Genes and behavior
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Genes and Behavior . Nature vs Nurture. Nature Genetic component Nurture Environmental . Nature. Genetic constraints on development of recognition Sensitive period of exposure to model Learning triggered by specific stimuli (ex. Movement or sound) Learning is rapid and long lasting

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Genes and behavior

Genes and Behavior


Nature vs nurture

Nature vs Nurture

  • Nature

    • Genetic component

  • Nurture

    • Environmental


Nature

Nature

  • Genetic constraints on development of recognition

  • Sensitive period of exposure to model

  • Learning triggered by specific stimuli (ex. Movement or sound)

  • Learning is rapid and long lasting

  • Learning is apparently irreversible

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1yGFrV88t1c&feature=related


Nature vs nurture the story of a white crowned sparrow

Nature vs NurtureThe story of a White crowned sparrow


What s a dialect

What’s a dialect?

  • A regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary


The phenomena

The Phenomena

http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/bmammals/sparrows/sparrows2.html


Is it nature

Is it Nature?

  • How could we test this?


White crowned sparrow song variation

White Crowned Sparrow Song Variation

  • Different populations of birds have distinctively different song dialects

  • Are different dialects caused by different genes?

http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=buy.optionToBuy&id=2001-01020-008


Is it nurture

Is it Nurture?

  • White Crowned sparrows were placed in a chamber isolated from sounds

  • Isolated birds were unable to produce a complete song, only twitters

  • Conclusion- a critical environmental factor was missing


Next stage of birdie torture

Next Stage of Birdie Torture…

  • White Crowned sparrows were placed in a chamber and adult song played to them

  • Birds closely mimicked song that was played to them

  • Berkeley bird would sing San Francisco song

  • What does this tell us about bird song dialects?


Genes and behavior

  • Hearing bird song of same species stimulates gene expression in brain

  • Proteins synthesized modify the functions of brain cells

  • Alters birds ability to remember song


Nucleic acids

Nucleic acids

  • Information storage molecules

  • Directions for building proteins

  • Found in nuclei of eukaryotes

  • Two forms

    • Deoxyribonucleic acid

    • Ribonucleic acid

  • Polymers of nucleotides


Nucleotides

Nucleotides

  • Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids

  • Nitrogenous base

    • Adenine

    • Guanine

    • Cytosine

    • Thymine (DNA only)

    • Uracil (RNA only)


Information stored in sequence of nucleotides

Information stored in Sequence of Nucleotides


Genes and behavior

DNA

  • Located in the nucleus of cells

  • Has the capacity to store genetic information

  • Instructions for all life and life processes

    • Contains protein building instructions

    • “blueprint” of life

  • Can be copied and passed from generation to generation

  • Uses specific code built into sequence of nucleotides


Dna replication is semiconservative

DNA Replication is Semiconservative


Chromatin vs chromosomes

Chromatin vs Chromosomes


Genetic code

Genetic code

  • Genes have nucleotide code for building proteins

    • Proteins are made of amino acids

  • The set of rules giving the correspondence between nucleotides of nucleic acids and amino acids of proteins


Genes located on chromosomes

Genes Located on Chromosomes

  • Gene

    • Sequence of nucleotides that is the unit of hereditary information

    • Ie. A recipe

  • Genome

    • The sum of an individuals genes


Gene expression

Gene Expression

  • How dna’s instructions are carried out

  • Code in gene is copied and used to build proteins or run other jobs

  • Involves multiple steps

    • transcription

    • translation

  • Uses dna and rna


In animal and plant cells dna is isolated in the nucleus

In animal and plant Cells… DNA is Isolated in the Nucleus

Protein Building Structures in cytoplasm


Transcription vs translation

Transcription vs translation

  • Transcription

  • Translation

  • Transcription occurs in the nucleus

  • Translation occurs in the cytoplasm

  • This is how genes control the structures and activities of cells


Transcription

Transcription

  • Converts Dna to rna

    • Results in strand of messenger rna (template)

    • Uses Complementary base pair rule

  • Region of copying unwinds & then rewinds after mrna is complete


Messenger rna mrna

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

  • RNA Template of DNA

  • Single strand of nucleotides

  • Moves from inside nucleus to cytoplasm


Translation

Translation

  • Converts from nucleic acid (nucleotide) language to the protein language (amino acid)

  • Converts mRNA to protein


Ribosomes help build proteins

Ribosomes Help build proteins


Protein builds your body

Protein Builds your Body


Protein runs your body proteins can change cell functions

Protein Runs your BodyProteins Can Change Cell Functions


Changes in cell activity can lead to changes in behavior

Changes in Cell Activity Can Lead to Changes in Behavior


Honey bee caste

Honey Bee Caste


Queen

Queen

  • Reproductive female

  • Lays eggs


Workers

Workers

  • Maintain hive

  • Sterile with un-functional gonads

  • Care of larvae hatched from Queen’s eggs

    • Nurse workers

  • Construct honeycomb

  • Regulate hive’s temperature

  • Defense of colony from predators and parasites

  • Collection of pollen and nectar


Development of worker s role

Development of Worker’s Role

  • Begins as a honeycomb cleaner after hatching

  • Nurse bee- feeds honey to larvae

  • Distributes food to workers

  • Forages for pollen and nectar outside the hive

    • (approx 3 weeks)

      What regulates this change in behaviors?


Variation in gene expression influences behavior

Variation in Gene Expression Influences Behavior

  • Comparison of gene activity from nurse and worker bees

  • 2000 genes change their activity within the first 4 days of a bees life

  • Comparison of 4 day old bees and 8 day old bees showed 600 additional genes exhibited altered activity

  • Differences in gene activity contribute to developmental changes occurring in brains of the bees


Social environment influences gene expression

Social Environment Influences Gene Expression

  • Presence of older foragers inhibits young from maturing into foragers

  • Transfer of chemicals (ethyl oleate) from foragers when regurgitating nectar to nurses inhibits transition into forager


Gene expression is a complex process

Gene Expression is a Complex Process

  • It is not solely dependent on whether a gene is active or not

  • Genes and the environment have a complex interaction in driving phenotypes and behavior


Genes and behavior

  • The one gene–one protein hypothesis states that the function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein


Genes are made of introns exons

Exons

Segments of DNA that code for AA

Introns

Sections of nucleotides that do not code for AA

Regulatory function

Genes are made of Introns & exons


Genes and behavior

mRNA Is Processed

  • mRNA processing can influence gene expression

  • MRNA is spliced (cut & paste)

    • Introns removed

  • MRNA ends are capped


Mrna is spliced

mRNA Is Spliced


Rna processing

DNA

Transcription

Addition of cap and tail

RNA

transcript

with cap

and tail

Tail

Introns removed

Exons spliced together

mRNA

Coding sequence

Nucleus

Cytoplasm

Rna processing


Mrna splicing is an example of epigenetics

mRna splicing is an example of Epigenetics

Wait, what’s epigenetics?


Epigenetics

Epigenetics

  • The study of changes in phenotype caused by mechanisms that influence gene expression without effecting the underlying genes

  • Results as a consequence of DNA methylation or histone acetylation

  • Suppress gene expression without altering the silenced genes


Factors that influence epigenome

Factors that influence Epigenome

  • Development in utero

  • Environmental chemicals

  • Drugs/ pharmaceuticals

  • Aging

  • Diet


Consequences of epigenetics

Consequences of Epigenetics

  • Mechanism to cause changes in phenotype or behavior independent of genotype

  • Can result in changes of phenotype

  • Can result in changes in behavior

  • Can result in health effects


Epigenome can be inherited

Epigenome can be inherited

  • Methylated regions of DNA are copied when a cell replicates

    • Cell memory

  • Parents may contribute their epigenome to offspring


Epigenetics influenced by diet

Epigenetics Influenced by Diet

  • Compounds in food sources are extracted by the body

  • Compounds are modified metabolically to build molecules necessary for building and running the body

  • Some of these molecules are used to make epigenetic tags that interact with DNA to silence genes

  • Ex. Methyl groups


Epigenetics and diet

Epigenetics and Diet

  • Honey bees

  • Complex social groups made up of

  • 1 Queen, workers, drones

  • Queen is the only reproductive individual

  • Reproduction is asexual so all other members of the hive are identical clones

  • How does phenotypic & behavioral variation occur?


Epigenetics and diet1

Epigenetics and Diet

  • Royal jelly

  • Protein rich substance secreted by pharyngeal glands of worker bee

  • Larva destined to become a queen is fed large quantities of royal jelly by worker bees (nurse)


Epigenetics and diet2

Epigenetics and Diet

  • Royal jelly diet interacts with genes

    • Royalactin

  • Royal jelly silences Dnmt3 gene

  • Dnmt3 gene codes for a protein involved in genome-wide gene silencing

  • When Dnmt3 is active it silences genes in bee larva and inhibits them from developing into a queen

  • Royal Jelly consumed by queen be inactivates the Dnmt3 gene so genes can remain active and result in queen characteristics

  • Effects morphology, physiology, life span and behavior


Allows queen morphology to develop

Allows Queen Morphology to Develop

  • Queen develops functional ovaries and a larger abdomen for laying egg


Allows queen behavior to develop

Allows Queen Behavior to Develop

  • Queen behaviors

  • Egg laying behaviors

  • Kills rival queens

  • Produce communication sounds

    • “piping”

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8BWaNwsq3mQ&feature=related

  • Pheromone production

    • Mandibular gland

    • Influences gene expression in worker bee brains

  • Mating flights

    • Mates with drones from another colony

    • Average 12


Epigenetics and diet what happens if your diet is poor in

Epigenetics and DietWhat happens if your diet is poor in


In adults changes are reversible

In adults changes are reversible

  • Switching to a diet rich in methyl donating molecules can promote Methylation of genome


Epigenetics and embryonic development

Epigenetics and Embryonic Development

  • Mothers diets deficient in methyl-donating folate or choline during late fetal or early post natal causes portions of genome to be under-methylated for life


Epigenetics and embryonic development1

Epigenetics and Embryonic Development

  • Unmethylated agouti gene results in a yellow coat. Prone to disease.

  • Methylated gene results in brown color and low risk of disease


Toxin exposure and epigenome

Toxin Exposure and Epigenome

  • Bisphenol A (BPA) is a compound used in making polycarbonate plastic (ex. Water bottle and tin cans)

  • Exposed yellow agouti mothers produced more unhealthy offspring than normal

  • Methyl rich diet helped counteract negative effects of exposure


Center for disease control

Center for Disease Control

  • BPA’s toxic effects in lab experiments are on rise

  • Compare to rates of same diseases in humans (left)


Epigenetics of twins

Epigenetics of twins

  • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/epigenetics.html


Sources

Sources

  • http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/nutrition/

  • http://www.genomeweb.com/dna-methylation-involved-epigenetics-crown-queen-bee


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