Section 2 high availability
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Ultimate Exchange Server 2003: Heighten Security, Consolidation, and Availability. Section 2: High Availability. Clustering Network Load Balancing Geographical Clustering Remote Recovery and Disaster Recovery Solutions Strategic Authentication and Name Resolution. Section Objectives. 2-2.

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Section 2: High Availability

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Section 2 high availability

Ultimate Exchange Server 2003:Heighten Security, Consolidation, and Availability

Section 2: High Availability

Clustering

Network Load Balancing

Geographical Clustering

Remote Recovery and Disaster Recovery Solutions

Strategic Authentication and Name Resolution


Section objectives

Section Objectives

2-2

After completing this section, you will be able to:

  • Define high availability in a Microsoft Windows environment

  • Build an Exchange Server 2003 cluster

  • Explain how network load balancing works

  • Formulate a load-balancing solution for Microsoft Exchange Server 2003

  • Name third-party software for geographical clustering

  • Define a remote recovery solution

  • Describe the best practices regarding authentication and name resolution for Exchange Server 2003

Knowledge Guide


Availability vs reliability

Availability vs. Reliability

2-3

  • Availability:

    • Percentage of availability = (total elapsed time – sum of downtime)/total elapsed time

  • Reliability (MTBF):

    • MTBF = (total elapsed time – sum of downtime)/number of failures


Availability percentages

Availability Percentages

2-3


Clustering pros and cons

Provides

100 percent hardware redundancy

Rapid failover

Rolling updates

Scales up to seven active EVSs

Clustering Pros and Cons

2-5

Vulnerable to

  • Shared storage failures

  • Network services failures

  • Operational errors

  • Natural or unnatural disasters


Exchange 2003 cluster advantages

Exchange 2003 Cluster Advantages

2-7

  • Eight-node clusters

  • Kerberos authentication

  • New resource-dependency hierarchy

  • Volume mount points


New resource dependency hierarchy

New Resource-Dependency Hierarchy

2-8

Exchange 2003

Exchange 2000

IMAP4

MTA

POP3

Routing

HTTP

Systemattendant

Systemattendant

Routing

Informationstore

Microsoftsearch

MTA

Informationstore

SMTP


Volume mount points

SG1 logs

E

SG1 logs

SG1 logs

SG1 logs

M

Q

I

F

SG2 logs

R

N

J

SG2 logs

SG2 logs

SG2 logs

SG3 logs

G

SG3 logs

SG3 logs

SG3 logs

O

K

S

H

SG4 logs

P

T

L

SG4 logs

SG4 logs

SG4 logs

SMTP queues

SMTP queues

SMTP queues

SMTP queues

Volume Mount Points

2-9

Each storage group in the cluster is assigned a drive letter for storing Exchange data.

EVS1

EVS3

EVS2

EVS4

Each storage group’s logs and SMTP queues are assigned space using mount points to overcome the limitation of drive letters.


Exchange clustering concepts

SAN

Exchange Clustering Concepts

2-10

Fiberswitch

Fiber

Fiber

NIC 2

NIC 1

NIC 1

NIC 2

EVS1

EVS2

Active

Active

Fiber

Fiber

Privateswitch

NIC 1

NIC 2

NIC 1

NIC 2

EVS3

Four-node cluster

Passive

Active

ActiveDirectory,DNS, clients

Publicswitch


Cluster terminology

Cluster Terminology

2-11

  • Shared nothing architecture

  • Resources

  • Groups

  • Exchange Virtual Servers

  • Quorum disk

  • Heartbeat network

  • Active/Active

  • Active/Passive


Failover

EVS1

EVS1

Failover

2-13

Node 1

Resources go offline

Node 2

Resources go online


Preferred owners list

Preferred Owners List

2-14


Disk configurations

Disk 1: SMTP/MTA

Disk 2: SG1 and SG2 databases

Disk 3: SG1 logs

Disk 4: SG2 logs

Disk 5: SG3 and SG4 databases

Disk 6: SG3 logs

Disk 7: SG4 logs

EVS1

EVS1

Node 2 (passive)

Node 1 (active)

Disk Configurations

2-15

SAN or DAS

Disk 8: Quorum

Disk 9: MSDTC


Network load balancing

Network Load Balancing

2-17

DNS: GK.com

owa.gk.com

owa.gk.com

owa.gk.com

owa.gk.com

172.30.1.1

172.30.1.2

172.30.1.3

172.30.1.4

DNSround robin

Failedservice

Busy

Offline

Idle

OWA.GK.com

172.30.1.100

172.30.1.1

172.30.1.2

172.30.1.3

172.30.1.4

NLB

NLB clustermembers


Windows server 2003 nlb

Windows Server 2003 NLB

2-19


Hardware nlb

Hardware NLB

2-20

HTTP:80

HTTP:80

HTTP:80

HTTP:80

W2K

W2K3

UNIX

Novell

Sessions

HardwareNLB


Anatomy of a geographical cluster

Corporate office

Recovery site

Disk 1

Disk 2

Mirrored

Disk 3

Disk 4

SAN

SAN

Node1

Node2

Node3

Node4

VLAN

Anatomy of a Geographical Cluster

2-21


Disaster prone areas

Earthquake

Medium

High

Very high

Tornado

Medium

High

Hurricane

Medium

High

Disaster-Prone Areas

2-22


Evaluating cluster operation and deployment

Evaluating Cluster Operation and Deployment

2-23

  • When evaluating vendors, use the following checklists from Microsoft:

    • “Architecture Basics”checklist

    • “Operational and Deployment Procedures” checklist


Remote recovery and disaster recovery solutions

Remote Recovery and Disaster Recovery Solutions

2-26

  • http://www.xosoft.com/

  • http://www.nsisoftware.com/

  • http://www.lefthandnetworks.com/

  • http://www.softek.com/

  • http://www.netapp.com

  • http://www.emc.com/ (GeoSpan)


Nsi geocluster

NSI GeoCluster

2-27


Xosoft wansync

XOsoft WanSync

2-29


Xosoft wansync cont

XOsoft WanSync (cont.)

2-30

WANSync Exchange

Master Site

M1

WANSync Exchange

Replica Site

R1

Resource Transfer:

Server IP Address

(single-network scenario)

Server DNS Lookup

(multiple-network scenario)

Microsoft Exchange Server

Microsoft Exchange Server

Automatic/instantaneous routing ofusers in case of failure

Users


Strategic authentication and name resolution

Strategic Authentication and Name Resolution

2-31

  • DNS

  • Domain controllers

  • Global catalog service


Dns high availability

External DNS

NLBcluster

  • Standard zone

  • Secondary public

DNS High Availability

2-31

Internet

AD site1

Subnet ASubnet B

DMZ DNS

NLBcluster

  • ADI DNS zone

  • Primary private

  • Standard zone

  • Primary public

AD site2

Subnet CSubnet D

AD site3

Subnet ESubnet F

  • ADI DNS zone

  • Primary private

  • ADI DNS zone

  • Primary private


Domain controller high availability

Domain Controller High Availability

2-33

  • Centralized deployments

  • Decentralized deployments

  • Mixed deployments


Centralized domain controllers

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

Centralized Domain Controllers

2-34


Decentralized domain controllers

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

Decentralized Domain Controllers

2-35


Mixed domain controllers

Mixed Domain Controllers

2-36

DC

DC

DC

E2K3

DC

200users

DC


Global catalog high availability

Global Catalog High Availability

2-37

AD site1

AD site4

DC

GC

DC

GC

DC

GC

(2) E2K3 servers

(4) E2K3 servers

AD site3

AD site2

DC

GC

DC

GC

DC

GC

DC

GC

DC

GC

(6) E2K3 servers

(8) E2K3 servers


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