Genes and behavior
Download
1 / 64

Genes and Behavior - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 86 Views
  • Uploaded on

Genes and Behavior . Nature vs Nurture. Nature Genetic component Nurture Environmental . Nature. Genetic constraints on development of recognition Sensitive period of exposure to model Learning triggered by specific stimuli (ex. Movement or sound) Learning is rapid and long lasting

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Genes and Behavior ' - lawson


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Nature vs nurture
Nature vs Nurture

  • Nature

    • Genetic component

  • Nurture

    • Environmental


Nature
Nature

  • Genetic constraints on development of recognition

  • Sensitive period of exposure to model

  • Learning triggered by specific stimuli (ex. Movement or sound)

  • Learning is rapid and long lasting

  • Learning is apparently irreversible

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1yGFrV88t1c&feature=related


Nature vs nurture the story of a white crowned sparrow
Nature vs NurtureThe story of a White crowned sparrow


What s a dialect
What’s a dialect?

  • A regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary


The phenomena
The Phenomena

http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/bmammals/sparrows/sparrows2.html


Is it nature
Is it Nature?

  • How could we test this?


White crowned sparrow song variation
White Crowned Sparrow Song Variation

  • Different populations of birds have distinctively different song dialects

  • Are different dialects caused by different genes?

http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=buy.optionToBuy&id=2001-01020-008


Is it nurture
Is it Nurture?

  • White Crowned sparrows were placed in a chamber isolated from sounds

  • Isolated birds were unable to produce a complete song, only twitters

  • Conclusion- a critical environmental factor was missing


Next stage of birdie torture
Next Stage of Birdie Torture…

  • White Crowned sparrows were placed in a chamber and adult song played to them

  • Birds closely mimicked song that was played to them

  • Berkeley bird would sing San Francisco song

  • What does this tell us about bird song dialects?



Nucleic acids
Nucleic acids in brain

  • Information storage molecules

  • Directions for building proteins

  • Found in nuclei of eukaryotes

  • Two forms

    • Deoxyribonucleic acid

    • Ribonucleic acid

  • Polymers of nucleotides


Nucleotides
Nucleotides in brain

  • Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids

  • Nitrogenous base

    • Adenine

    • Guanine

    • Cytosine

    • Thymine (DNA only)

    • Uracil (RNA only)



DNA in brain

  • Located in the nucleus of cells

  • Has the capacity to store genetic information

  • Instructions for all life and life processes

    • Contains protein building instructions

    • “blueprint” of life

  • Can be copied and passed from generation to generation

  • Uses specific code built into sequence of nucleotides




Genetic code
Genetic code in brain

  • Genes have nucleotide code for building proteins

    • Proteins are made of amino acids

  • The set of rules giving the correspondence between nucleotides of nucleic acids and amino acids of proteins


Genes located on chromosomes
Genes Located on Chromosomes in brain

  • Gene

    • Sequence of nucleotides that is the unit of hereditary information

    • Ie. A recipe

  • Genome

    • The sum of an individuals genes


Gene expression
Gene Expression in brain

  • How dna’s instructions are carried out

  • Code in gene is copied and used to build proteins or run other jobs

  • Involves multiple steps

    • transcription

    • translation

  • Uses dna and rna


In animal and plant cells dna is isolated in the nucleus
In animal and plant Cells… DNA is Isolated in the Nucleus in brain

Protein Building Structures in cytoplasm


Transcription vs translation
Transcription vs translation in brain

  • Transcription

  • Translation

  • Transcription occurs in the nucleus

  • Translation occurs in the cytoplasm

  • This is how genes control the structures and activities of cells


Transcription
Transcription in brain

  • Converts Dna to rna

    • Results in strand of messenger rna (template)

    • Uses Complementary base pair rule

  • Region of copying unwinds & then rewinds after mrna is complete


Messenger rna mrna
Messenger RNA (mRNA) in brain

  • RNA Template of DNA

  • Single strand of nucleotides

  • Moves from inside nucleus to cytoplasm


Translation
Translation in brain

  • Converts from nucleic acid (nucleotide) language to the protein language (amino acid)

  • Converts mRNA to protein




Protein runs your body proteins can change cell functions
Protein Runs your Body in brainProteins Can Change Cell Functions



Honey bee caste
Honey Bee Caste in brain


Queen
Queen in brain

  • Reproductive female

  • Lays eggs


Workers
Workers in brain

  • Maintain hive

  • Sterile with un-functional gonads

  • Care of larvae hatched from Queen’s eggs

    • Nurse workers

  • Construct honeycomb

  • Regulate hive’s temperature

  • Defense of colony from predators and parasites

  • Collection of pollen and nectar


Development of worker s role
Development of Worker’s Role in brain

  • Begins as a honeycomb cleaner after hatching

  • Nurse bee- feeds honey to larvae

  • Distributes food to workers

  • Forages for pollen and nectar outside the hive

    • (approx 3 weeks)

      What regulates this change in behaviors?


Variation in gene expression influences behavior
Variation in Gene Expression Influences Behavior in brain

  • Comparison of gene activity from nurse and worker bees

  • 2000 genes change their activity within the first 4 days of a bees life

  • Comparison of 4 day old bees and 8 day old bees showed 600 additional genes exhibited altered activity

  • Differences in gene activity contribute to developmental changes occurring in brains of the bees


Social environment influences gene expression
Social Environment Influences Gene Expression in brain

  • Presence of older foragers inhibits young from maturing into foragers

  • Transfer of chemicals (ethyl oleate) from foragers when regurgitating nectar to nurses inhibits transition into forager


Gene expression is a complex process
Gene Expression is a Complex Process in brain

  • It is not solely dependent on whether a gene is active or not

  • Genes and the environment have a complex interaction in driving phenotypes and behavior



Genes are made of introns exons

Exons function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

Segments of DNA that code for AA

Introns

Sections of nucleotides that do not code for AA

Regulatory function

Genes are made of Introns & exons


mRNA Is Processed function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • mRNA processing can influence gene expression

  • MRNA is spliced (cut & paste)

    • Introns removed

  • MRNA ends are capped


Mrna is spliced
mRNA Is Spliced function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein


Rna processing

DNA function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

Transcription

Addition of cap and tail

RNA

transcript

with cap

and tail

Tail

Introns removed

Exons spliced together

mRNA

Coding sequence

Nucleus

Cytoplasm

Rna processing


Mrna splicing is an example of epigenetics
mRna splicing is an example of Epigenetics function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

Wait, what’s epigenetics?


Epigenetics
Epigenetics function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • The study of changes in phenotype caused by mechanisms that influence gene expression without effecting the underlying genes

  • Results as a consequence of DNA methylation or histone acetylation

  • Suppress gene expression without altering the silenced genes


Factors that influence epigenome
Factors that influence Epigenome function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • Development in utero

  • Environmental chemicals

  • Drugs/ pharmaceuticals

  • Aging

  • Diet


Consequences of epigenetics
Consequences of Epigenetics function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • Mechanism to cause changes in phenotype or behavior independent of genotype

  • Can result in changes of phenotype

  • Can result in changes in behavior

  • Can result in health effects


Epigenome can be inherited
Epigenome can be inherited function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • Methylated regions of DNA are copied when a cell replicates

    • Cell memory

  • Parents may contribute their epigenome to offspring


Epigenetics influenced by diet
Epigenetics Influenced by Diet function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • Compounds in food sources are extracted by the body

  • Compounds are modified metabolically to build molecules necessary for building and running the body

  • Some of these molecules are used to make epigenetic tags that interact with DNA to silence genes

  • Ex. Methyl groups


Epigenetics and diet
Epigenetics and Diet function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • Honey bees

  • Complex social groups made up of

  • 1 Queen, workers, drones

  • Queen is the only reproductive individual

  • Reproduction is asexual so all other members of the hive are identical clones

  • How does phenotypic & behavioral variation occur?


Epigenetics and diet1
Epigenetics and Diet function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • Royal jelly

  • Protein rich substance secreted by pharyngeal glands of worker bee

  • Larva destined to become a queen is fed large quantities of royal jelly by worker bees (nurse)


Epigenetics and diet2
Epigenetics and Diet function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • Royal jelly diet interacts with genes

    • Royalactin

  • Royal jelly silences Dnmt3 gene

  • Dnmt3 gene codes for a protein involved in genome-wide gene silencing

  • When Dnmt3 is active it silences genes in bee larva and inhibits them from developing into a queen

  • Royal Jelly consumed by queen be inactivates the Dnmt3 gene so genes can remain active and result in queen characteristics

  • Effects morphology, physiology, life span and behavior


Allows queen morphology to develop
Allows Queen Morphology to Develop function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • Queen develops functional ovaries and a larger abdomen for laying egg


Allows queen behavior to develop
Allows Queen Behavior to Develop function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • Queen behaviors

  • Egg laying behaviors

  • Kills rival queens

  • Produce communication sounds

    • “piping”

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8BWaNwsq3mQ&feature=related

  • Pheromone production

    • Mandibular gland

    • Influences gene expression in worker bee brains

  • Mating flights

    • Mates with drones from another colony

    • Average 12


Epigenetics and diet what happens if your diet is poor in
Epigenetics and Diet function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific proteinWhat happens if your diet is poor in


In adults changes are reversible
In adults changes are reversible function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • Switching to a diet rich in methyl donating molecules can promote Methylation of genome


Epigenetics and embryonic development
Epigenetics and Embryonic Development function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • Mothers diets deficient in methyl-donating folate or choline during late fetal or early post natal causes portions of genome to be under-methylated for life


Epigenetics and embryonic development1
Epigenetics and Embryonic Development function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • Unmethylated agouti gene results in a yellow coat. Prone to disease.

  • Methylated gene results in brown color and low risk of disease


Toxin exposure and epigenome
Toxin Exposure and Epigenome function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • Bisphenol A (BPA) is a compound used in making polycarbonate plastic (ex. Water bottle and tin cans)

  • Exposed yellow agouti mothers produced more unhealthy offspring than normal

  • Methyl rich diet helped counteract negative effects of exposure


Center for disease control
Center for Disease Control function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • BPA’s toxic effects in lab experiments are on rise

  • Compare to rates of same diseases in humans (left)


Epigenetics of twins
Epigenetics of twins function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/epigenetics.html


Sources
Sources function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific protein

  • http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/nutrition/

  • http://www.genomeweb.com/dna-methylation-involved-epigenetics-crown-queen-bee


ad