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Historic Look at IDEA. Evolving Issues and Practices. Sad U.S. History. Many people (children) with disabilities were abandoned, killed, ‘warehoused’ in deplorable, inhumane institutions. Education was not a consideration. Initial Programs.

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historic look at idea

Historic Look at IDEA

Evolving Issues and Practices

sad u s history
Sad U.S. History
  • Many people (children) with disabilities were abandoned, killed, ‘warehoused’ in deplorable, inhumane institutions.
  • Education was not a consideration
initial programs
Initial Programs
  • The American Asylum for the Education and Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb (1817)
  • Maryland Institution for the Instruction of the Blind (1853) (became the Maryland School for the Blind in 1868)
  • Also started the Maryland School for the Colored Blind and Deaf in 1872
music in special ed
Music in Special Ed.
  • Literature shows that:
    • Music was used to teach students with disabilities
    • Singing was used to improve speech, breathing, and articulation skills
    • Music was used in diagnosing hearing problems before the development of audiology equipment
    • Music was used with deaf and hard of hearing students
early mid 1900s
Early-Mid 1900s
  • Early 1900s- Public Education for all typical children
  • By 1950s, as attitudes began to change, parents began organizing efforts to obtain funding for special schools for their children with special needs.
  • 1960s brought more enlightened thinking regarding ALL people with needs, such as poverty, mental illness, racial inequalities, etc.
brown vs board of ed 1954
Brown vs. Board of Ed. (1954)
  • School desegregation case
  • Integrating ed. settings
  • Separate is not equal
  • Beginning of the end for ALL exclusionary practices in schools
eha ed of the handicapped act
EHA: Ed. of the Handicapped Act
  • 1970
  • Expanded federal grant programs
  • Funded pilot studies for Special Ed.
  • Funds for development of University programs for special ed. Teacher training
parc penn assoc of retarded citizens vs commonwealth
PARC Penn. Assoc of Retarded Citizens vs. Commonwealth
  • 1971
  • Established right for a FAPE (Free, Appropriate Public Education) for students with mental retardation
  • Schools could not exclude students with MR
  • Due Process must be followed
  • Educate in less restrictive settings when possible
mills vs bd of ed
Mills vs. Bd. Of Ed.
  • 1972- expanded on PARC
  • Guaranteed Due Process include procedures relating to labeling, placement, and exclusionary stages of decision making
  • Schools had to fund Spec. Ed., even when funds were low
  • Protection for more than just MR
sec 504 of rehabilitation act
Sec 504 of Rehabilitation Act
  • 1973
  • Federal anti-discrimination law (civil rights)
  • No org. that receives federal funds can discriminate based on disability condition
  • Protects for alternate DX, such as medical illness, ADHD, behavior d/o, substance abuse
  • Did not guarantee equal participation (extra-curric), but equal opportunity.
pl94 142 education for all handicapped children act
PL94-142 Education for All Handicapped Children Act
  • 1975
  • Complete access to FAPE in the LRE (Least Restrictive Environment)
  • Later became IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1990) [PL101-476]
  • Revised and reauthorized in 1997, then became the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act 2004
idea 6 principles
IDEA: 6 Principles
  • Zero Reject(ion): FAPE for ALL!!!
  • Nondiscriminatory evaluation for eligibility & need for services
  • LRE (Least Restrictive Environment)
  • IEP (Individualized Education Plan): services must be individualized
  • Parents’ right to full involvement in decisions, including the education plan
  • Due Process guarantee
some key idea amendments
Some Key IDEA Amendments
  • Pre-school children (3-5)
  • Early Intervention (under 3)
  • Handicap replaced by Disability; Person 1st language
  • Autism & TBI included
  • Assistive Technology
current idea issues
Current IDEA issues
  • Higher expectations for students
  • Increase access to regular ed.
  • Use of research-based teaching interventions mandated
  • Strengthen parent role
  • Redefine Spec. Ed. as a service for eligible students, rather than a destination for their ed.
  • Support professional development for all school personnel
ada americans with disabilities act
ADA: Americans with Disabilities Act
  • 1990
  • Most sweeping antidiscrimination disability legislation to date
  • Extends civil rights and nondiscrimination protection to most public and private programs, services, and agencies.
nclb no child left behind act
NCLB: No Child Left Behind Act
  • 2001
  • PL 107-110

-- Increased accountability

      • carrot or whip?

--More choices for parents & students

--Greater $$ flexibility for states, school districts, and schools

--Stronger emphasis on reading