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Cities of the Indus Valley Chapter 3 Section 1. Mr. Marsh Columbus North High School. Which of the following two water bodies influenced early Indian civilization?. Yellow and Yangzi rivers Indus and Ganges rivers Arabian and Mediterranean seas Tigris and Euphrates rivers. [Default]

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Cities of the indus valley chapter 3 section 1

Cities of the Indus ValleyChapter 3 Section 1

Mr. Marsh

Columbus North High School


Which of the following two water bodies influenced early indian civilization
Which of the following two water bodies influenced early Indian civilization?

  • Yellow and Yangzi rivers

  • Indus and Ganges rivers

  • Arabian and Mediterranean seas

  • Tigris and Euphrates rivers

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The finding of the indus valley
The Finding of the Indus Valley Indian civilization?

  • The Indus Valley Civilization was discovered in 1922

  • Little is known about the Civilization

  • First Cities in the Indus Valley were developed around 2500 BC


Geography of the subcontinent
Geography of the Subcontinent Indian civilization?

  • Three Major Regions

    • Northern Plain

    • Dry Triangular Deccan

    • Coastal Plains


Indus valley civilization
Indus Valley Civilization Indian civilization?

  • First Civilization was founded around 2500 BC

    • Present day Pakistan

  • Lasted for around 1000 years

  • No records have been found to name kings, queens, tax records, etc…


Well planed cities
Well Planed Cities Indian civilization?

  • Harappa

  • Mohenjo-Daro (moh HEHN joh DAH roh)

    • Both Cities where laid out in large rectangular blocks.

    • Grid Pattern

    • All houses built uniform

    • Modern plumbing systems

    • Uniform weights and measure


What evidence suggests that the indus valley cities had a well organized government
What evidence suggests that the Indus Valley cities had a well-organized government?

  • well-planned cities

  • writings on stone seals

  • records left by kings

  • statues of goddesses

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Farming and trade
Farming and Trade well-organized government?

  • First to cultivate cotton, and weave fibers into cloth

    • Farming was driving by two major things

      • Melting snow from the Himalayan Mountains (Northern Plain)

      • Summer Monson Rains (Coastal Plains)

  • Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea allowed the Indus people to trade with those of Mesopotamia

    • Contact with Sumer lead to the development of writing in the Indus Valley


Religious beliefs
Religious Beliefs well-organized government?

  • All based on speculation by archeologist

  • Polytheistic

    • Mother Goddess, the source of creation

    • Sacred Animals

      • Believed to be the major reason for Indian beliefs towards cattle


Decline and disappearance
Decline and Disappearance well-organized government?

  • By 1750 BC the civilization began to decline

  • No real evidence on why

    • Theories include

      • Volcanic eruption which blocked the Indus river causing the valley to flood

      • Earthquake

      • Tsunami

      • Overuse of natural resources


Disappearance
Disappearance well-organized government?

  • Scholars believed by 1500 BC the final blow was given

  • Nomadic newcomers known as Aryans

    • Arrived from Southern Russia

    • Horses, superior weapons…


The indus river and lower town
The Indus River and "lower town" well-organized government?


Lower town
Lower Town: well-organized government?


Lower town1
Lower Town: well-organized government?


Lower town2
Lower Town: well-organized government?


Great bath and granary
Great Bath and Granary well-organized government?


Great bath sd area looking north
Great Bath, SD Area, looking north well-organized government?


Corbelled drain exiting the great bath
Corbelled Drain exiting the Great Bath well-organized government?


What is this
What is this? well-organized government?

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Kingdoms of the ganges chapter 3 sec 2

Kingdoms of the Ganges well-organized government?Chapter 3 sec. 2

Mr. Marsh

Columbus North High School


Aryans
Aryans well-organized government?

  • Indo-European group that migrated across Europe and Asia in search of water and food

    • Nomadic tribe

  • Most of what is known about the Aryans has come from the Vedas

    • Collection of prayers, hymns and religious teachings

      • Time period became known as the Vedic Age


During the vedic age the aryans changed
During the Vedic age, the Aryans changed well-organized government?

  • from nomads to farmers.

  • from warriors to merchants.

  • from servants to rulers.

  • from farmers to nomads.

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Aryan society
Aryan Society well-organized government?

  • People were divided by occupation not income

  • Three Basic Groups

    • Brahmins or priests

    • Kshatriyas (kuh SHAT ree yuhz) warriors

    • Vaisyas (vis yhuz) herders, farmers, artisans and merchants

      • Warriors were seen as the highest tier but with time Brahmins claimed they were the only ones that could please the gods


Aryan society cont
Aryan Society Cont’ well-organized government?

  • Felt superior to the Dravidians (the people they conquered)

  • Dravidians and non-Aryans became the fourth group, known as Sudras (soo druhz)

  • With time class divisions came to reflect social and economic status a much more complex system known as “castes”

    • You are born into your castes and you can not change that status


Aryan religious beliefs
Aryan Religious Beliefs well-organized government?

  • Polytheistic

    • Gods and goddesses of fire, earth, wind, sun, moon, war, etc….

    • Also had animal gods and goddesses

    • With time a notion of a single spiritual power beyond the gods developed called “’Brahman”

    • Move toward mysticism

      • Spiritual truth through meditation

        • Religions that emerged after the Vedic age reflected the impact of mysticism


Expansion and change
Expansion and Change well-organized government?

  • As Aryans conquered they mingled and took from other civilizations, soon they gave up the nomadic way of life for farming

  • Aryans begin to settle the Ganges basin by 800 B.C.

    • Tribal wars began over territories between Aryan tribes

    • By 500 B.C. a new Indian Civilization had emerged

    • Indian people had developed a written language, Sanskrit

      • Vedas start to be written


Epic literature
Epic Literature well-organized government?

  • Even with written language the Oral tradition stayed a mainstream with the Aryans

  • Two major epic poems were kept in Oral context

    • Mahabharata (muh HAH bah rah tuh)

    • Ramayana (rah MAH yuh nuh)


Mahabharata
Mahabharata well-organized government?

  • 100,000 versus

  • Epic battles between the Aryans

    • One episode Bhagavad-Gita (BUGH un vuhd GEE tuh) reflects important Indian religious beliefs about the immortality of the soul and the importance of duty


Ramayana
Ramayana well-organized government?

  • Major moral lesson is the role of men and women

    • Men- taught the model of virtue

    • Women- loyal and obedient to her husband


Looking ahead
Looking Ahead well-organized government?

  • Aryan religion develops into two of the worlds largest religions

    • Hinduism and Buddhism


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