Review for the midterm exam
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REVIEW FOR THE MIDTERM EXAM. 1. Define:. Nutrition: process by which organisms take in food and break it down Respiration: to make energy Excretion: removal of wastes Growth: increase in size. 1. Define:. Transport: move into or out of a cell

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REVIEW FOR THE MIDTERM EXAM

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Review for the midterm exam

REVIEW FOR THE MIDTERM EXAM


1 define

1. Define:

  • Nutrition: process by which organisms take in food and break it down

  • Respiration: to make energy

  • Excretion: removal of wastes

  • Growth: increase in size


1 define1

1. Define:

  • Transport: move into or out of a cell

  • Regulation: the ability to control or maintain homeostasis

  • Synthesis: to make large molecules from small ones


2 define

2. Define:

  • Metabolism: all the chemical reactions occurring within the cell

  • Homeostasis: a condition of a stable internal environment


3 explain the steps to focus a specimen under high power

3. Explain the steps to focus a specimen under high power.

  • Start under low power

  • Find specimen and focus

  • Center specimen

  • Switch to high power

  • Only use the fine adjustment to focus

    ** remember the object you view on the slide moves opposite the to way you actually move the slide


4 how do you convert between millimeters and meters

4. How do you convert between millimeters and meters?

K H D U D C mm x x µm

(U for units = Meters, Grams, Liters)

Ex: 4 mm = .004 m

Move the decimal 3 places to the left

Now try converting µm to mm:

500 µm = _____ mm?

500 µm = .5 mm

Now try converting mm to µm:

.75 mm = _____?

.75 mm = 750 µm

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5 state the 3 parts of the cell theory

5. State the 3 parts of the cell theory.

  • All organisms are made of cells

  • Cells carry on all life activities or functions

  • All cells come from pre-existing cells


The animal cell

The Animal Cell


The plant cell

The Plant Cell


6 briefly describe the function of the following animal and plant cell organelles

6. Briefly describe the function of the following animal and plant cell organelles.

  • Nucleus – control center (brain)

  • Ribosome – site of protein synthesis

  • Mitochondria – power house – site of cellular respiration (makes ATP)

  • Cytoplasm – liquid of the cells where organelles are suspended

  • Cell wall – rigid structure only in plant cells


6 briefly describe the function of the following animal and plant cell organelles1

6. Briefly describe the function of the following animal and plant cell organelles.

  • Vacuole – storage area (central vacuole in plant cells)

  • Chloroplast – site of photosynthesis (plants) – makes food from light energy

  • Lysosome – contains digestive enzymes

  • Cell membrane – allows materials to pass through (in all cells)


6b state 3 differences between plant and animal cells

6b. State 3 differences between plant and animal cells.

  • Plant cells have cell wall (and cell membrane)

    animal cells have only a cell membrane

  • Plant cells only have chloroplasts (site of photosynthesis)

  • Animal cells only have centrioles (active in cell division)


6c write the 7 levels of classification for organisms

6c. Write the 7 levels of classification for organisms.

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

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Review for the midterm exam

STOP

  • Do questions #1-18 on pages 1–4 of your review question packet


7 make a chart of the main organic compounds

7. Make a chart of the main organic compounds.

C,H,O

C,H,O

C,H,O,N

Growth and repair

Quick energy

Stored energy

Simple sugars (monosaccharides)

3 fatty acids

1 glycerol

Amino acids

Starch

Glucose

“ose”

Waxes

Oils

fats

Enzymes Hormones


Enzymes

Enzymes

  • Enzymes:

    • organic catalyst

    • speeds up the rate of a reaction

    • does not change

    • ends in “ase”

  • Substrates:

    • the substance the enzyme is acting upon


8 describe enzymes and the lock and key theory

8. Describe enzymes and the lock and key theory.

The substrate fits exactly into the active site of the enzyme


9 describe 3 factors that effect the rate of enzyme activity

9. Describe 3 factors that effect the rate of enzyme activity.

  • Temperature

  • pH

  • Concentration of enzyme


10 draw a sketch of the following organic compounds

10. Draw a sketch of the following organic compounds.

GlucoseAmino AcidLipid


11 define

11.Define:

  • Dehydration synthesis – reaction where two molecules are bonded together by removing water

  • Hydrolysis – reaction where molecules are broken apart by adding water


12 define

12. Define:

  • Diffusion – movement of molecules from high to low concentration

  • Osmosis – the movement of water molecules from high to low concentration


12 define1

12. Define:

  • Passive transport – no energy needed for the movement of molecules from high to low concentration

  • Active transport – APT (energy) needed for the movement of molecules from low to high concentration


13 define cellular respiration

13. Define cellular respiration.

The process by which energy stored in food is released


14 write the word and chemical equation for aerobic respiration

14. Write the word and chemical equation for aerobic respiration.

C6H12O6 + O2→ CO2 + H2O + 36 ATP

Glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + energy

** Remember this occurs in the mitochondria

** When ATP → ADP + P (energy is released)


Review for the midterm exam

STOP

  • Do questions #1-12 on pages 5 & 6 of your review question packet


15 describe 2 differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration

15. Describe 2 differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

  • Aerobic respiration uses oxygen (36 ATP) – anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen (4 ATP)

  • Aerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria – anaerobic respiration occurs in the cytoplasm


16 write the word and chemical equation for photosynthesis

16. Write the word and chemical equation for photosynthesis.

CO2 + H2O → C6H12O6 + O2+ H2O

carbon dioxide + water → glucose + oxygen + water

** Remember this occurs in the chloroplast

chlorophyll

light


17 compare the structure and function of human blood vessels

17. Compare the structure and function of human blood vessels.

  • Arteries

    • Carry blood away from the heart

    • Have thicker and more elastic walls

    • Contain blood under high pressure (where you can measure your pulse and blood pressure)

  • Veins

    • Carry blood to the heart

    • Have thinner and less elastic walls

    • Contain blood under lower pressure and have valves (to prevent backflow)


17 compare the structure and function of human blood vessels1

17. Compare the structure and function of human blood vessels.

  • Capillaries

    • Have walls only 1 cell thick

    • Are the site of exchange of nutrients, wastes, and gases between the blood and the body cells


18 draw and label the human heart trace the pathway of blood through the heart

18. Draw and label the human heart. Trace the pathway of blood through the heart.

Right atrium

Right ventricle

Left atrium

Left ventricle

Septum

Superior vena cava

Aorta

Pulmonary arteries

Pulmonary veins

Inferior/superior vena cava → R. atrium → R. ventricle → pulmonary arteries → lungs → pulmonary veins → L. atrium → L. ventricle → aorta → body cells


19 compare the structure and the function of white blood cells red blood cells and platelets

19. Compare the structure and the function of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.

Red blood cells – carry oxygen (and carbon dioxide)

White blood cells – fight infection

Platelets – involved in blood clotting


20 what are the 5 steps of the scientific method

20. What are the 5 steps of the Scientific Method?

  • Define the problem

  • Formulate a hypothesis

  • Test the hypothesis (experiment)

  • Collect data - Accept/reject the hypothesis

  • Draw conclusions - Report/share


21 what is the difference between and an independent and a dependent variable

21. What is the difference between and an independent and a dependent variable?

  • Independent variable – a single factor that the experimenter determines (I decide)

  • Dependent variable – Data – what you are measuring

D

I


22 explain what is meant by a controlled experiment

22. Explain what is meant by a controlled experiment.

Only one factor is changed so you can make sure that the results were definitely caused by the factor you changed (tested).

  • ** What makes a reputable scientific experiment?

    • have a control

    • only one tested variable

    • large sample sets

    • repeated trials


23 what is a hypothesis

23. What is a hypothesis?

  • A possible explanation

  • Your guess

  • Using “If ….. then” statements


24 what is the function of a cartilage tendon and ligament

24. What is the function of a cartilage, tendon, and ligament?

  • Cartilage – a cushion at the ends of the long bones

  • Tendon – connects muscles to bones

  • Ligament – connects bone to bone


Review for the midterm exam

STOP

  • Do questions #1-12 on pages 7 - 9 of your review question packet


25 describe the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs give an example of each

25. Describe the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs. Give an example of each.

  • Autotrophs: organisms that can make their own food.

  • Heterotrophs: organisms that must get their food ready made – they cannot make it themselves.


26 identify the organelle below

26. Identify the organelle below.

The cell membrane:


27 label the parts of the digestive system

27. Label the parts of the digestive system.

salivary glands

mouth (oral cavity)

pharynx

esophagus

liver

stomach

gall bladder

pancreas

small intestine

large intestine

rectum

anus


28 distinguish between an exoskeleton and an endoskeleton give an example of an organism of each

28. Distinguish between an exoskeleton and an endoskeleton. Give an example of an organism of each.

  • Exoskeleton: an external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body

  • Endoskeleton: an internal support structure of an animal


29 describe the location of the 3 types of muscle

29. Describe the location of the 3 types of muscle.

  • cardiac muscle: muscles of the heart

  • skeletal muscle: attached to the bones

  • smooth muscle: muscle of the inner walls of the organs and arteries


30 plants

30. Plants…

Plants exchange gases and water vapor through pores in their leaves called

stomates

These openings are opened and closed by

guard cells


31 fill in the blanks with the correct levels of organization for living things

31. Fill in the blanks with the correct levels of organization for living things.

Organelles →

cells →

tissues →

organs →

organ systems →

organisms


Review for the midterm exam

STOP

  • Do questions #1-13 on pages 10 & 11 of your review question packet


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