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Genetic Disorders, Blood Typing, and Genetic Engineering. Genetic Disorder. Is an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes and chromosomes Two causes: Mutations in DNA Changes in overall structure or numbers of chromosomes. Prenatal Diagnosis Amniocentesis.

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Genetic disorder
Genetic Disorder

  • Is an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes and chromosomes

    • Two causes:

      • Mutations in DNA

      • Changes in overall structure or numbers of chromosomes


Prenatal diagnosis amniocentesis
Prenatal DiagnosisAmniocentesis

  • A small sample of the amniotic fluid surrounding the baby is removed using a syringe.

  • The fluid contains skin cells from the baby.

  • The skin cells are grown in the lab.



Down syndrome trisomy 21
Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) microscope and a picture is taken.

  • Extra chromosome 21 in

    every cell of the body

  • Causes mental retardation, heart defects



Turner syndrome female born with only one x chromosome
Turner Syndrome chromosome abnormality increases female born with only one X chromosome

Characteristics

  • short stature

  • ovaries do not develop (infertile)

  • cardiovascular problems

  • kidney and thyroid problems

  • skeletal disorders such as scoliosis


Klinefelter syndrome 47 xxy
Klinefelter Syndrome chromosome abnormality increases 47,XXY

Characteristics

  • Infertility (cannot produce a lot of sperm)

  • Abnormal body proportions (long legs, short trunk, shoulder equal to hip size)

  • Abnormally large breasts (gynecomastia)


Cystic fibrosis
Cystic Fibrosis chromosome abnormality increases

  • Genetic disorder in which the body produces abnormally thick mucus in the lungs and intestines

  • Caused by a recessive allele that is a result of a mutation in which 3 bases are deleted from a DNA molecule


Sickle cell disease
Sickle Cell Disease chromosome abnormality increases

  • Affects hemoglobin, which is a protein that carries oxygen

  • When oxygen levels are low the blood cells have a sickle shape instead of the normal round shape

  • These sickle shaped blood cells clog blood vessels and carry less oxygen

  • Autosomal recessive


How to manage genetic disorders
How to Manage Genetic Disorders chromosome abnormality increases

  • Karyotypes – used to detect chromosomal disorders such as down syndrome

  • Genetic counseling -Assess the risk of a genetic disorder by researching a family's history and evaluating medical records.


Blood typing controlled by multiple alleles
Blood Typing chromosome abnormality increases controlled by multiple alleles

  • Human trait controlled by more than one allele is said to have multiple alleles

  • Even though a gene may have multiple alleles, a person can only carry 2 of those alleles because we have only 2 chromosomes

  • Four major blood types: A, B, AB, AND O


Blood types a and b and ab
Blood types A and B and AB chromosome abnormality increases

  • Codominant

  • Alleles for blood type A is AA

  • Alleles for blood type B is BB

  • a cross between blood type A and blood type B

  • Results in a person with type AB blood


Blood type o
Blood Type O chromosome abnormality increases

TYPE O BLOOD

  • Allele for blood type O is recessive

  • Only way to get blood type O is to have both parents with blood type O


Oh the possibilities
Oh, the possibilities! chromosome abnormality increases


Advances in genetics
Advances in Genetics chromosome abnormality increases

  • Human Genome Project

  • DNA fingerprinting

  • Genetic engineering


Human genome project hgp
Human Genome Project (HGP) chromosome abnormality increases

  • Genome is all the DNA in one cell of an organism

  • HGP- is the code that is 6 billion letters long

  • Main goal of the project is to identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome

  • We have at least 30,000 genes

  • Average gene has about 3000 bases


Dna fingerprinting
DNA Fingerprinting chromosome abnormality increases

  • DNA is broken down into small fragments

  • Selected fragments rare used to produce a pattern called: DNA FINGERPRINT

  • Except for identical twins no 2 people have the same DNA fingerprint


Genetic engineering
Genetic Engineering chromosome abnormality increases

  • Genes from one organism are transferred into DNA of another

  • Used to produce medicine and crops resistant to diseases

  • Insulin (used by diabetics) is produced by genetically engineered bacteria


Genetic engineering of organisms
Genetic Engineering of Organisms chromosome abnormality increases

Genes are inserted into animals such as cows to produce the human clotting protein needed by people with hemophilia

Spider Goat


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