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Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition. Chapter 11: Monitoring and Managing IP Networks. Objectives. Understand the basic principles and practices involved in managing modern networks Explain the role that the SNMP can play on an IP-based network, and understand its basic structure and function

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guide to tcp ip third edition

Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition

Chapter 11:

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

objectives
Objectives
  • Understand the basic principles and practices involved in managing modern networks
  • Explain the role that the SNMP can play on an IP-based network, and understand its basic structure and function
  • Understand how to install, configure, and use SNMP consoles, tools, and utilities

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

objectives continued
Objectives (continued)
  • Deploy tools and utilities to maintain an SNMP network management system
  • Explain the issues involved in integrating SNMP-based network management tools with other network management environments
  • Understand common SNMP errors and how to troubleshoot them

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

understanding network management practices and principles
Understanding Network Management Practices and Principles
  • Tasks involved in managing a network
    • Depend on the ability to collect data about a network and detect network-related occurrences
  • End stations
    • Usually known as managed devices
    • Any kind of system where management-related software is installed and running
  • Management entities
    • Usually function within the context of a network management system (NMS)

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

the osi network management model
The OSI Network Management Model
  • OSI network management model incorporates the following five layers
    • Accounting management
    • Configuration management
    • Fault management
    • Performance management
    • Security management

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

practical network management
Practical Network Management
  • OSI network management model
    • Does an excellent job of categorizing and cataloging tasks and activities
  • Make systematic network management a priority
  • Obtain right mix of software components and tools that can be used as part of a program of
    • Regular, scheduled network maintenance and care

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

in band versus out of band management
In-band Versus Out-of-band Management
  • In-band management
    • Traffic travels along the regular network data path.
  • Out-of-band management
    • Traffic alerts travel on a separate non-data path
    • Solution supports communications between management agents and the manager device

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

understanding snmp
Understanding SNMP
  • Request/response-based protocol used to
    • Transport management messages between an SNMP agent and an SNMP manager
  • SNMP version 1 (SNMPv1)
    • Uses plain text passwords
  • SNMP version 2 (SNMPv2)
    • Includes two improvements: protocol enhancements and security enhancements
  • SNMP version 3 (SNMPv3)
    • Addresses shortcomings of previous versions

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

understanding snmp continued
Understanding SNMP (continued)
  • SNMPv1 consists of the following basic elements:
    • Management Information Base objects
    • SNMP agents
    • SNMP managers
    • SNMP messages

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

management information base objects
Management Information Base Objects
  • Management Information Base (MIB)
    • Database of manageable objectsfor a device
  • Structure of Management Information (SMI)
    • Defines object formats in any MIB using a particular form of notation called Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)
  • ASN.1
    • Language used to describe a type of object and the object identifier (OID)

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

management information base objects continued
Management Information Base Objects (continued)
  • OID
    • Sequence of non-negative integers that traverses an object tree
  • Subordinates
    • Branches of the object tree
  • In SNMP
    • Object is identified by the path used to get to a specific device identifier on an object tree

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

remote monitoring
Remote Monitoring
  • Used to monitor and administer remote segments of a distributed network
  • Places agents, called network probes, at various locations on the distributed network
  • Probes
    • Standalone devices that contain a NIC, a processor, memory, and software

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

rom ethernet
ROM Ethernet
  • First version of RMON
    • Ethernet based
    • Has nine distinct groups of objects
      • Ethernet statistics, History control
      • Alarm, Host
      • HostTopN, Matrix
      • Filter, Packet capture
      • Event

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

snmp agents
SNMP Agents
  • SNMP agent software
    • Placed on devices that can be managed by SNMP managers
  • SNMP agents
    • Answer to SNMP manager’s queries for information about the objects in agent’s MIB
  • SNMP managers
    • Query SNMP agents for the information maintained about MIB objects

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

snmp messages
SNMP Messages
  • SNMP managers and agents communicate over UDP with a specific set of commands
    • GET-REQUEST
    • GET-RESPONSE
    • GET-NEXT
    • SET
    • TRAP

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

snmp security
SNMP Security
  • SNMPv1
    • Offers only a simple password system, and cannot be considered truly secure
  • Basic community names
    • Read-Only (or Monitor) community name
    • Read/Write (or Control) community name
    • Alert (or Trap) community name

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

installing and configuring snmp agents and consoles
Installing and Configuring SNMP Agents and Consoles
  • Installing a network management console is more complex than installing agent software
  • Many proprietary consoles that differ greatly from one another
  • Console configuration also is fairly complex
  • For many packages, completing an initial configuration may take six months or longer
    • Configuration is never truly finished
    • Typically require dedicated resources and constant maintenance

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

snmp consoles tools utilities and key files
SNMP Consoles, Tools, Utilities, and Key Files
  • Lion’s share of market belongs to three products
    • HP OpenView’s Network Node Manager (NNM) Advanced Edition
    • IBM’s Tivoli NetView
    • Computer Associates’ Unicenter

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

integrating snmp with other management environments
Integrating SNMP with Other Management Environments
  • Common modules
    • PING
    • Database change control modules
    • Dynamic topological maps
    • Inventory modules
    • Service-level tracking
    • To effectively use data gathered via SNMP
      • Other managed environments usually have reporting capabilities

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

troubleshooting snmp
Troubleshooting SNMP
  • Community names
    • Must match on both the SNMP agent and the network management station
    • Case sensitive
    • Three levels of community strings
      • Read-Only (Monitor)
      • Read/Write (Control)
      • Alert (Trap)

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

summary
Summary
  • Network management
    • Involves placing specific software components, called management agents, into managed devices
  • Network management systems rely on two kinds of activities to perform management tasks
    • The ability of managed devices to issue alerts when specific events occur
    • The ability of management entities to poll managed devices regularly

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

summary continued
Summary (continued)
  • Most NMSs
    • Provide various methods for out-of-band management
  • Discipline of network management
    • Described in the OSI network management model
  • For IP-based networks
    • SNMP carries management-related messages and data among network management agents and entities

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

summary continued1
Summary (continued)
  • SNMP’s management data
    • Resides in a database of manageable objects called a Management Information Base
  • Order is important
    • When loading MIBs into a management station
  • Remote Monitoring MIB
    • Used to monitor and manage remote segments on a distributed network

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

summary continued2
Summary (continued)
  • SNMP messages
    • Use UDP for transport and IP for network access
  • Ensuring SNMP security requires
    • Changing default community names
    • Managing the transit of SNMP messages across organizational network Boundaries
  • Troubleshooting SNMP requires
    • Good working knowledge of local network conditions

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks

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