Public health risks in radiological emergencies
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Public Health Risks in Radiological Emergencies. Public Health and Healthcare Issues. Public Health and Healthcare. Mass Casualty Events. Produce large number of patients quickly

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Public Health Risks in Radiological Emergencies

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Public health risks in radiological emergencies

Public Health RisksinRadiological Emergencies

Public Health and Healthcare Issues


Public health and healthcare

Public Health and Healthcare


Mass casualty events

Mass Casualty Events

  • Produce large number of patients quickly

  • Surge of patients with severe and minor injuries can rapidly stress the healthcare system and first receivers

  • The majority of injured self report to healthcare facilities

  • Injured report to the closest hospitals to the event


Radiation mass surge event

Radiation Mass Surge Event

  • Radiation further complicates response and adds additional stress to a stressful situation

  • Radiation raises the fear of contamination in staff who have little understanding of radiation

  • Radiation increases the number of worried well wanting medical evaluation and monitoring


Perspective on mass surge

Perspective on Mass Surge

  • It is estimated that 10% of the total population will want to be screened for radioactivity exposure

  • Psychological trauma is the driving force


Fukushima japan 2011

Fukushima, Japan 2011

  • 200,000 of a population of 2 million people were scanned and evaluated for contamination

  • Fear of contamination

  • Fear of health consequences


Goiania brazil 1987

Goiania, Brazil 1987

  • 249 people found significantly contaminated

  • 112,000 were evaluated and screened


Tokyo sarin attack

Tokyo Sarin Attack

  • Saint Luke’s International Hospital

  • 27% of staff contaminated

  • 526 victims

  • Over 5000 evaluated

  • Majority psychological


Cdc guiding principles

CDC Guiding Principles

  • First priority is to save lives and treat the injured first

  • Contamination with radioactive materials is not immediately-life treating

  • Initial population monitoring activities should focus on preventing acute radiation health effects

  • Scalability and flexibility are an important part of the planning process


Cdc guiding principles continued

CDC Guiding Principles Continued

  • Fear of radiation is high, higher than with other agents of terrorism

  • Radiological decontamination differs from those for chemical agents

  • Law enforcement agencies will be involved in response to a radiological terrorism event


Roles and responsibilities of public health

Roles and Responsibilities of Public Health

  • CDC lists 15 responsibilities for federal, state and local Public Health

  • “As a general rule, during the initial stages of the incident local and state officials should be prepared to handle the crisis without federal

    assistance”

    (CDC PopulationmonitoringinRadiationEmergencies)


Roles and responsibilities

Roles and Responsibilities

  • Protecting the public’s health

  • Monitoring workers health and safety

  • Ensuring safe shelters for the population Ensuring the safety of food and water

  • Coordinating sampling and laboratory analysis of bio and environmental samples

  • Conducting field investigations

  • Monitoring people who may have been contaminated with radioactive materials or exposed to radiation

  • Conducting or assisting in decontamination

  • Recommending management protocols for affected populations or individuals


Hospital mass surge issues

Hospital Mass Surge Issues

  • Patients arrive before the event is recognized as radiological by first responders

  • Contamination of the ER occurs before the event is recognized as radiological

  • Staff ill prepared to deal with radiological effected patients

  • Correct staff not present

  • Surge of worried well stresses facility’s ability to care for the seriously injured


Hospital mass surge issues1

Hospital Mass Surge Issues

  • Hospital staff lack the ability to communicate with the massive crowds of people

  • Staff fearful of radiation and the large crowds seeking care

  • Limited decon capabilities and limited ability to scan patients for radiation

  • Traffic management issues, abandoned cars, contaminated cars


The role of community reception centers

The Role of Community Reception Centers

  • To divert people with minor or no injuries away from the hospital for scanning and counseling

  • To decrease the impact of surge on patient care and hospital staff

  • To identify people who may need immediate assistance----decontamination, medical attention, psychosocial needs


Objectives of monitoring

Objectives of Monitoring

  • Identify individuals whose health is in immediate danger

  • Identify people who may need medical treatment for contamination or exposure

  • To try to minimize future health for long term health monitoring

  • Register potentially affected populations for long term health monitoring


Security needs

Security Needs

  • Traffic management at hospitals and Reception Centers

  • Security of facilities inside and on grounds

  • Risk of facility contamination

  • Threatening environment to staff responding to the incident

  • Risk as a secondary target


Why security for hospitals

Why Security for Hospitals

  • Represent critical infrastructure in their community

  • Symbols of safety and security for a community being affected by a mass casualty event

  • To ensure safety of staff while providing care to the surge of patients

  • To facilitate traffic flow, campus lock down, facility lock down


Why reception center security

Why Reception Center Security

  • Traffic management

  • Crowd containment and management

  • Safety of staff and patients

  • Secondary target

  • Limit access to the facility and grounds

  • Security of personal belongings


Planning and communication

Planning and Communication


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