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Numeracy

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Numeracy

Core Principles

Calculations done horizontally first

Emphasis on mental calculation

Emphasis on place value

The children need to know their multiplication (and division) tables OFF BY HEART.

These should be taught in a fun way the children are likely to enjoy. For example:

Place value means the value of digits depending on the column they are in

Money is the best vehicle for teaching PLACE VALUE.

The children use money in real life and need to be encouraged to know the decimal value of it’s coins.

How many of these are there in £20?

How many 5p make this?

If I split a pound up, how many of these will I have?

23 + 24 =

45 + 46 =

68 – 34 =

101 – 59 =

- At Key Stage 1 calculations are usually written horizontally
- Number lines are often used to support informal methods and help build up imagery
132 + 29 =

Children are introduced to ‘partitioning’

Early stage:

38 + 27 =

30 + 20 = 50

8 + 7 = 15

38 + 27 = 65

Then:

3838

+ 87+ 87

110 15

15110

125 125

Lastly:

Children are taught to subtract by finding the

difference between the two numbers.

This method involves counting on from the smaller

to the larger number and is called ’complementary

addition’

85 – 57 _85

57

3 (60)

25 (85)

28

326 – 178

326

- 178
22 (200)

126 (326)

148

Finding the difference continues to be an important informal method

When children are ready, they are introduced to ‘decomposition’, which involves partitioning

Leading (eventually) to:

Early work on multiplication involves images of groups and arrays:

26 x 7 =

20 x 7 = 140

6 x 7 = 42

26 x 7 = 182

- Next children use partitioning
- for calculations:

The following method of recording istaught to children when they are ready

534 468

x 6 x 52

Early work on division involves ‘sharing’

and ‘grouping’

6 pens shared between 2 children.

They get 3 each.

2 groups of 3 pens. 6 pens in total.

It helps if the children are taught this

using practical apparatus (counters are

best as they can be placed in ‘arrays’ – see previous)

Next children are encouraged to understand division as building up multiples (chunking)

305 ÷ 7 =

(estimate: 40 x 7= 280 so the answer is a bit more than 40.)

305

- 280 (40 x 7)

25

- 21 ( 3 x 7)

4

305 ÷ 7 = 43 r 4

Children who are ready, are taught

other methods of recording

267 ÷ 8 =

… and, only after much work on the value of fractions:

- Children are always encouraged to think which is the most appropriate and efficientmethod for the numbers involved
- An understanding of place value is vital
- Mental methods should be the first resort