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Why 'Why' Matters for Multimedia Content Mathias Lux. Users in Context. Definition: Context.

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Why why matters for multimedia content mathias lux

Why 'Why' Matters forMultimedia Content Mathias Lux



Definition context
Definition: Context

“Context is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity. An entity is a person, place, or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and applications themselves.”

Ref. G. Abowd et al., “Towards a better understanding of context and context-awareness. In Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 1707 LNCS, 1999.


Definition intention
Definition: Intention

noun

(1) thing intended; an aim or plan

(2) Medicine the healing process of a wound

(3) (intentions) Logic conceptions formed by directing the mind towards an object


Context vs intention
Context vs. Intention?

Context is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity. An entity is a person, […]

noun

  • thing intended; an aim or plan

    […]


A user s intention is
A User’s Intention is

  • part of a user’s context

  • of manageable size (verb & frame)

  • related to the information need in search

    Examples

  • I want to download a new background for my mobile.

  • I want to share the first laugh of my daughter.

  • I want to see what a LanciaIntegrale looks like.


User intentions in the web
User Intentions in the Web

Underlying goals of web searches

  • Informational

    • to learn / know something

  • Navigational

    • to go to a specific place (on the web)

  • Transactional

    • to go somewhere to ultimately buy sth.

Ref. Broder: A Taxonomy of Web Search. SIGIR Forum, 2002


User intentions in the web1
User Intentions in the Web

Ref. Rose & Levinson: Understanding user goals in web search, WWW 2004


User intentions n multimedia
User Intentions n Multimedia

  • Search

  • Production

  • Sharing

  • Archiving

  • Image

  • Video

  • Audio

  • Multiple modalities


Hand picked examples
Hand-picked Examples

Right now there is no all-in-one publication on user intentions in multimedia …


User intentions in image search
User Intentions in Image Search

old vs. new Starbucks logo

my friend’s new car on flickr.com

beautiful sunset for the background of my mobile

Latest “explore” photos

Ref. Lux, Kofler & Marques: A classification scheme for user intentions in image search, CHI 2010


Do queries help with the search intention
Do queries help with the search intention?

User information need vs. query formulation in video search.

  • How to support users with video indexing and search methods?

  • Search goal failure is (partially) predictable

    • Based on keywords and

    • Based on natural language

Ref. Kofler, Larson & Hanjalic: To Seek, Perchance to Fail: Expressions of User Needs in Internet Video Search, ECIR 2011


Asking for the why behind the what
Asking for the “Why?” behind the “What?”

Learn to sing …

Hear others singing …

Ref. Hanjalic, Kofler & Larson: Intent and its Discontents: The User at the Wheel of the Online Video Search Engine, ACM MM 2012


Online survey why did you watch this video
Online Survey: Why did you watch this video?

  • 270 participants

  • Online questionnaire

    • Why do you watch videos?

    • Category <-> reason?

  • -> Intention 2 category table

Ref. Lagger, Lux & Marques: An Adaptive Video Retrieval System Based On Recent Studies On User Intentions While Watching Videos Online. ACM CIE, online.


Helping with clever uis
Helping with clever Uis?

Ref. Lagger, Lux & Marques: An Adaptive Video Retrieval System Based On Recent Studies On User Intentions While Watching Videos Online. ACM CIE, online.


Who are the users in a video search system
Who are the Users in a Video Search System?

  • Study on users of

    • YouTube

    • BBC iPlayer

    • UitzendingGemist

Ref. Kemman, Kleppe & Beunders: Who are the users of a video search system? Classifying a heterogeneous group with a profile matrix, WIAMIS 2012


Who are the users in a video search system1
Who are the Users in a Video Search System?

Ref. Kemman, Kleppe & Beunders: Who are the users of a video search system? Classifying a heterogeneous group with a profile matrix, WIAMIS 2012


Why do people make videos
Why do People make Videos?

  • Study on four main goals:

    • Affection, Function, Sharing & Preservation.

Ref. Lux & Huber: Why did you record this video? WIAMIS 2012


Correlation of clusters
Correlation of Clusters

  • ρ-Coefficient

    • Showing minimum, actual & maximum


Implications
Implications?

  • 81% of the instances were assigned to more than one category.

    • Hypothesis: a discrete mapping to exactly one category is insufficient

  • “Preservation” and “Sharing” seem to be independent

    • Hypothesis: “Personal reflection” is not the opposite of “publishing” (cp. Kindberg)

  • „Preservation“ and „Function“ are neg. correlated

    • Hypothesis: Videos are not archived if they are taken for a functional reason.


Intentional framing
Intentional Framing

Def. The framing of a picture is the Deutungsrahmen (interpretation frame of the image) which image producers have in mind during the creation moment of the picture.






Intentional framing3
Intentional Framing

Assumption: Similar intentions for taking the pictures will lead to similar framings of the images.

Hypothesis: Certain global image features can be used to differentiate framings.

Ref. Riegler, Lux, Larson, … (2014?) How `how' reflects what's what: Content-based classification exploiting how users frame images (submitted)




Educational needs
Educational Needs

  • Surgeons need a “communication tool”

  • Portability & ease of use are critical

  • ? Streaming of videos and annotations ?


Leveraging self represention fun
Leveraging Self-Represention & Fun …


Self representation
Self-Representation

  • Streaming & sharing videos of games

    • to be hub or authority in a community

  • Twitch.tv, Everplay, Hitbox

  • Communication

    • One <-> Group


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • Why “why” matters …

  • If we know what people want we can offer services that allow them to reach the goals faster or more efficient.



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