World war i 1914 1920
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World War I 1914-1920. Wilson, Mexico & US Foreign Policy. Woodrow Wilson- Southern Democrat History professor & intellectual Mind for grand ideas- role of US in postwar world Believed American economic expansion + democratic principles = civilizing force in the world

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World War I 1914-1920

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World war i 1914 1920

World War I1914-1920


World war i 1914 1920

Wilson, Mexico & US Foreign Policy

  • Woodrow Wilson-

    • Southern Democrat

    • History professor & intellectual

    • Mind for grand ideas- role of US in postwar world

    • Believed American economic expansion + democratic principles = civilizing force in the world

    • Emphasized foreign investments and industrial exports

    • Open Door principles of John Hay

      • Strong diplomatic and military measure to achieve economic supremacy

  • 1913 Wilson became president

  • Continued progressive activism of TR

    • Greater federal role in economic and business regulation

    • 16th Amendment- Federal income tax

    • Federal Reserve Act- created 12 reserve banks regulated by Washington

    • Clayton Antitrust Act- recognition of union legality, check big businesses

    • Federal Trade Commission- regulatory control of corporations


World war i 1914 1920

  • Wilson’s problems in Mexico foreshadowed those in WWI

  • 1911 Revolution in Mexico overthrows corrupt dictator

  • Madero- new democratic government in Mexico promised land reform

  • This made U.S. with $11 billion invested very nervous

  • Wilson refused to except murderer of Madero, Huerta, because he was unlawful

  • Wilson used a minor insult to attack Veracruz attempting to oust Huerta

  • Carranza w/ US arms ousts Huerta, then denounced Wilson

  • Poncho Villa tried to draw U.S. into war – raided U.S. and killed Americans

  • Villa evaded US army of 15,000 for over a year

  • Wilson’s involvement leads to Mexican distrust of US

  • Wilson didn’t go to war with Mexico because he didn’t want to weaken US position with Germany

  • Wilson believed capitalist development, democracy and free trade were wave of future

  • Wilson believed in Moral Values  WWI


World war i 1914 1920

The Great War

  • Europe:

  • Triple Alliance aka The Central Powers

    • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

  • Triple Entente aka The Allies

    • Great Britain, France, Russia

  • Competition of Great Britain and Germany

    • GB: long-standing dominant power

    • Germany: aspirations of empire

  • Alliances kept countries from going to war over small conflicts from 19th-20th century

  • Inclusiveness was its weakness

    • Could draw others into war that did erupt

  • 1914 archduke of Austro-Hungary assassinated in Bosnia by a Serbian nationalist

    • He thought Bosnia should be annexed by Serbia

  • Germany backed retaliation by Austro-Hungary

  • Serbia asked for Russian help

  • War declared by both sides

  • Stalemate in northern France

  • New weapons: machine guns, tanks, trench warfare = 5 million killed in 2.5 years


Run up to war

Run-up to War

  • Wilson urged Americans to be “impartial in thought and action”

  • Germany declares waters around British Isle a war zone

  • May 7, 1915 German U-boat sinks Lusitania killing 1200, 128 Americans

  • Americans demand strong stance against Germany but don’t want war

  • March 1916 German U-boat torpedoes French Sussex injuring 4 Americans

  • Wilson threatens to cut off diplomatic relations w/ Germany

  • June 1916 National Defense Act doubles the size of US army and increases spending of new battleships, cruisers and destroyers

  • Anti-war feelings still very strong in US

  • Wilson’s “He kept us out of war” campaign 1916

  • Germany declares unlimited submarine warfare gambling to destroy Allies before America can arrive

  • March 1, 1917 Zimmerman Note intercepted

    • Germany encouraging Mexico to take back New Mexico, Texas and Arizona

  • US merchant ships are armed and allowed to shoot

  • Germans sink 7 US merchant ships killing many

  • April 2, 1917 Wilson asks congress for war

    • Wilson’s case based on America’s special mission as mankind’s most enlightened and advanced nation to make the world safe for democracy


Selling the war

Selling the War

  • Committee on Public Information – CPI agency for war promotion led by George Creel

  • Enlisted 150,000 people to work on CPI committees

  • Produced more than 100 million pieces of literature- pamphlets, articles, books- explaining causes and meaning of war

  • Created posters, slides, newspaper ads and films

  • Used movie stars to help sell war bonds

  • 75,000 “Four Minute Men” gave patriotic speeches before stage and movie shows

  • Aggressively negative campaign against Germans

    • Huns = bestial monsters/ uncivilized

    • German music, language and books banned


War propaganda

War Propaganda


The draft

The Draft

  • Lack of volunteers for service

  • Selective Service Act- registration of all men ages 21-35

  • Different from Civil War draft- couldn’t buy your way out of service by paying for a substitute

  • June 5, 1917 10 million register

  • Aug. 1918 extended age limits to 18-45

  • Illiteracy rates among troops as high as 25%

  • Low test scores of immigrants and African Americans reflect biases of tests


African americans in the military

African Americans in the Military

  • Organized in segregated units

  • Barred from Marines and Coast Guard

  • Worked as cooks, laundrymen, stevedores

  • Endured humiliating and violent treatment form southern white officers

  • Faced hostility from white civilians

  • 200,000 served in France

  • 1 in 5 saw combat compared to 1 in 3 white soldiers

  • Black combat units served with distinction in some French divisions

  • The all black 369th US infantry served in trenches for 191 days, longest of any American regiment

  • French government awarded entire regiment the Croix de Guerre

  • Enjoyed better treatment in military and by civilians in France than in US


America s effect on the war

America’s Effect on the War

  • AEF- American Expeditionary Forces=US troops

  • Led by General John J. Pershings, independent of European command

  • 70,000 AEF soldiers arrived in early 1918, helped the French stop the Germans from reaching Paris in June 1918

  • September 1918 AEF troops took over southern part of a 200 mile front in the Meuse-Argonne offensive  German surrender

  • November 11, 1918 war ends

  • Massive influx of American troops hastened the end of the war by ending the stalemate

  • 52,000+ died in battle, 60,000 died from influenza and pneumonia


Wwi part 2 domestic effects of the war

WWI Part 2:Domestic Effects of the War


Economy

Economy

  • Progressive reforms & the war agenda

  • War Industries Board (WIB)- mobilized national industry to support war effort

    • Led by Wall Street speculator Baruch

    • Regulation of production & prices

    • Maximization of productivity & efficiency

    • = BIG government

    • “voluntary cooperation” enforced w/ threats of military takeover (Ford, US Steel)


Economy cont

Economy cont.

  • 1917 Food and Fuel Act-

    • Gave President authority to regulate commodities needed for the war effort

    • Hoover, millionaire engineer, leads

    • Price controls on agri. commodities (pork, sugar, wheat

    • Gov. buys products, distributes to licensed dealers & sold to public at high prices

    • Urged conservation ie. Limit consumption, grow your own veggies


Cost of war

Cost of War

  • $33 billion dollars

  • Paid for with increased income & profit taxes

    • Min. income for taxation $1000

    • Highest brackets rates up to 70%

  • Liberty Bonds- $23 billion

    • government borrowed money from American public

  • Federal debt jumps from $1billion to $20 billion


  • Business the war

    Business & The War

    • War = expansion & high profits

    • Huge workforce growth

    • Corporate profits triple, large business doing the best

    • Investments in farm machinery & land -> 20-30% increase in production

    • Business/government cooperation


    Labor the war

    Labor &The War

    • Economic expansion + army mobilization + decline in immigration = labor shortage

    • Despite overcrowding & inflation workers enjoy higher wages and standard of living

    • AFL saw sharp rise in membership (1mil) & increased influence, power

    • National War Labor Board- Gompers- avoid strikes & interruptions in production

    • NWLB: ensured right to organize, higher wages, less hours, over-time pay, equal pay for women

    • IWW- denounced “capitalist war,” attacked by gov. agents-> Espionage Act


    The great migration

    The Great Migration

    • Mass movement of African Americans from rural south to urban north

    • Labor shortage = job opportunities & higher wages

    • 1914-1920, 300,000-500,000 migrated north

    • Work on railroads, meatpacking plants, shipyards, steel mills…..lower paying jobs, unskilled

    • Violence and rioting against blacks in Northern cities

    • NAACP membership grows to 60,000- provide legal defense, influence legislation


    Suppressing the antiwar movement

    Suppressing the Antiwar Movement

    • Espionage Act of 1917- vague prohibition of obstruction war effort

      • Used to crush dissent and criticism

      • Severe penalties, up to 20yrs prison, $10,000 fine

      • Aiding the enemy, obstruction recruitment, causing insubordination in the armed forces

      • Allowed postmaster gen. to censor mail

      • Police & surveillance increase

      • Leads to creation of FBI

    • 1918 Sedition Act

      • Amendment of Espionage Act

      • Outlawed “any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language intended to cause contempt, scorn, contumely, or disrepute” to the government

      • Used to strike out against socialists, pacifists, labor radicals

      • Eugene Debs (4 times presidential candidate) imprisoned for 2.5 yrs, defending antiwar protestors


    Women the war

    Women & The War

    • 8 million women already working gained higher pay and access to new jobs

    • Another million joined workforce

    • Manufacturing jobs, munitions plants, train engineers, drill press operators, etc.

    • Women in Industry Service (WIS)- created standards, not legally enforced

    • ½ pay of men on average

    • End of war = end of women in “men’s” positions


    Women the vote

    Women & The Vote

    • Before WWI:

      • State battle rather than nation

      • Led by western states (UT & WY 1st)

      • In east suffrage linked to prohibition

    • During WWI:

      • National campaign for constitutional amendment

      • Linked to patriotism

      • 2 main tactics:

        • NAWSA- war effort, moderate lobbying & orderly demonstrations

        • NWP- more aggressive, picketed White House, condemned the Pres. & Congress

    • 19th Amendment: “war measure” passed Aug. 1920 after 2 years gaining states for ratification


    Part iii post wwi

    Part III:Post-WWI


    Labor and unions after the war

    Labor and Unions After the War

    • Wartime wage gains wiped out by inflation, high prices for food, fuel, housing

    • Government ended controls on industry, employers withdrew membership/recognition

    • 4 million Americans workers involved in 3,600 strikes in 1919 alone

    • Strikes receive nationwide attention

    • Seattle: citywide strike, 60,000 workers -> federal troops occupy the city http://depts.washington.edu/labhist/strike/video.shtml

    • Boston police strike, entire force fired

    • Public opinion turns against organized labor, use of propaganda, strikers=revolutionaries

    • Russian Revolution, fears it could happen here


    Wilson s post war ambitions

    Wilson’s Post-War Ambitions

    • 14 points in Versailles:

      • Postwar European boundaries, division of empires

      • Principles for governing international conduct

        • Freedom of the seas

        • Free trade

        • Open covenants instead of secret treaties

        • Reduce armaments

        • Mediation for competing colonial claims


    World war i 1914 1920

    • League of Nations14th point: implement 1st 13 points, resolve future disputes

    • Collective security to keep the peace

    • Criticized as surrender of independence and sovereignty

    • Similarities to previous alliances?

    • Germany & the Treaty:

      • Germans need to be made to hate war

      • Wilson disagrees with Britain and France over reparations


    Defeat of the treaty

    Defeat of the Treaty

    • Allies resist the call for independence of colonies

      • French and British carve up former German and Ottoman empires

    • French and British insist Germany pay $33 billion  resentment & rise of Nazis

    • Signed by everyone except US

      • US congress Republican controlled

      • Oppose collective security & restraints on F.P.

      • Entire point for going to war wasted in Wilson’s eyes

    • US becomes economic power in the world


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