moisture

in our lungs to produce acids.


Normal rain ph 5 6

As a result of acid rain,

toxic minerals (e.g.- Hg)

can be leached out of soil

and into our drinking water.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Why Are Certain Areas More Sensitive to Acid Rain Than Others?

bedrock consists of granite,

which is NOT a base

bedrock consists of a base - limestone or CaCO3

(i.e.- a vast inland sea was once located in this area)


Normal rain ph 5 6

The Great Lakes

Lakes in the Canadian Shield


Normal rain ph 5 6

The prevailing winds carry acid rain emissions from

their sources in southern Ontario & the American industrial

heartland to these areas.


Normal rain ph 5 6

How Can Acid Rain Be Prevented or Remedied?

Catalytic convertersdecompose nitrogen

& sulfur oxides.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Scrubbers

These devices spray a solution containing limestone powder into the smokestack. This causes the sulfur dioxide to become neutralized.


Normal rain ph 5 6

“Soft” (Bituminous) Coal

This is coal that has

a low sulfur content.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Liming

The process of adding a lime or calcium hydroxide (a base)

to acidified lakes.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Use Energy Sources that Don’t Produce Nitrogen or Sulfur Oxides


Normal rain ph 5 6

Legislation

Canadian PM Brian Mulrooney & U.S. President George Bush

signed the Acid Rain Accord in 1991, committing both of their

countries to reduce acid rain emissions.


Normal rain ph 5 6

Lifestyle Decisions

drive less

conserve electricity


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