Two journeys to quality
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Two journeys to quality. From symptoms to cause – the diagnostic journey From cause to remedy – the remedial journey. Two views on errors. Most errors go unreported because they are either felt to be insignificant or for fear of blame and retribution

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Two journeys to quality

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Two journeys to quality

From symptoms to cause – the diagnostic journey

From cause to remedy – the remedial journey

Two views on errors

Most errors go unreported because they are either felt to

be insignificant or for fear of blame and retribution

Very few people care enough about their own or another’s organisation to report correctable errors

Three elements of quality costs

Costs of errors

Inspection costs

Prevention costs

Three key quality issues

The bitterness of poor quality remains long after the

sweetness of low price is forgotten

Quality is the art of getting people to buy your product or

service more than once

The cost of quality is the expense of doing things wrong

Three issues on quality and customers

Nine out of ten dissatisfied customers don’t complain, they just go elsewhere

Over three quarters of customers will pay more for a high quality service

Attracting new customers can cost up to four times as much as retaining them

Three brave questions to put to customers

What are we doing that you like?

What should we do that are not yet?

What are we doing that needs to be done better?


Three principles of the Investors in People standard




Developing strategies to improve the performance

of the organisation

Taking action to improve the performance

of the organisation

Evaluating the impact of the performance

of the organisation

Four absolutes of quality management

Conformance to requirements performance

Prevention not appraisal

Zero defects

Measuring the cost of non-conformance

Philip Crosby

Four costs of quality

Conformance costs

Prevention costs

Appraisal costs

Non-conformance costs

Internal failure

External failure

Source: Steve Ball

Four levels of denying our ability to resolve a problem

The problem does not exist

The problem is not important

The problem cannot be solved

I cannot solve the problem

Four improvement strategies





Four thoughts on quality

Quality cannot be inspected in, it can only be created

by design

Most organisations are unaware of the true costs of

getting things wrong

Up to 85% of quality problems are created by people who

never touch the product or provide the service

The price of poor quality can amount to 20-40% of


Four quality essentials

Costs go down as we reduce variation in what we

produce or deliver

Concern for meeting customer needs will show in

what we do not just what we say

To improve a process we need to know what causes

its variation

A climate in which we feel unthreatened when

reporting bad news is a must

Andrew Gibbons

Four steps to quality control

Setting quality standards

Appraising conformance to the standards

Acting when standards are not met

Planning improvements continuously to the standards

Four essentials for quality management





Four specific quality costs

Prevention costs: including quality planning

Appraisal costs: including inspection

Internal failure costs: including scrap and rework

External failure costs: including warranty and complaints


Four steps to quality management

Setting quality standards

Appraising conformance to the standard

Acting when standards are exceeded

Planning improvements in the standard


Four parts to the Best Value Quality model

Challenge purpose

Compare performance

Consult the community

Compete with others

Four ways to embed quality

Understanding and fulfilling requirements

The need to consider process in terms of added value

Obtaining the results of process performance and


Continual improvement of process based on effective


Source: BSI

Five parts to the ‘great place to work’ standard






Five steps to root causes of poor quality

What goes wrong?

What are the symptoms?

What are the effects?

What are the real causes?

What will resolve the problem?

Five ways to improve a process

Reduce resources

Reduce errors

Enhance customer perception of value

Make the process safer

Make the process more satisfying to those engaged

in that process

Five retrospective quality issues






Source: Ishikawa

Five stages in the capability maturity model






Five principles of total quality management

Produce quality work first time

Focus on the customer

Have a strategic approach to improvement

Improve continuously

Encourage mutual respect and teamwork

Five elements of the EPDCA quality cycle

E vauate?

P lan

D o

C heck

A mend

Five parts to the IDEAS benchmarking model

Inquire Investigating possible areas for benchmarking

DecideSelect one area

ExpandExploring key features of the chosen

area - causes, effects and possible solutions

AnalyseSeeking expert opinion

SpecifyInterpreting results to focus on the way forward

Source: Webster and Chen Lu

Six elements of a quality product







Five principles of total quality management

Produce quality work the first time

Focus on the customer

Have a strategic approach to improvement

Improve continuously

Encourage mutual respect and teamwork

Six parts to the ACCEPT model of quality

A im for customer satisfaction

C ommunicate and co-ordinate all activities

C o-operate at all levels and across functions

E mpower all employees

P romote the use of problem solving tools

T raining for quality is forever

Six levels of benchmarking

World class

Potential winners



\ Room for improvement

Could do better

Seven signs of poor quality


Wasted time






Steve Smith

Seven steps to solving quality problems

Identify Key areas

Analyse Symptoms

To find Causes

Generate Alternatives

Make Decisions

Anticipate Trouble

Prevent Recurrence

Seven elements to the Baldridgequality award


Leadership 120

Strategic planning 85

Customer and market focus 85

Measurement, analysis, knowledge management 90

Human resource focus 85

Process management 85

Business results 450

Eight fundamental concepts of quality

Results orientation

Customer focus

Leadership and constancy of purpose

Management by processes and facts

People development and involvement

Continuous learning innovation and improvement

Partnership development

Corporate social responsibility


Eight parts to the Sunday Times 100 standard


My manager

Personal growth

Well being

My team

My company

Fair deal

Giving something back

Eight steps to the rational decision making model

Know your climate and parameters

Define the problem

Collect data

Analyse the data

Generate possible solutions

Select the best solution

Implement the decision

Review and learn

Eight dimensions of quality








Perceived quality

Eight routes to poor quality

Emphasis on short term profitability

Clamping down on cost but tolerating high waste levels

A ‘take it or leave it’ attitude towards customers

Treating employees as productive robots

Competing on price not sufficiently on quality

Buying at the lowest price

Anti - change but changing arbitrarily when forced

Macho management – the crisis manager

Source: UK Dept of Trade and Industry

Eight key quality issues

Quality leads to lower costs and inspection is too late

The boardroom has ultimate responsibility for quality

Most defects are caused by the system

No process is optimised, it can always be improved

Fear degrades processes – provide job security

Managers must do more than respond to system failure

Build long term relationships with trusted suppliers

Prevention of variation and failure is the key

W E Deming

Nine elements of the Business Excellence Model

Five enablers:



Policy and strategy

Partnership and resources


Four results:




Key performance indicators

Nine parts to Juran’s quality ‘route map’

Identify who are our customers

Determine the specific needs of those customers

Translate those needs into our language

Develop products that respond to those needs

Optimise product features to meet our needs too

Develop processes able to produce the products

Fine tune and optimise the process

Improve the process under operating conditions

Transfer the process to operations

Source: Joseph Juran

”The cost of quality is the expense of

doing things wrong”

Source: UK Department of Trade and Industry

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