Guide to tcp ip third edition
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Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition. Chapter 11: Monitoring and Managing IP Networks. Objectives. Understand the basic principles and practices involved in managing modern networks Explain the role that the SNMP can play on an IP-based network, and understand its basic structure and function

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Guide to tcp ip third edition

Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition

Chapter 11:

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Objectives

Objectives

  • Understand the basic principles and practices involved in managing modern networks

  • Explain the role that the SNMP can play on an IP-based network, and understand its basic structure and function

  • Understand how to install, configure, and use SNMP consoles, tools, and utilities

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Objectives continued

Objectives (continued)

  • Deploy tools and utilities to maintain an SNMP network management system

  • Explain the issues involved in integrating SNMP-based network management tools with other network management environments

  • Understand common SNMP errors and how to troubleshoot them

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Understanding network management practices and principles

Understanding Network Management Practices and Principles

  • Tasks involved in managing a network

    • Depend on the ability to collect data about a network and detect network-related occurrences

  • End stations

    • Usually known as managed devices

    • Any kind of system where management-related software is installed and running

  • Management entities

    • Usually function within the context of a network management system (NMS)

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Guide to tcp ip third edition

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


The osi network management model

The OSI Network Management Model

  • OSI network management model incorporates the following five layers

    • Accounting management

    • Configuration management

    • Fault management

    • Performance management

    • Security management

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Practical network management

Practical Network Management

  • OSI network management model

    • Does an excellent job of categorizing and cataloging tasks and activities

  • Make systematic network management a priority

  • Obtain right mix of software components and tools that can be used as part of a program of

    • Regular, scheduled network maintenance and care

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


In band versus out of band management

In-band Versus Out-of-band Management

  • In-band management

    • Traffic travels along the regular network data path.

  • Out-of-band management

    • Traffic alerts travel on a separate non-data path

    • Solution supports communications between management agents and the manager device

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Guide to tcp ip third edition

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Guide to tcp ip third edition

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Understanding snmp

Understanding SNMP

  • Request/response-based protocol used to

    • Transport management messages between an SNMP agent and an SNMP manager

  • SNMP version 1 (SNMPv1)

    • Uses plain text passwords

  • SNMP version 2 (SNMPv2)

    • Includes two improvements: protocol enhancements and security enhancements

  • SNMP version 3 (SNMPv3)

    • Addresses shortcomings of previous versions

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Understanding snmp continued

Understanding SNMP (continued)

  • SNMPv1 consists of the following basic elements:

    • Management Information Base objects

    • SNMP agents

    • SNMP managers

    • SNMP messages

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Management information base objects

Management Information Base Objects

  • Management Information Base (MIB)

    • Database of manageable objectsfor a device

  • Structure of Management Information (SMI)

    • Defines object formats in any MIB using a particular form of notation called Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)

  • ASN.1

    • Language used to describe a type of object and the object identifier (OID)

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Management information base objects continued

Management Information Base Objects (continued)

  • OID

    • Sequence of non-negative integers that traverses an object tree

  • Subordinates

    • Branches of the object tree

  • In SNMP

    • Object is identified by the path used to get to a specific device identifier on an object tree

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Guide to tcp ip third edition

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Guide to tcp ip third edition

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Guide to tcp ip third edition

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Guide to tcp ip third edition

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Remote monitoring

Remote Monitoring

  • Used to monitor and administer remote segments of a distributed network

  • Places agents, called network probes, at various locations on the distributed network

  • Probes

    • Standalone devices that contain a NIC, a processor, memory, and software

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Rom ethernet

ROM Ethernet

  • First version of RMON

    • Ethernet based

    • Has nine distinct groups of objects

      • Ethernet statistics, History control

      • Alarm, Host

      • HostTopN, Matrix

      • Filter, Packet capture

      • Event

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Snmp agents

SNMP Agents

  • SNMP agent software

    • Placed on devices that can be managed by SNMP managers

  • SNMP agents

    • Answer to SNMP manager’s queries for information about the objects in agent’s MIB

  • SNMP managers

    • Query SNMP agents for the information maintained about MIB objects

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Snmp messages

SNMP Messages

  • SNMP managers and agents communicate over UDP with a specific set of commands

    • GET-REQUEST

    • GET-RESPONSE

    • GET-NEXT

    • SET

    • TRAP

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Guide to tcp ip third edition

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Snmp security

SNMP Security

  • SNMPv1

    • Offers only a simple password system, and cannot be considered truly secure

  • Basic community names

    • Read-Only (or Monitor) community name

    • Read/Write (or Control) community name

    • Alert (or Trap) community name

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Installing and configuring snmp agents and consoles

Installing and Configuring SNMP Agents and Consoles

  • Installing a network management console is more complex than installing agent software

  • Many proprietary consoles that differ greatly from one another

  • Console configuration also is fairly complex

  • For many packages, completing an initial configuration may take six months or longer

    • Configuration is never truly finished

    • Typically require dedicated resources and constant maintenance

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Snmp consoles tools utilities and key files

SNMP Consoles, Tools, Utilities, and Key Files

  • Lion’s share of market belongs to three products

    • HP OpenView’s Network Node Manager (NNM) Advanced Edition

    • IBM’s Tivoli NetView

    • Computer Associates’ Unicenter

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Integrating snmp with other management environments

Integrating SNMP with Other Management Environments

  • Common modules

    • PING

    • Database change control modules

    • Dynamic topological maps

    • Inventory modules

    • Service-level tracking

    • To effectively use data gathered via SNMP

      • Other managed environments usually have reporting capabilities

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Troubleshooting snmp

Troubleshooting SNMP

  • Community names

    • Must match on both the SNMP agent and the network management station

    • Case sensitive

    • Three levels of community strings

      • Read-Only (Monitor)

      • Read/Write (Control)

      • Alert (Trap)

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Summary

Summary

  • Network management

    • Involves placing specific software components, called management agents, into managed devices

  • Network management systems rely on two kinds of activities to perform management tasks

    • The ability of managed devices to issue alerts when specific events occur

    • The ability of management entities to poll managed devices regularly

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Summary continued

Summary (continued)

  • Most NMSs

    • Provide various methods for out-of-band management

  • Discipline of network management

    • Described in the OSI network management model

  • For IP-based networks

    • SNMP carries management-related messages and data among network management agents and entities

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Summary continued1

Summary (continued)

  • SNMP’s management data

    • Resides in a database of manageable objects called a Management Information Base

  • Order is important

    • When loading MIBs into a management station

  • Remote Monitoring MIB

    • Used to monitor and manage remote segments on a distributed network

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Summary continued2

Summary (continued)

  • SNMP messages

    • Use UDP for transport and IP for network access

  • Ensuring SNMP security requires

    • Changing default community names

    • Managing the transit of SNMP messages across organizational network Boundaries

  • Troubleshooting SNMP requires

    • Good working knowledge of local network conditions

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


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