1 / 45

# REVIEW FOR THE MIDTERM EXAM - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

REVIEW FOR THE MIDTERM EXAM. 1. Define:. Nutrition: process by which organisms take in food and break it down Respiration: to make energy Excretion: removal of wastes Growth: increase in size. 1. Define:. Transport: move into or out of a cell

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' REVIEW FOR THE MIDTERM EXAM' - lawson

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

### REVIEW FOR THE MIDTERM EXAM

• Nutrition: process by which organisms take in food and break it down

• Respiration: to make energy

• Excretion: removal of wastes

• Growth: increase in size

• Transport: move into or out of a cell

• Regulation: the ability to control or maintain homeostasis

• Synthesis: to make large molecules from small ones

• Metabolism: all the chemical reactions occurring within the cell

• Homeostasis: a condition of a stable internal environment

• Start under low power

• Find specimen and focus

• Center specimen

• Switch to high power

• Only use the fine adjustment to focus

** remember the object you view on the slide moves opposite the to way you actually move the slide

K H D U D C mm x x µm

(U for units = Meters, Grams, Liters)

Ex: 4 mm = .004 m

Move the decimal 3 places to the left

Now try converting µm to mm:

500 µm = _____ mm?

500 µm = .5 mm

Now try converting mm to µm:

.75 mm = _____?

.75 mm = 750 µm

King Henry Died Unexpectedly Drinking Chocolate Milk

• All organisms are made of cells

• Cells carry on all life activities or functions

• All cells come from pre-existing cells

6. Briefly describe the function of the following animal and plant cell organelles.

• Nucleus – control center (brain)

• Ribosome – site of protein synthesis

• Mitochondria – power house – site of cellular respiration (makes ATP)

• Cytoplasm – liquid of the cells where organelles are suspended

• Cell wall – rigid structure only in plant cells

6. Briefly describe the function of the following animal and plant cell organelles.

• Vacuole – storage area (central vacuole in plant cells)

• Chloroplast – site of photosynthesis (plants) – makes food from light energy

• Lysosome – contains digestive enzymes

• Cell membrane – allows materials to pass through (in all cells)

6b. State 3 differences between plant and animal cells. and plant cell

• Plant cells have cell wall (and cell membrane)

animal cells have only a cell membrane

• Plant cells only have chloroplasts (site of photosynthesis)

• Animal cells only have centrioles (active in cell division)

6c. Write the 7 levels of classification for organisms. and plant cell

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

King Phillip Came Over From Germany Saturday

STOP and plant cell

• Do questions #1-18 on pages 1–4 of your review question packet

7. Make a chart of the main organic compounds. and plant cell

C,H,O

C,H,O

C,H,O,N

Growth and repair

Quick energy

Stored energy

Simple sugars (monosaccharides)

3 fatty acids

1 glycerol

Amino acids

Starch

Glucose

“ose”

Waxes

Oils

fats

Enzymes Hormones

Enzymes and plant cell

• Enzymes:

• organic catalyst

• speeds up the rate of a reaction

• does not change

• ends in “ase”

• Substrates:

• the substance the enzyme is acting upon

8. Describe enzymes and the lock and key theory. and plant cell

The substrate fits exactly into the active site of the enzyme

• Temperature

• pH

• Concentration of enzyme

GlucoseAmino AcidLipid

11.Define: activity.

• Dehydration synthesis – reaction where two molecules are bonded together by removing water

• Hydrolysis – reaction where molecules are broken apart by adding water

12. Define: activity.

• Diffusion – movement of molecules from high to low concentration

• Osmosis – the movement of water molecules from high to low concentration

12. Define: activity.

• Passive transport – no energy needed for the movement of molecules from high to low concentration

• Active transport – APT (energy) needed for the movement of molecules from low to high concentration

13. Define cellular respiration. activity.

The process by which energy stored in food is released

C6H12O6 + O2→ CO2 + H2O + 36 ATP

Glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + energy

** Remember this occurs in the mitochondria

** When ATP → ADP + P (energy is released)

STOP respiration.

• Do questions #1-12 on pages 5 & 6 of your review question packet

• Aerobic respiration uses oxygen (36 ATP) – anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen (4 ATP)

• Aerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria – anaerobic respiration occurs in the cytoplasm

CO2 + H2O → C6H12O6 + O2+ H2O

carbon dioxide + water → glucose + oxygen + water

** Remember this occurs in the chloroplast

chlorophyll

light

• Arteries

• Carry blood away from the heart

• Have thicker and more elastic walls

• Contain blood under high pressure (where you can measure your pulse and blood pressure)

• Veins

• Carry blood to the heart

• Have thinner and less elastic walls

• Contain blood under lower pressure and have valves (to prevent backflow)

• Capillaries

• Have walls only 1 cell thick

• Are the site of exchange of nutrients, wastes, and gases between the blood and the body cells

18. Draw and label the human heart. Trace the pathway of blood through the heart.

Right atrium

Right ventricle

Left atrium

Left ventricle

Septum

Superior vena cava

Aorta

Pulmonary arteries

Pulmonary veins

Inferior/superior vena cava → R. atrium → R. ventricle → pulmonary arteries → lungs → pulmonary veins → L. atrium → L. ventricle → aorta → body cells

19. Compare the structure and the function of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.

Red blood cells – carry oxygen (and carbon dioxide)

White blood cells – fight infection

Platelets – involved in blood clotting

20. What are the 5 steps of the Scientific Method? cells, red blood cells, and platelets.

• Define the problem

• Formulate a hypothesis

• Test the hypothesis (experiment)

• Collect data - Accept/reject the hypothesis

• Draw conclusions - Report/share

21. What is the difference between and an independent and a dependent variable?

• Independent variable – a single factor that the experimenter determines (I decide)

• Dependent variable – Data – what you are measuring

D

I

22. Explain what is meant by a controlled experiment. dependent variable?

Only one factor is changed so you can make sure that the results were definitely caused by the factor you changed (tested).

• ** What makes a reputable scientific experiment?

• have a control

• only one tested variable

• large sample sets

• repeated trials

23. What is a hypothesis? dependent variable?

• A possible explanation

• Using “If ….. then” statements

• Cartilage – a cushion at the ends of the long bones

• Tendon – connects muscles to bones

• Ligament – connects bone to bone

STOP ligament?

• Do questions #1-12 on pages 7 - 9 of your review question packet

25. Describe the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs. Give an example of each.

• Autotrophs: organisms that can make their own food.

• Heterotrophs: organisms that must get their food ready made – they cannot make it themselves.

26. Identify the organelle below. heterotrophs. Give an example of each.

The cell membrane:

27. Label the parts of the digestive system. heterotrophs. Give an example of each.

salivary glands

mouth (oral cavity)

pharynx

esophagus

liver

stomach

pancreas

small intestine

large intestine

rectum

anus

28 heterotrophs. Give an example of each. . Distinguish between an exoskeleton and an endoskeleton. Give an example of an organism of each.

• Exoskeleton: an external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body

• Endoskeleton: an internal support structure of an animal

29. Describe the location of the 3 types of muscle. heterotrophs. Give an example of each.

• cardiac muscle: muscles of the heart

• skeletal muscle: attached to the bones

• smooth muscle: muscle of the inner walls of the organs and arteries

30. Plants… heterotrophs. Give an example of each.

Plants exchange gases and water vapor through pores in their leaves called

stomates

These openings are opened and closed by

guard cells

31. Fill in the blanks with the correct levels of organization for living things.

Organelles →

cells →

tissues →

organs →

organ systems →

organisms

STOP organization for living things

• Do questions #1-13 on pages 10 & 11 of your review question packet