Cities of the indus valley chapter 3 section 1
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Cities of the Indus Valley Chapter 3 Section 1. Mr. Marsh Columbus North High School. Which of the following two water bodies influenced early Indian civilization?. Yellow and Yangzi rivers Indus and Ganges rivers Arabian and Mediterranean seas Tigris and Euphrates rivers. [Default]

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Cities of the Indus Valley Chapter 3 Section 1

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Cities of the indus valley chapter 3 section 1

Cities of the Indus ValleyChapter 3 Section 1

Mr. Marsh

Columbus North High School

Which of the following two water bodies influenced early indian civilization

Which of the following two water bodies influenced early Indian civilization?

  • Yellow and Yangzi rivers

  • Indus and Ganges rivers

  • Arabian and Mediterranean seas

  • Tigris and Euphrates rivers


[MC Any]

[MC All]

The finding of the indus valley

The Finding of the Indus Valley

  • The Indus Valley Civilization was discovered in 1922

  • Little is known about the Civilization

  • First Cities in the Indus Valley were developed around 2500 BC

Geography of the subcontinent

Geography of the Subcontinent

  • Three Major Regions

    • Northern Plain

    • Dry Triangular Deccan

    • Coastal Plains

Indus valley civilization

Indus Valley Civilization

  • First Civilization was founded around 2500 BC

    • Present day Pakistan

  • Lasted for around 1000 years

  • No records have been found to name kings, queens, tax records, etc…

Well planed cities

Well Planed Cities

  • Harappa

  • Mohenjo-Daro (moh HEHN joh DAH roh)

    • Both Cities where laid out in large rectangular blocks.

    • Grid Pattern

    • All houses built uniform

    • Modern plumbing systems

    • Uniform weights and measure

What evidence suggests that the indus valley cities had a well organized government

What evidence suggests that the Indus Valley cities had a well-organized government?

  • well-planned cities

  • writings on stone seals

  • records left by kings

  • statues of goddesses


[MC Any]

[MC All]

Farming and trade

Farming and Trade

  • First to cultivate cotton, and weave fibers into cloth

    • Farming was driving by two major things

      • Melting snow from the Himalayan Mountains (Northern Plain)

      • Summer Monson Rains (Coastal Plains)

  • Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea allowed the Indus people to trade with those of Mesopotamia

    • Contact with Sumer lead to the development of writing in the Indus Valley

Religious beliefs

Religious Beliefs

  • All based on speculation by archeologist

  • Polytheistic

    • Mother Goddess, the source of creation

    • Sacred Animals

      • Believed to be the major reason for Indian beliefs towards cattle

Decline and disappearance

Decline and Disappearance

  • By 1750 BC the civilization began to decline

  • No real evidence on why

    • Theories include

      • Volcanic eruption which blocked the Indus river causing the valley to flood

      • Earthquake

      • Tsunami

      • Overuse of natural resources



  • Scholars believed by 1500 BC the final blow was given

  • Nomadic newcomers known as Aryans

    • Arrived from Southern Russia

    • Horses, superior weapons…

The indus river and lower town

The Indus River and "lower town"

Lower town

Lower Town:

Lower town1

Lower Town:

Lower town2

Lower Town:

Great bath and granary

Great Bath and Granary

Great bath sd area looking north

Great Bath, SD Area, looking north

Corbelled drain exiting the great bath

Corbelled Drain exiting the Great Bath

What is this

What is this?


[MC Any]

[MC All]

Kingdoms of the ganges chapter 3 sec 2

Kingdoms of the GangesChapter 3 sec. 2

Mr. Marsh

Columbus North High School



  • Indo-European group that migrated across Europe and Asia in search of water and food

    • Nomadic tribe

  • Most of what is known about the Aryans has come from the Vedas

    • Collection of prayers, hymns and religious teachings

      • Time period became known as the Vedic Age

During the vedic age the aryans changed

During the Vedic age, the Aryans changed

  • from nomads to farmers.

  • from warriors to merchants.

  • from servants to rulers.

  • from farmers to nomads.


[MC Any]

[MC All]

Aryan society

Aryan Society

  • People were divided by occupation not income

  • Three Basic Groups

    • Brahmins or priests

    • Kshatriyas (kuh SHAT ree yuhz) warriors

    • Vaisyas (vis yhuz) herders, farmers, artisans and merchants

      • Warriors were seen as the highest tier but with time Brahmins claimed they were the only ones that could please the gods

Aryan society cont

Aryan Society Cont’

  • Felt superior to the Dravidians (the people they conquered)

  • Dravidians and non-Aryans became the fourth group, known as Sudras (soo druhz)

  • With time class divisions came to reflect social and economic status a much more complex system known as “castes”

    • You are born into your castes and you can not change that status

Aryan religious beliefs

Aryan Religious Beliefs

  • Polytheistic

    • Gods and goddesses of fire, earth, wind, sun, moon, war, etc….

    • Also had animal gods and goddesses

    • With time a notion of a single spiritual power beyond the gods developed called “’Brahman”

    • Move toward mysticism

      • Spiritual truth through meditation

        • Religions that emerged after the Vedic age reflected the impact of mysticism

Expansion and change

Expansion and Change

  • As Aryans conquered they mingled and took from other civilizations, soon they gave up the nomadic way of life for farming

  • Aryans begin to settle the Ganges basin by 800 B.C.

    • Tribal wars began over territories between Aryan tribes

    • By 500 B.C. a new Indian Civilization had emerged

    • Indian people had developed a written language, Sanskrit

      • Vedas start to be written

Epic literature

Epic Literature

  • Even with written language the Oral tradition stayed a mainstream with the Aryans

  • Two major epic poems were kept in Oral context

    • Mahabharata (muh HAH bah rah tuh)

    • Ramayana (rah MAH yuh nuh)



  • 100,000 versus

  • Epic battles between the Aryans

    • One episode Bhagavad-Gita (BUGH un vuhd GEE tuh) reflects important Indian religious beliefs about the immortality of the soul and the importance of duty



  • Major moral lesson is the role of men and women

    • Men- taught the model of virtue

    • Women- loyal and obedient to her husband

Looking ahead

Looking Ahead

  • Aryan religion develops into two of the worlds largest religions

    • Hinduism and Buddhism

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