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Group CLS 6805.01 Dr. Rushing. Week One. Increasing use of Groups. In the U.S. and abroad Used for therapeutic and/or educational purposes Used in a variety of settings Often more effective than the individual approach May need training beyond graduate school. Types of Groups.

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Increasing use of groups
Increasing use of Groups

  • In the U.S. and abroad

  • Used for therapeutic and/or educational purposes

  • Used in a variety of settings

  • Often more effective than the individual approach

  • May need training beyond graduate school

Types of groups
Types of Groups

  • Group Counseling

  • Group Psychotherapy

  • Psychoeducational Groups

  • Task Facilitation Groups

Counseling groups
Counseling Groups

  • Preventive and Remedial aims:

    • Focus may be educational, personal, social, vocational

    • Members largely determine content & aims

    • Involves interpersonal process stressing conscious thoughts, feelings, & behaviors

    • Members don’t require extensive personality reconstruction; tends to be growth orientation

    • Group leaders facilitate interaction among members; assist members to establish personal goals

Advantages of counseling groups
Advantages of Counseling Groups

  • Members may achieve personal goals

  • Provides a natural laboratory in a safe environment

  • Benefits for specific populations

    • Groups for children

    • Groups for adolescents

    • Groups for college students

    • Groups for older people

Psychotherapy groups
Psychotherapy Groups

  • Focus on remediation, treatment, and personality reconstruction

  • Awareness in both past and present

  • Designed to correct emotional and behavioral problems

  • Techniques include inducing regression to earlier experiences

  • Tend to be long-term

  • Clinical or counseling psychologists, licensed mental health counselors

Psychoeducational groups
Psychoeducational Groups

  • Contain content themes that provide structure for sessions

  • Aim to help members develop specific skills and gain information; short term.

  • Examples: social skills training; assertiveness training; stress management; cognitive therapy

    • Divorce & anger management in schools

    • HIV/AIDS support group

    • Domestic violence group

Task work groups
Task/Work Groups

  • Center around decision-making and problem-solving

    • Assist task forces, committees

  • Leaders focus on principles of group process to foster reaching work goals

    • If interpersonal issues within the group are ignored, cooperation and collaboration will not develop

    • guiding principles of warm-up, action, & closure

Key characteristics
Key Characteristics

  • Key personal characteristics of the effective group leader

    • Presence

    • Personal power

    • Courage

    • Willingness to challenge oneself

    • Authenticity

    • Sense of identity

    • Inventiveness and creativity


Issues for beginning group leaders
Issues For Beginning Group Leaders

  • Anxiety

    • Self awareness

  • Self-disclosure

    • Too little

    • Too much

  • Challenges of working in a system

    • Institutional demands and policies

    • Cost

    • Inadequate training

Group leadership skills
Group Leadership Skills

  • Active listening, restating, and clarifying

  • Summarizing

  • Questioning

  • Interpreting

  • Confronting

  • Reflecting feelings

  • Empathizing and supporting

  • Facilitating

  • Linking

  • Initiating

  • Setting goals

  • Evaluating

  • Giving feedback

  • Suggesting

  • Protecting

  • Disclosing

  • Modeling

  • Linking

  • Blocking

  • Terminating

Skills for opening closing groups
Skills for Opening & Closing Groups

  • Procedures for opening a group session

    • Have members briefly check in

    • Link sessions

    • Be attentive to unresolved issues from prior sessions

    • Create an agenda

  • Procedures for closing a group session

    • Encourage members to identify what they learned, how they perceived the session, summarize the group process & progress toward their goals

    • Members may want to identify topics for next session

    • Group leaders may express their own reactions to session

Diversity competence
Diversity Competence

  • Entails appreciating and understanding diversity in culture, ethnicity, race, gender, class, religion, sexual identity, age, & physical characteristics or limitations and conceptualizing theories and techniques in a multicultural context

  • Three areas involved in diversity competence:

    • Beliefs and attitudes of the group leader

    • Knowledge to become an effective leader

    • Skills and intervention strategies

Multicultural counseling
Multicultural Counseling

  • Become aware of your biases and values

  • Attempt to understand the world from the member’s vantage point

  • Gain knowledge about the dynamics of oppression, racism, discrimination, and stereotyping

  • Study the traditions and values of the members of your group

  • Learn general knowledge, but avoid stereotyping

  • Be open to learning from your members

  • Recognize that diversity can enhance the group process

Ethical issues in group work
Ethical Issues in Group Work

  • Rights of group participants

  • Psychological risks in groups

  • Socializing among group members

  • Ethics of group leader’s actions

  • Impact of leader’s values on the group

  • Issues in multicultural group counseling

  • Uses and misuses of group techniques

  • Group leader competence

  • Liability and malpractice

Rights of group members
Rights of Group Members

  • Informed consent

    • Pregroup disclosures – appropriateness, information, purpose, ground rules, psychological risks, rights and responsibilities

    • Rights during group – expectations, assistance, reasonable safeguards to minimize risks, confidentiality, dignity, respect

  • Involuntary groups

    • Informed consent

    • Enlist cooperation

  • Freedom to leave a group

  • Freedom from coercion

  • Right to confidentiality

    • Exceptions – harm to self or others, issue in a court action

    • With minors – in schools

Psychological risks in groups
Psychological Risks in Groups

  • Types of risks

    • Life changes that cause disruptions

    • Hostile and destructive confrontations

    • Scapegoating

    • Harmful socializing among members

  • Ways of reducing risks

    • Know members’ limits

    • Respect their requests

    • Invitational style vs. dictatorial style

    • Describe behavior rather than judging

Other ethical issues
Other Ethical Issues

  • Group leader’s actions

    • Awareness of and conformity to ethical standards

  • Group leader’s values

    • Imposing vs. exposing values

  • Socializing among group members

    • Positive or negative

  • Multicultural ethics

    • Awareness of cultural values and how they can influence group processes and dynamics

    • Transcend cultural encapsulation

    • Avoid imposing worldview on members

Using group techniques
Using Group Techniques

  • Principles for using group techniques effectively

    • Have a rationale for technique

    • Avoid misusing techniques to influence members in a direction

    • Techniques are best used to highlight material members bring up

    • Techniques are for helping members acquire self-understanding

    • Modify certain techniques based on cultural background of a member

    • Techniques are invitational—they can be a collaborative effort between leader and member

Group leader competence
Group Leader Competence

  • Determine level of competence

    • Training in use of technique

    • Theoretical and therapeutic rationale

    • Experience technique as member of group

    • Continuing education

  • Professional training standards

    • Core knowledge & skill competencies

    • Specialized training

  • Adjuncts to training of group counselors

    • Participation in personal counseling

    • Participation in group

    • Participation in experiential training workshops

Liability and malpractice
Liability and Malpractice

  • Be aware of local, state laws & institutional policies

  • Screen & prepare group members

  • Develop written informed consent procedures – confidentiality, etc.

  • Have adequate training

  • Consult with colleagues when warranted

  • P. 68 for other guidelines

  • Become familiar with the Professional Standards for Training of Group Workers (Association for Specialists in Group Work) (ASGW, 2000)