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Preview Starting Points Map: Italy and the Mediterranean Main Idea / Reading Focus Roman Civilization Develops Quick Facts: Etruscan Influences Rome Becomes a Republic Quick Facts: Checks and Balances in the Roman Government The Republic Expands

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Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

Preview

Starting Points Map: Italy and the Mediterranean

Main Idea / Reading Focus

Roman Civilization Develops

Quick Facts: Etruscan Influences

Rome Becomes a Republic

Quick Facts: Checks and Balances in the Roman Government

The Republic Expands

Faces of History: Two Commanders of the Punic Wars

The Foundations of Rome


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

Click the icon to play Listen to History audio.

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Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

The Foundations of Rome

Main Idea

From a small town on the banks of an Italian river, Rome grew to control the entire Mediterranean region.

  • Reading Focus

  • Where and how did Roman civilization develop?

  • What led to Rome’s becoming a republic?

  • What were the major events in Rome’s expansion?


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

Italy’s Geography

The Founding of Rome

  • Peninsula logical place for emergence of mighty empire

    • Juts south from Europe far into Mediterranean Sea

    • Lies almost halfway between eastern, western boundaries of the sea

    • Protected by mountains, sea

    • Rich soil, mild climate

  • Legend: Romulus and Remus, twin brothers raised by she-wolf; founded city 753 BC

  • Members of Indo-European tribe, Latins, reached Italy 1000s BC; built Rome

  • City prospered partly from location on Tiber River

  • Valuable trade routes, easy access to sea

Roman Civilization Develops

“All roads lead to Rome.” “Rome was not built in a day.” “When in Rome . . .” How did Rome win such a place in modern popular culture?


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

Rome first ruled by Latin Kings

Came under Etruscan rule, 600 BC

Etruscans came from northern Italy

Evidence found at cemeteries indicates Etruscans great metalworkers, jewelers

Etruscan culture heavily influenced by Greeks

Etruscans had great influence on Roman society

The Etruscans


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

Summarize

What advantages did Rome’s location give the city?

Answer(s): protected by mountains; sea provided protection and transportation; had rich soil, pleasant climate; located on major trade routes; Tiber River provided easy access to the sea


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

Rome Becomes a Republic

  • Etruscan Rule Ends

  • Etruscans ruled Rome until about 509 BC

  • Romans revolted, threw out last of kings, setup new type of government

  • Republic—elected officials governed state

  • Patricians

  • In early days, heads of a few aristocratic families, patricians, elected officials

  • Patrician families controlled all society—politics, religion, economics, military

  • Maintained power through patronage system

  • Plebeians

  • From beginning, common people, plebeians, challenged patricians for power

  • Invaders threatened 494 BC; plebeians refused to fight until changes made

  • Patricians knew they would have no army, expanded plebeian rights


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

  • Plebeian Council

  • After receiving new rights, plebeians formed own assembly, Plebeian Council, to oversee affairs and protect interests

  • Gained right to elect officials known as tribunes

  • Tribunes’ job—protect against unjust treatment by patrician officials

  • Gained right to veto—ban laws that seemed harmful, unjust

  • Laws

  • 450 BC, plebeians forced patricians to have all laws written down

  • Laws displayed in Roman Forum, central square, on 12 large bronze tablets

  • Because laws were posted, patrician judges could not make decisions based on own opinions or secret laws

  • One new law banned marriage between patricians and plebeians


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

Elements of Government

New Offices and Institutions

  • Senate: 300 members, advised elected officials, controlled public finances, handled all foreign relations

  • Popular assemblies: in these all citizens voted on laws, elected officials

  • Magistrates: governed in name of Senate and people, put laws into practice, acted as priests

  • Patricians, plebeians worked out practical constitution

  • Created new offices of government

  • Consisted of three parts: Senate, popular assemblies, magistrates

  • Initially dominated by patricians; all state offices later open to both patricians, plebeians

Republican Government


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

Governing Details

  • Consuls

  • When last king thrown out, his place taken by two magistrates called consuls

  • Elected for one year; chief executives, army commanders

  • Censors

  • Next most important after consuls

  • Recorded wealth, residence of population

  • Filled vacancies in Senate

  • Praetors

  • Primarily judges, could act for consuls if consuls away at war

  • After terms ended, given military commands, appointed provisional governors

  • Constraints

  • Government worked well because of system of checks, balances

  • Each part could impose certain constraints on others


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

Location

Political Center

Busy Place

  • Nestled between two hills: Palatine, Capitoline

  • Palatine, where wealthy lived

  • Capitoline, where grandest temples were

  • City leaders often found in Forum mingling with common people

  • Senate met in Forum

  • Key public addresses made there

  • Forum more than just political center

  • Popular place for shopping, gossip

  • Busy shops lined either side of Forum

  • Public celebrations usually held there

Life in the Republic

During the days of the Roman Republic, Rome was a thriving and vibrant city. At its heart was the Forum, the public square and site of the most important government buildings and temples.


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

Legend of Early Republic

Return to Farm

  • Roman tie to land illustrated in legend of early Republic

  • Romans turned to greatest general, Cincinnatus, to save them from invasion

  • Cincinnatus plowing fields at the time

  • People made Cincinnatus dictator

  • Office of dictator had nearly unlimited power but could be held for only six months

  • Cincinnatus defeated enemies and returned to farm

  • Had no interest in retaining power

Agrarian Roots

  • Despite bustling nature of city, Romans prided themselves on connection with soil

  • Farming, landownership the noblest ways to make money

  • Senators forbidden to participate in any career that did not involve land, could not engage in commerce


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

Draw Conclusions

Why do you think the Romans established a republic?

Answer(s): possible answer—They wanted a system of laws to keep peace within their expanding empire.


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

The Republic Expands

  • Growth

  • As Rome’s government changed, the Roman population continued to grow

  • Rome needed more land for expanding population

  • Began to settle surplus population on land acquired by conquering neighbors

  • Military Might

  • Successful expansion not possible without powerful army

  • All Roman men between ages 17 and 46 with minimum amount of property required to serve in army during times of war

  • Roman Army

  • Organized into units called legions, backbone of which were centurions

  • Centurions: noncommissioned officers who each commanded 100 men

  • Army highly disciplined, well-trained force, could fight in all types of terrain


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

  • The Conquest of Italy

  • 265 BC, Romans had defeated Etruscans and Greek cities in Southern Italy

  • Romans imposed two strict conditions on subject people—subjects had to provide troops for Roman army, abandon any dealings with foreign nations

  • Other than those conditions, Rome rarely interfered with domestic affairs of people it conquered

  • Sicily

  • Once in control of Italy, Rome turned attention to Sicily, large island to south of Italian Peninsula

  • In Sicily, Rome came into conflict with Carthage, powerful North African trading city

  • Conflict grew into series of three wars

  • Punic Wars raged for nearly 80 years


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

Hannibal

Scipio

  • Violence soon broke out again

  • 218 BC, Carthaginian general Hannibal led army across Pyrenees, Alps to invade Italy

  • Hannibal ravaged Italy, defeated every army he faced

  • Romans needed new strategy

  • Romans decided to take war to Africa

  • General Publius Cornelius Scipio sailed to Africa, besieged Carthage

  • Forced Hannibal to sail home

  • Scipio defeated Hannibal, took Carthage, won Second Punic War

The Punic Wars

Violence between Rome and Carthage broke out in 264 BC. Because the First Punic War was fought mostly at sea, Carthage’s powerful navy dominated the early fighting. Soon, however, the Romans built a navy of their own and were able to defeat Carthage.

The Romans had defeated Carthage, but it did not destroy the city as many citizens had wanted.


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

Huge losses of Second Punic War remained in memories of many Romans

149 BC Rome decided to destroy old enemy once and for all

Declared war on Carthage for third time

After siege of three years, Carthage fell

Romans enslaved entire population, completely destroyed city

They banned any people from living there

Carthage Falls


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

Macedonia, Persia

Greek Culture

  • Romans, Greek allies fought, and defeated Macedonia, Persia

  • Both became Roman provinces

  • Eventually Romans annexed Greece as province as well

  • Romans adopted many elements of Greek culture, particularly art

  • Romans also borrowed ideas of religion from Greeks, adopted their gods but changed the names

  • Not all Romans happy with growing Greek influence, thought Rome should remain purely Roman

  • Influence continued for many years

The Conquest of Greece

  • Punic Wars raged in western republic; Rome involved in politics of eastern Mediterranean

  • Hellenistic kingdoms of Macedonia, Persia, and Egypt fought constantly; Greek city-states feared being conquered

  • City-states sought alliance with Rome


Preview starting points map italy and the mediterranean main idea reading focus

Sequence

How did Rome come to dominate the Mediterranean world?

Answer(s): by conquering its Mediterranean neighbors, including Carthage and Greece


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