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The Apostrophe: PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Apostrophe:. Uses, Misuse’s and Abuses’. The Apostrophe - Uses. Looks like this: ’ Not like this: ‘ Has 2 functions. Indicates a letter is missing:. I’m he’s can’t jumpin’ th’end. The Apostrophe - Uses. Sometimes letters are missing:. I’d we’d they’ve I’ve.

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The Apostrophe:

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The Apostrophe:

Uses, Misuse’s and Abuses’


The Apostrophe - Uses

  • Looks like this:’

  • Not like this: ‘

  • Has 2 functions


Indicates a letter is missing:

I’m

he’s

can’t

jumpin’

th’end

The Apostrophe - Uses


Sometimes letters are missing:

I’d

we’d

they’ve

I’ve

The Apostrophe - Uses


Can also show possession

Jim’s computer

Andy’s presentation

The student’s knapsack

The Apostrophe - Uses


Originally, in old English, possession was shown by adding ‘es’ to a noun:

Jimes computer

Andyes presentation

The studentes knapsack

The Apostrophe - Uses


Possession was also shown by adding the word ‘his’:

Jim his computer

Andy his presentation

The student his knapsack

The Apostrophe - Uses


Notice that with both cases—the ‘es’ ending or the ‘his’ ending—the modern day usage of the apostrophe indicates letters are missing:

Jimes computer is now Jim’s computer

The missing letter is ‘e’

Andy his presentation is Andy’s presentation

The missing letters are ‘hi’

The Apostrophe - Uses


To show possession by a plural noun, add the apostrophe after the ‘s’

The students’ knapsacks lay all over the place.

My sisters’ friends are coming to visit.

The babies’ diapers need changing. (Rey, are you busy?)

The Apostrophe - Uses


If the plural noun is irregular and thus does not end in ‘s’, add apostrophe ‘s’

The children’s clothing

The men’s room

Women’s magazine

The people’s leader

The Apostrophe - Uses


The Apostrophe – a Quiz

  • My brother’s teacher’s cars

  • My brothers’ teacher’s cars

  • My brother’s teachers’ cars

  • My brothers’ teachers’ cars


If you want to show possession by something or someone whose name ends in ‘s’, add apostrophe ‘s’

James’s cat

This is the boss’s pen

Jesus’s beard

The mistress’s lover

The Apostrophe


Don’t put an apostrophe after numbers. To express a decade in numerical form just add an ‘s’:

The 1970’s x

The 1970s 

Back in the 80’s x

Back in the ’80s 

The Apostrophe - Abuses


The easy way to remember this is to write out the year as a word:

The Seventies

The Eighties

Notice there is no apostrophe

The Apostrophe - Abuses


Don’t put an apostrophe after an acronym. Just put a small ‘s’:

CD’s x

CDs 

DVD’s x

DVDs 

The Apostrophe - Abuses


Some homeowners and many cottage owners put the name of their family somewhere on their property, like this:

The Martin’s

The Nielsen’s

The McKinlay’s

The Cleary’s

But do you see why this is wrong?

The Apostrophe - Abuses


First of all they are a family so more than one person lives there.

If they are going to use an apostrophe it should go after their pluralized surname:

The Martins’ house

The Nielsens’ cottage

The McKinlays’ igloo

The Clearys’ hut

The Apostrophe - Abuses


But more importantly, the apostrophe is just not necessary.

They should put their pluralized surname with a ‘The’ in front.

Or just put their surname:

The Martins

The Nielsens

McKinlay

Cleary

The Apostrophe - Abuses


How do we convey two essays written by two guys named James?

A) James’ essays

B) James’s essays

C) Jameses’s essays

D) None of the above

And the correct answer is…

The Apostrophe - a Quiz


D) None of the above

Anytime the apostrophe begins to make your pronunciation sound awkward, don’t use the apostrophe. Find another way.

The essays written by the Jameses.

The essays written by James and James.

The Apostrophe – a Quiz


1) Use the apostrophe to indicate a missing letter:

You’re ready to find funny errors, right?

2) Use the apostrophe to indicate possession:

Andy’s PowerPoint is about to get even more interesting!

The Apostrophe - Review


The Apostrophe – on Bloor


The Apostrophe – on Bloor


The Apostrophe – on Bloor


The Apostrophe – on Bloor


The Apostrophe – on Bloor


The Apostrophe – on Bloor


The Apostrophe – on Bloor


The Apostrophe – Misuses?

  • http://fiveprime.org/hivemind/Tags/apostrophe,grammar


The Apostr’phe – Th’end


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