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Weather. Chapter 24. Air Masses. Differences in air pressure are caused by unequal heating of Earth’s surface. Heated equatorial air rises & creates a low-pressure belt. Cold air near the poles sinks & creates a high-pressure centers. Differences in air pressure creates the wind patterns.

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weather

Weather

Chapter 24

air masses
Air Masses
  • Differences in air pressure are caused by unequal heating of Earth’s surface.
  • Heated equatorial air rises & creates a low-pressure belt.
  • Cold air near the poles sinks & creates a high-pressure centers.
  • Differences in air pressure creates the wind patterns
how does air move
How does air move?
  • Moves from areas of high pressure to low pressure.
  • Worldwide movement of surface air from poles toward equator.
  • Temperature & pressure differences give us the wind belts.
formation of air masses
Formation of Air Masses
  • Air mass = large body of air throughout which temperature & moisture content are similar.
  • Air masses over frozen polar regions are cold & dry; air masses formed over tropical regions are warm & moist.
types of air masses
Types of Air Masses
  • 4 TYPES:
  • MARITIME (WET)
  • CONTINENTAL (DRY)
  • POLAR (COLD)
  • TROPICAL (WARM)
  • Can be different combinations, example maritime polar - mP
fronts
Fronts
  • When 2 unlike air masses meet, density differences usually keep the air masses separate.
  • Cool air mass is dense; doesn’t mix with less-dense air of a warm air mass.
  • A boundary --- known as a front --- forms between the air masses.
types of fronts
Types of Fronts
  • Cold fronts = the front edge of a moving mass of cold air that pushes beneath a warmer air mass
warm front
Warm Front
  • Front edge of advancing warm air mass that replaces colder air with warmer air
stationary occluded fronts
Stationary & Occluded Fronts
  • Stationary = a front of air masses that moves either very slowly or not at all.
  • Occluded = forms when a cold air mass overtakes a warm air mass & lifts the warm air mass off the ground & over another air mass.
weather instruments
Weather Instruments
  • Weather observations are based on a variety of measurements including: atmospheric pressure, humidity, temperature, wind speed, & precipitation.
instruments used to measure lower atmospheric conditions
Instruments Used to Measure Lower-Atmospheric conditions

Barometers = measures atmospheric pressure

Thermometer = measures & indicates temperature

Wind vane = used to determine direction of wind

Anemometer = used to

measure wind speed

instruments used to measure upper atmospheric conditions
Instruments Used to Measure Upper-Atmospheric Conditions
  • Radiosonde = package of instruments carried by a balloons to measure temp, dew point, & wind velocity
  • Radar = a system that uses reflected radio waves to determine velocity & location of objects
  • Weather satellites
  • Computers
forecasting weather
Forecasting Weather
  • Data that is collected by weather stations are transferred onto weather maps.
  • Station model = a pattern of meteorological symbols that represents the weather at a particular observing station & that is recorded on a weather map.
plotting temperature pressure fronts precipitation
Plotting Temperature, Pressure, Fronts & Precipitation
  • Lines that connect points of equal atmospheric pressure are called isobars.
  • Closely spaced isobars indicate a rapid change in pressure & high winds
  • Isobars that form closed circles indicate centers of high or low air pressure. (Marked with an H or L).
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