Astr 115 stars and galaxies
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ASTR 115: Stars and galaxies. "We are explorers. Our curiosity propels us to push the frontiers of human possibility and imagination. This is the core of NASA's mission - We dare to explore." - Michael D. Griffin         Former NASA Administrator         April, 2008.

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ASTR 115: Stars and galaxies

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Astr 115 stars and galaxies

ASTR 115: Stars and galaxies

"We are explorers. Our curiosity propels us to push the frontiers of human possibility and imagination. This is the core of NASA's mission - We dare to explore."- Michael D. Griffin        Former NASA Administrator        April, 2008

“Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known.”

- Carl Sagan

Astronomer


Astr 115 stars and galaxies1

ASTR 115 – Stars and galaxies

Instructor: Tracy Furutani ([email protected])

Textbook (required): Astrophysics is Easy! by Michael Inglis

Course website: http://facweb.northseattle.edu/tfurutan

then click on the Astronomy 115 link

Note: This a hard-link integrated studies course with Barbara Goldner’s MATH 098 class. The classes run concurrently.


Course expectations

Course Expectations

  • Basic math skills (basic algebra, scientific notation, unit conversion)

  • Basic writing (referencing, researching, word processing)

  • Computer literacy (using Web resources)


Assignments

Assignments

Labs: Hands-on exercises to reinforce lecture topics. Also, time will be set aside to teach problem solving techniques and review relevant lecture material. May be done in groups or individually.

Poster Project: Visual presentation of the term project. Handout will follow. Includes the writing of an abstract (summary) prior to the presentation.

Homework: Roughly one assignment per week, to be done outside of class time, though you should ask questions related to the homework in class. May require some outside reading. Each person should turn in their own assignment.


Course objectives

Course Objectives

  • Explore the following topics: inventory of space, astronomical distances, forces that govern matter, basics of light and matter (spectroscopy), astronomical instrumentation, structure and energy source of the sun and other stars, stellar birth, life and death, galactic structure and classification, large scale structure of the universe, fate of the universe.

  • Learn basic problem solving techniques.

  • Learn basic observing and experimental techniques.


Some things we will discuss

Some things we will discuss:


Some things we will discuss1

Some things we will discuss:


Some things we will discuss2

Some things we will discuss:


Some things we will discuss3

Some things we will discuss:


Why do we have seasons on earth

Why do we have seasons on earth?

  • Change of earth’s distance from the sun

  • Tilt of earth’s rotation axis relative to its orbit

  • Greenhouse effect

  • Mysterious alien technology


Why do we have seasons on earth1

Why do we have seasons on earth?

  • Change of earth’s distance from the sun

  • Tilt of earth’s rotation axis relative to its orbit

  • Greenhouse effect

  • Mysterious alien technology


Seasons

Seasons


Will a human set foot on mars in your lifetime

Will a human set foot on Mars in your lifetime?

  • Yes

  • No


Perspective

Perspective

The Earth was small, light blue, and so touchingly alone, our home that must be defended like a holy relic. The Earth was absolutely round. I believe I never knew what the word round meant until I saw Earth from space.- Aleksei Leonov, USSR


Perspective1

Perspective

It suddenly struck me that that tiny pea, pretty and blue, was the Earth. I put up my thumb and shut one eye, and my thumb blotted out the planet Earth. I didn't feel like a giant. I felt very, very small.

— Neil Armstrong (Apollo XI)

The view of the Earth from the Moon fascinated me—a small disk, 240,000 miles away. . . . Raging nationalistic interests, famines, wars, pestilence don't show from that distance.

— Frank Borman (Apollo VIII)


Perspective and scale in our solar system

Perspective and Scale in Our Solar System


Astr 115 stars and galaxies

Our Local Inventory:

What makes up our star system?

1)A single central star of spectral class “G2”, luminosity class V (yellow-dwarf, main sequence).

2)Two sub-stellar giant planets (Jupiter & Saturn)

3)Two icy-gas hybrid planets (Uranus & Neptune)

All of the above planets have large systems of satellites; some are planet-sized: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Titan, and Triton)

4)Four much smaller rocky planets. (Mercury, Venus, Earth, & Mars)

5)Two areas of failed planetary debris

a) one rock-based (asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter)

b) one ice-based (Kuiper Belt starting at Neptune’s orbit) .

6)Several “dwarf planets” (e.g., Pluto)

7)An extended distribution of ejected or non-condensed debris (Oort Cloud)


Asteroid belt rocks between mars and jupiter

Asteroid belt (rocks) between Mars and Jupiter


Icy kuiper belt objects kbos lie beyond neptune s orbit

Icy Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) lie beyond Neptune’s orbit


Oort cloud is well beyond pluto or sedna or eris or any other kbo

Oort Cloud is well beyond Pluto, or Sedna, or Eris, or any other KBO


Solar system is this scale right

Solar System (Is this scale right?)

  • Yes

  • No


Solar system is this scale right1

Solar System (Is this scale right?)

  • Yes

  • NO


Astr 115 stars and galaxies

Sun

Venus

Earth

Mars

Mercury


Astr 115 stars and galaxies

Sun

Jupiter

Saturn

Neptune

Uranus

Pluto

Missoula


Astr 115 stars and galaxies

The Sun and the Solar System

Any study of the solar system must start with the Sun…..

1) The sun contains 99.9% of all the mass in the solar system (Jupiter has most of the remaining 0.1%)

2) The sun dominates energy (and light) production at all frequencies (except in radio waves where human activity is stronger!)

3) Solar energy largely determines the temperatures of every object in the solar system.

4) Material from the solar atmosphere is the dominant component of interplanetary space.

Compared to the Sun, the planets are nearly inconsequential…..


Astr 115 stars and galaxies

The places we are most interested in don’t add up to very much……

Earth

Venus

Mars

Ganymede

Titan

Mercury

Callisto

Io

Moon

Europa

Triton

Pluto

Neptune

Uranus

Saturn

The Sun dominates the solar system.

Jupiter

Earth

Sol


Astr 115 stars and galaxies

Our Local Inventory:

Where to learn more?

www.nineplanets.org

www.earthsky.org


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