slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Latin-American Collaboration in Nuclear Physics

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 49

Latin-American Collaboration in Nuclear Physics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 93 Views
  • Uploaded on

Latin-American Collaboration in Nuclear Physics. Alinka Lépine-Szily Instituto de Física-USP São Paulo, Brazil. Two-Day Symposium on International Nuclear Science of the IUPAP Working Group WG.9 TRIUMF on July 2-4, 2010. CHART OF SANTIAGO

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Latin-American Collaboration in Nuclear Physics' - leann


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Latin-American Collaboration in Nuclear Physics

Alinka Lépine-Szily

Instituto de Física-USP

São Paulo, Brazil

Two-Day Symposium on International Nuclear Science of the

IUPAP Working Group WG.9 TRIUMF on July 2-4, 2010

slide2

CHART OF SANTIAGO

The “Association of Latin American Nuclear Physics and

Applications” (ALANPA) was formed in Santiago, Chile on Dec. 19, 2009, by representatives of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela.

In Spanish is called “Asociación Latino Americana de Física Nuclear y Aplicaciones” ALAFNA

In Portuguese is called “Associação Latino Americana de Física Nuclear e Aplicações” ALAFNA

Chairs of ALANPA: Andrés Kreiner (Argentina)

Alinka Lépine-Szily (Brazil)

slide3

Steering Committee (SC) of ALANPA is formed by the 15 original founders:

Ricardo Alarcon (Arizona State Univ., USA)

Hugo Arellano (U. of Chile, Chile)

Haydn Barros (U.Simon Bolivar, Venezuela)

Maria Ester Brandan (UNAM, Mexico)

Roelof Bijker (UNAM, Mexico)

Laszlo Sajo Bohus (U.Simon Bolivar, Venezuela)

Fernando Cristancho (UNal, Colombia)

Paulo Gomes (U. Fed. Fluminense, Brazil)

Carlos Granja(Inst.Exp.Appl.Phys. Czech Tech.U. Czech Rep.)

Andrés Kreiner (Tandar, CNEA, Argentina)

Alinka Lépine-Szily (USP, Brazil)

Rubens Lichtenthäler (USP, Brazil)

Modesto Montoya (Inst. Per. Em. Nucl., Peru)

Roberto Morales (U. of Chile, Chile)

Alberto Pacheco (Tandar, CNEA, Argentina)

slide4

Objectives of ALANPA (ALAFNA)

To strengthen ties among the Latin American Communities doing nuclear research and applications to foster collaborations and promotion of activities,

To educate the scientific community and the general public through the promotion of nuclear physics and the peaceful uses of nuclear technology,

To do periodic overall assessments of nuclear science in Latin America in the context of world wide activities, and

To discuss at a multi-national level future planning of nuclear science activities in Latin America

slide5

Role of the Steering Committee:

-establishment of ALANPA governance rules

-divulgation of ALANPA in the scientific community

-divulgation of ALANPA within governments of Latin America with interest in nuclear science and applications

ALANPA homepage will be installed in the very near future

on the website of the next “Latin American Symposium on Nuclear Physics and Applications” july 18-22,2011, Quito, Ecuador

http://www.lasnpa-quito2011.org/

slide6

Latin American Symposia on Nuclear Physics and

  • Applications
  • Caracas, Venezuela
  • Caracas, Venezuela
  • San Andrés, Colombia
  • Ciudad de México, México
  • 2003 Santos, Brazil
  • Iguazu, Argentina
  • Cuzco, Peru
  • Santiago, Chile
  • Quito, Ecuador
  • Scope: the dissemination of the major theoretical and experimental
  • advances in the field of nuclear science and its applications.
  • The main topics to be covered are: Nuclear Structure and Reactions,
  • Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics, Cosmic Rays, Hadron Structure
  • and Phases of Nuclear Matter, Tests of Fundamental Symmetries
  • and Properties of Neutrinos, Nuclear Instrumentation and Facilities:
  • Radiation Detectors and Sources, and Applications in Medicine
  • (Biomedical Imaging, Radiotherapy),Art/Archeology, Energy, Space and
  • International Security.
slide8

General Informations on the status of

          • Nuclear Physics in
  • Argentina
  • Brazil
  • Chile
  • Mexico
  • Venezuela
  • Ecuador
  • Colombia
  • Peru
slide9

Nuclear Physics and Applications in Argentina and Cooperation in Latin America

A.J.Kreiner1,2,3.

1Departamento de Física, CNEA, Atomic Energy Commission Arg.

2Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología. Universidad de San Martin, Arg.

3CONICET (National Research Council), Argentina.

nuclear physics and applications in argentina
NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND APPLICATIONS IN ARGENTINA
  • Institutions and locations

1. National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA)

1.1 Buenos Aires (Centro Atomico Constituyentes), Physics Department (currently Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Laboratorio TANDAR)

1.2 Prov. Buenos Aires (Centro Atomico Ezeiza)

1.3 Bariloche (Centro Atomico Bariloche)

2. School of Science and Technology-University

of San Martin (ECyT-UNSAM)

Prov. Buenos Aires, Migueletes Campus.

3. Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences- University

of Buenos Aires (FCEyN-UBA)

3.1 Buenos Aires

4. Faculty of Sciences- National University of La Plata

5. Favaloro University

1 1 research programs
1.1 Research Programs

The main experimental and theoretical research lines related to Nuclear Physics and its applications are the following:

  • Low-energy nuclear physics: Nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, collective nuclear excitations and giant resonances, break-up reactions and their influence on fusion reactions involving weakly bound nuclei; fusion barrier distributions.
  • High-energy nuclear physics: Hadronic models based on QCD. Phase structure of strong interactions.
1 1 research programs cont
1.1 Research Programs (Cont.)
  • Applied Nuclear Physics: A result of basic research activities has been the application of various experimental nuclear physics techniques to other fields of knowledge:
  • biomedicine, radiobiology, environmental science, material science, nuclear astrophysics.
  • Techniques developed and available: Ion Beam Analysis (HIRBS, PIXE, NRA,..);External Beam Irradiations, Neutron Production, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Proton irradiations to qualify satellite components (solar cells and electronic circuits).
  • In the biomedical area a project is worth mentioning related to accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), including the development of a high intensity low-energy proton accelerator and a SPECT tomograph. Recently this program has widened to start with the development of accelerator technology aimed at nuclear transmutation of highly radiotoxic waste coming from the Argentine power reactors (30 people).
  • A heavy ion microbeam facility for the study of biological and physical problems with high spatial resolution has ben operational for several years. High aspect ratio micromachining is available. PIXE and other IBA’s.
  • Astroparticle physics (Auger projects and extensions).
  • Number of scientists: ~80
major facility tandar 20 mv tandem pelletron
Major facility: TANDAR 20 MV Tandem (Pelletron)

Facility\'s major experimental instrumentation and its capabilities:

  • - QDD magnetic spectrometer.
  • - Microbeam facility (beam spots of about 1μ2) with high resolution X-ray detection.
  • - External beam irradiation facility with on-line dose determination.
  • - Heavy-ion identification based on a time-of-flight facility (start and stop signals derived from microchannel plates) followed by a Bragg spectrometer or solid state detectors.
  • - 30-inch diameter multipurpose scattering chamber.
  • - Irradiation chamber for the simulation of outer-space environmental conditions.
  • Ion implanter.
  • Number of actual, active users of the facility: 51
  • Number of a) permanent staff, as scientific, technical, and administrative staff, employed by the lab: 46 and b) temporary staff (including graduate students and postdoctoral researchers on the facility’s payroll): 12
other cnea centers
Other CNEA centers
  • 1.2 EZEIZA Atomic Center: Isotope production (40 MeV proton Cyclotron). Nuclear metrology (radiation measurements, standards for gammas, betas, neutrons). Reactor physics (RA-3 research reactor). BNCT with reactors. 60Co irradiators. Isotope production. (150 people).
  • 1.3 BARILOCHE Atomic Center: Neutron physics (electron LINAC for neutron production thru photonuclear reactions, 10 people). Reactor physics and engineering RA-6 (School of Nuclear Engineering). Clinical trials in BNCT (4). Auger physics (4).
  • 1.4 School of Nuclear medicine (Mendoza). PET center in association with National Cancer Institute (Buenos Aires).
other institutions
Other Institutions
  • 2. ECYT-UNSAM

Medical physics (radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, imaging modalities; 5 + many CNEA)

  • 3. FCEyN-UBA

Statistical mechanics applications to nuclear physics (theory, 2). Involvement in CERN experiments (1).

  • 4. La Plata

Nuclear structure and weak interactions (theory, 3 people). Auger physics (6).

  • 5.Favaloro

Engineering in Medical Physics (several CNEA).

slide17

NUCLEAR PHYSICS RESEARCH IN

BRAZIL

Alinka Lépine-Szily

Instituto de Física-USP

São Paulo, Brazil

slide18

Number of scientists and graduate students in

Nuclear Physics in Brasil in 2010

In 2005

(under-estimated)

96

25

170

291

2005: 63 universities

2009: 131 universities (http://www.universidades.com.br/brasil.htm)

1999: 2.7 millions of students, 6.9%

2004: 4.16 millions of students

2009: 4.88 millions of students, 13.9%

SP

slide19

Research Programs:

Low-energy nuclear physics:T,E

Low energy reaction and structure studies with stable and radioactive beams, break-up, fusion, nuclear astrophysical reactions, Gamma-spectrosopy, nuclear structure with light-ion transfer reactions.

T: 3-body description of halo nuclei, fusion models for superheavies, weak-interaction for r-process

High-energy nuclear physics:

Theory:

Hadronic models in QCD, Phases of nuclear matter, nuclear astrophysics within relativistic models(hadronic and quark stars),

Experimental: Auger project

STAR collaboration at RHIC, Alice collaboration at LHC

PHENIX collaboration at RHIC, Atlas collab. at LHC

1111118th 118th Intn Few-Body Problems in PhysIcs 8th International IUPAP Conference on Few-Body Problems in PhysIcs

slide20

Research programs:

  • Applied Nuclear Physics:
  • Radiation Physics
  • Material analysis using ionic beams
  • PIXE, RBS, external beam, ERDA, PIGE
  • (8MV Pelletron tandem, 1.7MV Pelletron tandem USP)
  • Atomic Mass Spectrometry (USP, UFF)
  • Instrumentation for detectors and electronics (IPEN)
  • Gamma and X-ray spectrometry for material analysis.
  • Dating, art and archeology
  • Medical Physics
  • Radioisotope production (67Ga,201Tl,111In,18F,123I, IPEN))
  • 3D Imaging detectors, dosimetry
slide21

Accelerators in Brazil

(not dedicated to NP)

LNLS- Synchrotron Radiation Light Source, Campinas

1.37 GeV,250mA

The only light source in Latin-America

Research in material science, biology, medical

science, chemistry. 1100 users

Cyclotrons for isotope production at CNEN, hospitals.

Research Reactor at CNEN-IPEN of 5MW

slide22

State funding agencies: largest is FAPESP (Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo)

State funding agencies: largest is FAPESP (Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo)

RIBRAS

Major Facility for Nuclear Physics research

8 MV Pelletron Tandem

University of São Paulo: Institute of Physics

8 MV tandem

3-5 MeV.A

Local facility: Very important for graduate student training, 56 MS and PhD thesis in last 10 years

slide23

Facility´s major experimental

  • instrumentation and capabilities:
  • Radioactive Ion Beam Brasil
  • (RIBRAS) 2 superconducting solenoids
  • can select and focus radioactive beams
  • produced by transfer reactions B=6.5T.
  • 2. Two large position sensitive
  • neutron detectors (Neutron wall)
  • 3. Gamma-ray+charged particle
  • spectrometer (SACI-PERERE)
  • 4. Enge split-pole spectrometer
  • 5. Multi-purpose scattering chamber.
  • 6. Large scattering chamber
slide24

Ion primary beam energy(MeV) reaction production rate

(/ 1A of primary beam)

6He 30. 9Be(7Li,6He) 10+6 p/s

6He 20. 9Be(7Li,6He) 10+5 p/s

8Li 30 9Be(7Li,8Li) 10+6 p/s

7Be 30 3He(6Li,7Be) 4x10+5 p/s

7Be 30 3He(7Li,7Be) 2x10+5 p/s

8B 30 3He(6Li,8B) (?)

Present beams at RIBRAS

present primary beam 6,7Li intensities ~ 300 nAe

Elastic, inelastic scattering, transfer reactions, reaction cross section, break-up cross section, astrophysical S-factors, induced by radioactive beams

slide25

Highlights of the SP. Pelletron Lab.

Elastic scattering of light halo projectile:6He

Total reaction cross-section: 6He+27Al, 6He+51V, 6He+120Sn

σRred

slide26

Production of light elements in primordial nucleosynthesis:

Primordial Nucleosynthesis  without the participation of the unstable nuclei

Primordial Nucleosynthesis  with the participation of the unstable nuclei:

p-rich: 8B, 9C,11C

n-rich:8Li,9Li, 11Be etc

slide27

Non-homogeneous primordial nucleosynthesis:

8Li(4He,n)11B, bridges de A=8 gap

8Li(p,4He)5He main reaction which destroys the 8Li.

Was measured at RIBRAS with 8Li beam, thick CH2 target,

inverse kinematics, excitation function, from Ecm=0.4 to 2.7 MeV

R-matrix calculations

for the 9Be resonances,

including

0.605, 1.58 and 1.77 MeV

P. Descouvemont private communication

slide28

Main Institutions:

  • São Paulo state (80% experimental, 35% theoretical
  • activity)
  • São Paulo USP E, T research in low, high energy nuclear physics
  • IFT/UNESP Hadronic models in QCD, 3-body models of halo nuclei T
  • ITA 3-body models of halo nuclei, relativistic nuclear structure T
  • Unicamp; Auger project, RHIC, LHC E
  • IPEN: gamma spectrosopy, instrumentation and applications E
  • 2. Rio de Janeiro
  • UFRJ Theoretical studies of Nuclear Reactions, Hadron Physics T
  • UFF Low energy Nuclear Reactions T,E AMS E
  • CBPF Hadron Physics, fusion models for SHE, r-process T
  • 3. Southern states, Paraná, UEL, applications, Gamma and X-ray spectrometry for material analysis E
  • Santa Catarina, UFSC nuclear astrophysics within relativistic models(hadronic and quark stars) T
  • Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, FURGhadron physics using QCD T
slide29

International Collaborations:

Experimental:

1.Strong collaboration between Pelletron (USP) -Tandar

Argentina and UFF (Niteroi, Brasil) Pro-Sul CNPq-CONICET

2. STAR, PHENIX collaboration at RHIC

3. Alice collaboration at LHC

5. Collaborations: FAIR, Legnaro, Catania, Sevilla, Madrid, Lisboa, U. Notre Dame, CNS-U.Tokyo, GANIL, ANU

Theory:

U.La Plata (Arg.), Cuba, U. Coimbra, Tandar, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Oxford Univ., Univ. Tennessee, Univ. Sydney, Univ. Aarhus.

Difficulties: Small groups, Heavy travel

expenses, little money for graduate students

slide30

Nuclear Physics in Chile

Roberto Morales

Universidad de Chile

slide31

1.- ¿ Dónde se hace Física Nuclear, ciudades, laboratorios, universidades?

Sólo en Santiago hay actividad en Física Nuclear

2. Instalaciones experimentales.

En la Universidad de Chile, UCH.

Acelerador Van de Graaff. 3.75 MeV

Sistemas de espectroscopía gamma, rayos X, alfa

En la Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, CCHEN

Un reactor de investigación de 5 MW. En La Reina. Operativo

Activación neutrónica

Producción de radioisótopos, Tc-99m, I-131

Espectroscopia gamma

Laboratorio de plasma

Laboratorio y Servicio de Dosimetría

Ciclotrón de 18 MeV para F-18

Un reactor de investigación de 10 MW. En Lo Aguirre. No opera

Irradiador gamma

Prompt gamma

slide32

3.- Recursos humanos.-´

Investigadores Universidad de Chile

Arellano, Hugo Dr. UCH

Cancino, Simón M.Cs. UCH

Dinator, Maria I. M.Cs. UCH *

Morales, J. Roberto Dr. UCH

Miranda, Pedro Dr. UCH

university of chile van de graaff laboratory
UNIVERSITY OF CHILE VAN DE GRAAFF LABORATORY

P.A. Miranda, M. A. Chesta, S. A. Cancino, J. R. Morales, M. I. Dinator, J. A. Wachter and C. Tenreiro

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 248 (2006) 150-154

slide34

Colaboradores

Robert Flocchini. UC Davis, California, U.S.A.

Javier Miranda. UNAM, México.

Andrea Seelenfreund. Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano

Rafael Correa. Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana

Sergio Montes. Universidad de Santiago

Claudio Tenreiro. Universidad de Talca

Mario Ávila. Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear

Raúl Morales. Fac. Ciencias, Universidad de Chile

Margarita Préndez. Fac. Ciencias Química y Farmacéutica. U. de Chile

Diego Salazar. Fac. Ciencias Sociales. U. de Chile

Raúl Muñoz. Fac. de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas. U. de Chile

where
Where?
  • UNAM, DF, Instituto de Física, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Fac de Ciencias
  • ININ and Univ. Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca
  • Cinvestav, DF y Mérida
  • Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa
  • Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla
  • Universidad Michoacana San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia
  • Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas
  • Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa
slide37

Mexican Physics Society (SMF)

Radiation

Physics

Medical

Physics

Nuclear

Physics

Particles

and Fields

Cosmic rays

how many
How many?
  • About 20 (10) in basic research and its instrumentation
  • About 30 (10) in applied nuclear physics and its instrumentation
  • Graduate students: About 50
subjects basic science
Subjects: Basic science
  • Nuclear structure (symmetries, cluster models, nuclear masses, double b decay) T
  • Hadronic physics (LE QCD, quark models) T
  • Cosmic rays (Pyramid of the Sun, HAWC) E
  • Neutron physics, fundamental symmetries E
  • International collaborations: T, E
    • ALICE (IFUNAM, ICNUNAM, Cinvestav, BUAP, UAS)
    • Auger (ICNUNAM)
    • RIB ORNL, Notre Dame (IFUNAM, ICNUNAM)
    • LANL (IFUNAM)
subjects applied science
Subjects: Applied science
  • Medical physics (IFUNAM, ICNUNAM, School of Medicine UNAM, UAZ) E
  • Radiation physics E
    • RBS, PIXE, other techniques
experimental facilities
Experimental facilities
  • 6 MV Tandem (ININ)
  • 0.7 and 5.5 MV Van de Graaf and 3 MV Pelletron (IFUNAM)
  • Instrumentation laboratories
    • Pyramid of the Sun and HAWC (IFUNAM)
    • Detector lab (ICNUNAM)
    • Instrumentation labs (Puebla and UMSNH)
slide42

Nuclear Physics and Applications in Ecuador

Institutions

/

activity

www.epn.edu.ec

Escuela Politécnica Nacional (EPN), Quito

Dept. de Física y Astronomía

Dept. de Ciencias Nucleares

  • Bulk irradiations (electron, gamma)
  • Atomic absorption (X-rays, UV)
  • Fluorescence and mass analysis

linac

Co irradiator

www.usfq.edu.ec

  • Particle physics (D0 Fermilab)

Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito

„National Bureau of Control, License and Studies of Nuclear Sciences“(former Atomic Energy Commission)

www.meer.gov.ec

  • Regulations, safeguards
  • Nuclear techniques (element analysis)

Dependency of the Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy

Laboratories (e.g. Dosimeter and radiation monitor calibration).

www.solca.med.ec

Oncology Society SOLCA, Quito

  • Medical Physics
  • Radiotherapy (electron, photon)

commercial radiotherapy linacs (e–,g)

Hospitals (oncology), Quito, Guayaquil

  • Radiotherapy treatments (electron, photon)

commercial radiotherapy linacs (e–,g)

slide44

OIEA

LASER

Spectrometer δ18

Universidad de los Andes

High Energy Group (3 Ph.D) Dr. Luis Nuñez

Hydrogeology Group (2 Ph.D) Dr. Hervé Jegat

I.V.I.C.

60-Co Irradiation Facility. Ing. Paolo Traversa

Secondary Calibration Lab. Dr. Lila Carrizalez

Medical Physics Masters Courses

Official National Training Courses in Radioprotection

Environmental Radioactivity

Universidad Central de Venezuela

Medical Physics Masters Courses. Dr. Rafael Martín (20-25 students / year)

Lab. Applications Nuclear Tech. In Industry. Dr. Héctor Constan. (L.Cintillation)

Ministery of Energy

Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, National Nuclear Authority. Dr. Héctor Constan

Regularions & Permissions.

Training (Through IAEA)

Monitoring for evaluations and permissions (Gamma Spectroscopy).

Univ. Centro Occ. Lizandro Alvarado

TXRF – Chemistry Department. Dra. Lué Meru Marco

Hospitals & Private Centres

Ciclotron (18F), PET, LINAC, Gamma Ch., MRI, CT, etc. Dra. Aisa Manzo

slide45

OIEA

Universidad Simon Bolivar

(www.nuclear.fis.usb.ve)

Last Five years

New Professionals 29

Ph.D. Physics 2

M.Sc. Physics 2

M.Sc. Chemistry 2

M.Sc. Eng. Electronic 1

B.Sc. Physics: 12

B.Sc. Chemistry 5

B.Sc. Biology 1

Electric & Electronic Eng. 6

Postgraduate abroad 12

Students 8

Ph.D. 5

M.Sc. 6

B.Sc. 5

Researchers 8

Prof. L. Sajo-Bohus

Prof. E. Greaves

Dr. P. Nemeth

Prof. J. Liendo

Prof. D. Palacios

Prof. H. Barros

Prof. M. Bernal

Prof. F. Rodríguez

Techniques and devices

Ion Implanter (0,4 MeV)

Neutron Source (Cf)

Alpha (Si) & Gamma Spectrometry (HPGe)

TXRF & DRX

TLD and SSNTD

Co & Cs intense sources

BGO, NaI(Tl) and Cherenkov

Abroad

NAA

Ion Beam Analysis

AMS, ICPMS & TIMS

Support Staff 3

2 Tech. + 1 Adm.

slide48

Física nuclear y aplicaciones en el Perú

El Instituto Peruano de Energía Nuclear (IPEN)

cuenta con un reactor de investigación de 10 MW,

en el cual se produce radioisótopos para medicina y

se realiza análisis químicos por activación neutrónica.

Se tiene también una facilidad de neutrografía.

El IPEN en colaboración con la Universidad Nacional

de Ingeniería se realiza simulación de experimentos

de fisión y experimentos de física de reactores.

Un grupo de la Pontifica Universidad Católica del Perú

trabaja en el experimento ALICE con el grupo de

México en el CERN.

slide49

Conclusions:

Most countries in the region have small activity in basic Nuclear Physics research. Mostly radiation and medical applications. Very small number of scientists.

Exceptions: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico

Region has no large scale facilities in NP and no plans.

Small support from funding agencies even for maintenance of existing facilities.

ad