Preview Starting Points Map: Italy and the Mediterranean Main Idea / Reading Focus Roman Civilization Develops Quick Facts: Etruscan Influences Rome Becomes a Republic Quick Facts: Checks and Balances in the Roman Government The Republic Expands
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Starting Points Map: Italy and the Mediterranean
Main Idea / Reading Focus
Roman Civilization Develops
Quick Facts: Etruscan Influences
Rome Becomes a Republic
Quick Facts: Checks and Balances in the Roman Government
The Republic Expands
Faces of History: Two Commanders of the Punic Wars
The Foundations of Rome
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From a small town on the banks of an Italian river, Rome grew to control the entire Mediterranean region.
The Founding of Rome
Roman Civilization Develops
“All roads lead to Rome.” “Rome was not built in a day.” “When in Rome . . .” How did Rome win such a place in modern popular culture?
Came under Etruscan rule, 600 BC
Etruscans came from northern Italy
Evidence found at cemeteries indicates Etruscans great metalworkers, jewelers
Etruscan culture heavily influenced by Greeks
Etruscans had great influence on Roman society
What advantages did Rome’s location give the city?
Answer(s): protected by mountains; sea provided protection and transportation; had rich soil, pleasant climate; located on major trade routes; Tiber River provided easy access to the sea
New Offices and Institutions
Life in the Republic
During the days of the Roman Republic, Rome was a thriving and vibrant city. At its heart was the Forum, the public square and site of the most important government buildings and temples.
Return to Farm
Why do you think the Romans established a republic?
Answer(s): possible answer—They wanted a system of laws to keep peace within their expanding empire.
The Punic Wars
Violence between Rome and Carthage broke out in 264 BC. Because the First Punic War was fought mostly at sea, Carthage’s powerful navy dominated the early fighting. Soon, however, the Romans built a navy of their own and were able to defeat Carthage.
The Romans had defeated Carthage, but it did not destroy the city as many citizens had wanted.
149 BC Rome decided to destroy old enemy once and for all
Declared war on Carthage for third time
After siege of three years, Carthage fell
Romans enslaved entire population, completely destroyed city
They banned any people from living there
Macedonia, Persia Romans
The Conquest of Greece
How did Rome come to dominate the Mediterranean world?
Answer(s): by conquering its Mediterranean neighbors, including Carthage and Greece