Multibeam Bathymetric and Backscatter Products for Benthic Habitat Mapping
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Multibeam Bathymetric and Backscatter Products for Benthic Habitat Mapping. There’s No Silver Bullet Joyce Miller Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Coral Reef Ecosystem Division UH – Joint Institute for Marine & Atmospheric Reseach Pacific Islands Benthic Habitat Mapping Center.

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Multibeam Bathymetric and Backscatter Products for Benthic Habitat Mapping

There’s No Silver Bullet

Joyce Miller

Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center

Coral Reef Ecosystem Division

UH – Joint Institute for Marine & Atmospheric Reseach

Pacific Islands Benthic Habitat Mapping Center

NOAA Fisheries Benthic Habitat Mapping Conference – Seattle WA – Aug. 29-31, 2006


U s coral reef task force goal

Produce comprehensive digital maps of all shallow (<30m) coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.

U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Goal


Pacific moderate depth mapping
Pacific Moderate Depth Mapping coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.

R/V AHI

NOAA Ship Hi’ialakai

300 kHz

EM3002D

150 m range

250-500 “soundings”

30 kHz

EM300

5000 m range

135 beams

240 kHz

Reson 8101ER

250 m range

101 beams


Multibeam coverage since 2001
Multibeam Coverage Since 2001 coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.

NWHI (2002/KM) 38,367 km2

NWHI (2003-2006) 2,821 km2

MHI (2005-2006) 2,505 km2

CNMI/Guam (2003) 244 km2

Am. Samoa (2004-2006) 1,385 km2

PRIAs(2006)3,793 km2

Total 49,115 km2

(14,319 nm2)


French coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.

Frigate

Shoals

Penguin Bank

Saipan

U.S. Pacific Islands:

Vast and Remote

(18)

*

*

*

Wake Island

(24)

(6)

Monitoring & Mapping ~55 Island/Atoll Ecosystems


French frigate shoals nwhi
French Frigate Shoals, NWHI coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.

EM120 &

EM1002

Multibeam

Estimated

Depths

from

IKONOS

Satellite

Imagery

EM3002D &

Reson 8101ER

Multibeam


French Frigate Shoals, NWHI, coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.

Bank top bathymetry

2 m grid cell size

Fledermaus Image

(next slide)


What are we looking for
What are we looking for? coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.

Fledermaus Image

10 m coral pinnacles

0.5 m sand waves

0.1-0.2 m roughness

Complex morphology

at edge of bank

2-m grid of coral-rich bank top in 20-45 m water depths – French Frigate Shoals, NWHI


5x slope complexity
5x Slope & Complexity coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.

Complexity is derived by taking a slope of a 5x exaggerated slope (2nd derivative).

A GIS Recipe for Determining Benthic Complexity: Jeff Ardron, Marine Geography, 2002.


Grid size for products
Grid Size for Products coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.

When creating derivative products, what size grid cell should be used?


Rugosity
Rugosity coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.

Rugosity was derived using rugosity builder application

developed by Jeff Jenness for NOAA’s Benthic Terrain Modeler.


Complexity and rugosity similar results
Complexity and Rugosity coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009. Similar Results


R/V AHI coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.

Reson 8101

240-kHz backscatter

Backscatter from EM3002D (300 kHz) & Reson 8101 (240 kHZ)


At ffs complexity and backscatter are both very informative but in different ways
At FFS complexity and backscatter are coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009. both very informative, but in different ways

Backscatter

2 m Complexity

In mixed sediment and

hard bottom areas,

backscatter variations

are more informative.

2 m Rugosity


At ffs complexity and backscatter are very informative but in different ways
At FFS complexity and backscatter are coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009. very informative, but in different ways

In hard coral and pavement

areas, complexity and/or

rugosity reveal

subtle differences that

backscatter does not show.

Backscatter

2 m Complexity

2 m Rugosity


Saipan garapan anchorage cnmi
Saipan Garapan Anchorage, CNMI coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.


Saipan depth and 5x slope
Saipan Depth and 5x Slope coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.


Saipan complexity and bathymetric position index feature classification
Saipan Complexity and Bathymetric coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.Position Index (Feature Classification)

NOAA’s Benthic Terraine Modeler BPI

Lundblad et al, 2006, A benthic terrain classification scheme for American Samoa, Marine Geodesy, 29(2): 89-111.


Saipan backscatter lessons learned
Saipan Backscatter: Lessons Learned coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.

  • Run straight lines.

  • Minimize boat motion – yaw

  • Limit speed to 7 kts.

  • As at FFS, coral rich areas surrounded by hard bottom have similar backscatter signatures that are not easily differentiated.

  • Sandy areas show up well.

BPI

Backscatter


Main hawaiian islands
Main Hawaiian Islands coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.


Penguin bank bathymetry and bathymetry derivatives
Penguin Bank Bathymetry coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.and Bathymetry Derivatives

Depth

5x Slope

Rugosity

Complexity


Penguin bank backscatter
Penguin Bank Backscatter coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.


Uses of derived products for ecosystem based management
Uses of Derived Products coral reef ecosystems in the United States and characterize priority moderate-depth reef systems by 2009.for Ecosystem-Based Management

With 22% of habitat still unmapped, there was a 56% correlation of whale

sightings with slopes of less than 5% and a 67% correlation with low rugosity.


Techniques under investigation

An Empirical Approach to Mapping the Distribution of Seafloor Geologic and Biologic Characteristics Offshore San Pedro, Southern California, Dartnell et al., Ocean Sciences, Feb. 2006, Honolulu.

AVO Analysis Of Multibeam Backscatter, An Example From Little Bay, NH And Skjalfandi Ba, Iceland, Fonseca, et al., Ocean Sciences, Feb. 2004, Honolulu.

Seafloor Texture Analysis of Saipan Anchorage Bathymetry using Local Fourier Histogram (LFH) Texture Features, G. R. Cutter Jr., October 2004

Techniques Under Investigation


For information
For Information Seafloor Geologic and Biologic Characteristics Offshore San Pedro, Southern California, Dartnell et al., Ocean Sciences, Feb. 2006, Honolulu.

Websites:http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/PIBHMC

http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/cred

For information contact:[email protected]

[email protected]


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