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Water Issues. Sally Lay Jason Jensen S. Kumagai Wesley Watson. Water Topics. Water Policy Ramifications of Irrigation Impacts from pollution and use Irrigation Systems. General water usage. General water use:

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Water issues
Water Issues

  • Sally Lay

  • Jason Jensen

  • S. Kumagai

  • Wesley Watson


Water topics
Water Topics

  • Water Policy

  • Ramifications of Irrigation

  • Impacts from pollution and use

  • Irrigation Systems


General water usage
General water usage

  • General water use:

  • The average cost for water supplied to a home in the U.S. is about two dollars per 1,000/gal which equals 5 gallons for a penny.

  • About 1 percent of the earth’s water is suitable for drinking.

  • The average resident uses 100,000 gal/yr


  • Safe drinking water act: The SDWA authorized the

  • Wellhead Protection Program in 1986 to protect supplies of ground water used as public drinking water from contamination by chemicals and other hazards, including pesticides, nutrients, and other agricultural chemicals.


The program is based on the concept that land-use controls and other preventive measures can protect groundwater. As of December 1998, 45 States have EPA-approved wellhead protection programs. The 1996 amendments to the SDWA have potential, though indirect, implications for agricultural producers


Policy and other preventive measures can protect groundwater. As of December 1998, 45 States have EPA-approved wellhead protection programs. The 1996 amendments to the SDWA have potential, though indirect, implications for agricultural producers

  • Environmental Quality Incentive Program

  • Conservation Technical Assistance

  • Conservation Compliance

  • Conservation Reserve Program


  • Buffer Initiative and other preventive measures can protect groundwater. As of December 1998, 45 States have EPA-approved wellhead protection programs. The 1996 amendments to the SDWA have potential, though indirect, implications for agricultural producers

  • Wetlands Reserve Program

  • Small Watershed Program

  • Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program


  • Nonpoint source Program and other preventive measures can protect groundwater. As of December 1998, 45 States have EPA-approved wellhead protection programs. The 1996 amendments to the SDWA have potential, though indirect, implications for agricultural producers

  • National Estuary Program

  • Clean Lakes Program

  • Coastal Zone management Act


Policy and other preventive measures can protect groundwater. As of December 1998, 45 States have EPA-approved wellhead protection programs. The 1996 amendments to the SDWA have potential, though indirect, implications for agricultural producers

  • Wellhead Protection Program

  • Comprehensive State Ground Water Protection Program

  • Safe drinking Water Act


Policy and other preventive measures can protect groundwater. As of December 1998, 45 States have EPA-approved wellhead protection programs. The 1996 amendments to the SDWA have potential, though indirect, implications for agricultural producers

  • Great Lakes Program

  • Chesapeake Bay Program

  • Gulf Of Mexico Program

  • Lake Champlain Basin Program



Several approaches for protecting water quality have been developed at the Federal and State levels. These approaches use a variety of incentive mechanisms for reducing pollution discharges. Pollution from factories and other point sources is controlled through regulations and penalties. In contrast, policies and programs for reducing pollution from agriculture and other nonpoint sources are mostly based on voluntary approaches providing education, technical, and cost-sharing assistance.


Federal water quality programs affecting agriculture in 1996 epa administered programs
Federal Water Quality Programs developed at the Federal and State levels. These approaches use a variety of incentive mechanisms for reducing pollution discharges. Pollution from factories and other point sources is controlled through regulations and penalties. In contrast, policies and programs for reducing pollution from agriculture and other nonpoint sources are mostly based on voluntary approaches providing education, technical, and cost-sharing assistance.Affecting Agriculture in 1996EPA-Administered Programs

  • Clean Water Act Programs:

  • Clean Lakes Program (Section 314)

  • Nonpoint Source Program (Section 319)

  • National Estuary Program (Section 320)

  • National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

  • (Section 402)

  • Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Programs

  • Regional Programs

  • Safe Water Drinking Act

  • Pesticide Programs

  • Comprehensive State Ground-Water Protection Program


Epa programs affecting agriculture
EPA Programs Affecting Agriculture developed at the Federal and State levels. These approaches use a variety of incentive mechanisms for reducing pollution discharges. Pollution from factories and other point sources is controlled through regulations and penalties. In contrast, policies and programs for reducing pollution from agriculture and other nonpoint sources are mostly based on voluntary approaches providing education, technical, and cost-sharing assistance.

While Federal water quality laws tend to focus on point sources, they do not ignore nonpoint sources. The primary Federal law, the Clean Water Act (CWA), addresses both point and nonpoint source pollution. Point sources are controlled through enforceable mechanisms. Pollution from point sources is subject to

  • technology-based controls, which consist of uniform, EPA-established standards of treatment that apply to certain industries and municipal sewage treatment facilities, and

  • water quality-based controls where technology-based controls are not adequate to meet State water quality standards.


Usda administered programs
USDA-Administered Programs developed at the Federal and State levels. These approaches use a variety of incentive mechanisms for reducing pollution discharges. Pollution from factories and other point sources is controlled through regulations and penalties. In contrast, policies and programs for reducing pollution from agriculture and other nonpoint sources are mostly based on voluntary approaches providing education, technical, and cost-sharing assistance.

  • Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP):

  • Water Quality Incentives Projects (WQIP)

  • Integrated Crop Management (ICM) Practice

  • Conservation Technical Assistance (CTA) Program

  • Colorado River Salinity Control Program (CRSCP)

  • Water Quality Program (WQP):

  • Research and development

  • Education, technical, and financial assistance

  • Data base development and evaluation


  • Farm Bill Programs (1985 and 1990): developed at the Federal and State levels. These approaches use a variety of incentive mechanisms for reducing pollution discharges. Pollution from factories and other point sources is controlled through regulations and penalties. In contrast, policies and programs for reducing pollution from agriculture and other nonpoint sources are mostly based on voluntary approaches providing education, technical, and cost-sharing assistance.

  • Conservation Compliance

  • Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

  • Wetland Reserve Program (WRT)

  • Integrated Farm Management Program

  • Pesticide Record-Keeping

  • Great Plains Conservation Program

  • Small Watershed Program

  • Resource Conservation and Development Program


Lessons learned from usda water quality programs
Lessons Learned from USDA Water Quality Programs developed at the Federal and State levels. These approaches use a variety of incentive mechanisms for reducing pollution discharges. Pollution from factories and other point sources is controlled through regulations and penalties. In contrast, policies and programs for reducing pollution from agriculture and other nonpoint sources are mostly based on voluntary approaches providing education, technical, and cost-sharing assistance.

  • Experience with programs such as the Model Implementation Program, Rural Clean Waters Program, and the Water Quality Program suggest some important factors that can enhance the performance of USDA efforts to protect water quality.

  • Voluntary programs are likely to be most successful in areas where farmers recognize that agriculture contributes to severe local pollution problems such as groundwater impairment.


  • Voluntary programs are likely to be successful when recommended practices generate higher returns.

  • Cost-effectiveness is enhanced when program activities are targeted to watersheds where agriculture is the primary source of water quality impairment.

  • Flexible cost-share programs to encourage producers to adopt certain management practices are more efficient than those with fixed rates and limited lists of supported practices


  • Local research on the economic and physical performance of recommended practices can improve adoption rates of those practices.

  • Interaction with non-USDA agencies, organizations, and local businesses within a watershed is important.

  • More attention to and resources for water quality monitoring and project evaluation could help determine the cost effectiveness of alternative practices and assist in the development of targeting strategies for program improvement.

  • Source: Ribaudo, 1998.


Irrigation

Annual renewable supplies in surface streams and aquifers total roughly 1,500 mil acre-feet per year

One quarter is withdrawn for use in homes, farms, and industry

7 percent is actually used

Agriculture is largest water use

Irrigated agriculture contributes almost half the total value of crop sales on just 16 percent of total cropland harvested.

Irrigation


Irrigation1
Irrigation total roughly 1,500 mil acre-feet per year

Farm and ranch irrigation survey is the sole data source for acres irrigated by source of water that also collects additional information, such as costs.

A groundwater-irrigated farm on average will have more than three wells, with other 9 percent of the farms having 10 or more wells.

On average more than 13 million households use private wells for their water supply.


Cost of water

On average the cost of on-farm surface water is likely the lowest.

Off-farm water is supplied to more then 83,000 farm nationwide, 2/3 of these acres are concentrated in 6 states (CA. WA. WY.CO. MT. ID.) ~ Based on acreage not water service.

Cost of water


Irrigation2

This system has little financial incentive to conserve because charges are assessed independently of the amount of the water allotment used.

The price irrigators pay for water is usually associated with the expense of developing and providing the resource and may not reflect the full social cost of its use.

Irrigation


Irrigation cost

An alternative to this approach could be set administratively, however this would require precise adjustments in water prices. Coupled with localized nature of the hydrologic systems and the externalities associated with water use and reuse would make this method unsound.

Irrigation cost


Clean water act
Clean Water Act administratively, however this would require precise adjustments in water prices. Coupled with localized nature of the hydrologic systems and the externalities associated with water use and reuse would make this method unsound.

Water quality in terms of designated beneficial uses with numeric and narrative criteria that support each use

Physical

Chemical

Biological

Allows States and tribes to set their own water quality


Clean water act1
Clean Water Act administratively, however this would require precise adjustments in water prices. Coupled with localized nature of the hydrologic systems and the externalities associated with water use and reuse would make this method unsound.

Discharges of toxic pollutions have been reduced billons pounds per year

Reductions in pollutions have improved the health of aquatic ecosystem

BUT!!

There are still many area where is polluted

From Agricultural lands and other nonpoint source States


Agricultural implications for policy
Agricultural administratively, however this would require precise adjustments in water prices. Coupled with localized nature of the hydrologic systems and the externalities associated with water use and reuse would make this method unsound.Implicationsfor Policy

How water quality changes with time, and to study how human activities and natural factors affect water quality

Agricultural land

Stream

Ex Mississippi river

Ground water


Agricultural pollution and economic impacts
Agricultural Pollution and Economic Impacts administratively, however this would require precise adjustments in water prices. Coupled with localized nature of the hydrologic systems and the externalities associated with water use and reuse would make this method unsound.

Sediment Damage

Disturbing the soil through tillage and cultivation and leaving it without vegetative cover may increase the rate of soil erosion

The largest contamination of surface water

Causes various damage to water resources and to water uses


Agricultural pollution and economic impacts1
Agricultural Pollution and Economic Impacts administratively, however this would require precise adjustments in water prices. Coupled with localized nature of the hydrologic systems and the externalities associated with water use and reuse would make this method unsound.

Nutrient Damage

N and P can cause quality problems

Nitrate

Phosphate

Pesticide Damage (pests, fungus, and disease)

Harm freshwater and marine organisms


Agricultural pollution and economic impacts2
Agricultural Pollution and Economic Impacts administratively, however this would require precise adjustments in water prices. Coupled with localized nature of the hydrologic systems and the externalities associated with water use and reuse would make this method unsound.

Mineral Damage

Dissolved salt and other minerals

Increase water treatment cost

Force development of alternative water supplies

Reduce the life span

Pathogen Damage

Animal waste can cause several disease


Value of clean water
Value of Clean Water administratively, however this would require precise adjustments in water prices. Coupled with localized nature of the hydrologic systems and the externalities associated with water use and reuse would make this method unsound.

Economic value of changes of water quality is important

Reduce pollution from agricultural production

Few studies have looked at the costs of water pollution and the benefit of pollution reduction

It costs tens of billions dollars!!


Irrigation water management

Irrigation Accounts for 34% of the water usage administratively, however this would require precise adjustments in water prices. Coupled with localized nature of the hydrologic systems and the externalities associated with water use and reuse would make this method unsound.

Irrigated Crop Production

Maintain farm profitability

Reduce the impact of irrigated water quality

Enhancing producer net returns

Irrigation Water Management


Irrigation3

Agriculture uses the most water through the practice of irrigation

100 million gallons per year, per acre of farmland

Accounts for 40% of fresh water withdrawals

Irrigation


Irrigation application systems

Gravity-Flow Systems irrigation

Distribute water across the field.

Open ditches

Aboveground pipe

Underground pipe

Water runs one-eighth to one-half mile.

Pipeline conveyance systems

Reduces the amount of water lost to non-crop vegetation

Irrigation Application Systems


Irrigation application systems1
Irrigation Application Systems irrigation

Pressurized Application Systems and Practices

Pipeline conveyance

Center –pivot

Linear or Lateral-move

Hand-move

Solid set

Big gun system

Side-roll Wheel-move


Improved systems and practices

Improved center pivots and lateral-move irrigation

Low-energy precision application (LEPA)

Low-flow irrigation systems

Improved Systems and Practices


Center pivot technology

Low-pressure center-pivot irrigation

Linear-move

Low-energy precision application

Center-pivot Technology


Summation
Summation irrigation

  • There is no one easy answer to the problems that plague water quality and use.

  • The best solution is for the individual to better inform themselves and others about programs, problems, and possible solutions.


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