Heat engines
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Heat Engines. Rev. Robert Sterling and the “Air Engine”. History. R. Stirling minister of church of Scotland Prolific inventor entire life Suffered for the injuries of those in congregation. Invention by Need. 1816 patent for air engine Steam engines inefficient and prone to explosions

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Heat Engines

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Heat engines

Heat Engines

Rev. Robert Sterling and the “Air Engine”


History

History

  • R. Stirling minister of church of Scotland

  • Prolific inventor entire life

  • Suffered for the injuries of those in congregation


Invention by need

Invention by Need

  • 1816 patent for air engine

  • Steam engines inefficient and prone to explosions

  • Called air engines until 1940’s use of other gases


How does it work

How does it Work?

  • Sealed cylinder one side hot one side cold

  • Working gas is moved from hot side to cold side


Two piston type

Two Piston Type

  • Space above piston heated continuously

  • Space above cool piston is continuously cooled


Physics phun

Physics Phun

  • Hot gas expands on piston producing pressure (P= F/A)

  • Cold gas moves to cold side contracts

  • Two power pulses per revolution


Model engine

Model engine


But is it efficient

But is it Efficient?

  • Mid 1800’s Carnot determined maximum efficiency of heat engines

  • Temp hot side—Temp cold side

    Temp of hot side X 100

    Equals maximum efficiency


Carnot cycle

Carnot Cycle


Efficiency

Efficiency

  • Stirling engines theoretically reach 100%

  • Practical examples reach 50%

  • Gasoline engines struggle to reach above 30%


Why don t i drive a sterling engine

Why don’t I drive a Sterling Engine

  • Does not start instantly, requires extensive warm up

  • Identical problem occurs in fuel cells

  • Low fuel prices work against efficient engine that does not start instantly


Used on ss swedish subs

Used on SS (Swedish Subs)


Apu s

APU’s

  • Auxiliary power units for electrical generation on Yachts

  • Quiet, smooth power

  • Expensive


Cryocoolers

Cryocoolers

  • Stirling engines are reversible

  • Heat in power out

  • Power in heat consumed

  • Extremely cold temp to 10° K


Micro coolers

Micro coolers

  • Manufactured in large numbers to cool infrared chips

  • Used to cool night vision devices

  • May have applications for space use


Future

Future?

  • Extensive research in Europe for efficiency advances

  • Application specific designs

  • Manufacturing methodology’s


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