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Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition. Chapter 11: Monitoring and Managing IP Networks. Objectives. Understand the basic principles and practices involved in managing modern networks Explain the role that the SNMP can play on an IP-based network, and understand its basic structure and function

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Guide to tcp ip third edition

Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition

Chapter 11:

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Objectives
Objectives

  • Understand the basic principles and practices involved in managing modern networks

  • Explain the role that the SNMP can play on an IP-based network, and understand its basic structure and function

  • Understand how to install, configure, and use SNMP consoles, tools, and utilities

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Objectives continued
Objectives (continued)

  • Deploy tools and utilities to maintain an SNMP network management system

  • Explain the issues involved in integrating SNMP-based network management tools with other network management environments

  • Understand common SNMP errors and how to troubleshoot them

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Understanding network management practices and principles
Understanding Network Management Practices and Principles

  • Tasks involved in managing a network

    • Depend on the ability to collect data about a network and detect network-related occurrences

  • End stations

    • Usually known as managed devices

    • Any kind of system where management-related software is installed and running

  • Management entities

    • Usually function within the context of a network management system (NMS)

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks



The osi network management model
The OSI Network Management Model

  • OSI network management model incorporates the following five layers

    • Accounting management

    • Configuration management

    • Fault management

    • Performance management

    • Security management

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Practical network management
Practical Network Management

  • OSI network management model

    • Does an excellent job of categorizing and cataloging tasks and activities

  • Make systematic network management a priority

  • Obtain right mix of software components and tools that can be used as part of a program of

    • Regular, scheduled network maintenance and care

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


In band versus out of band management
In-band Versus Out-of-band Management

  • In-band management

    • Traffic travels along the regular network data path.

  • Out-of-band management

    • Traffic alerts travel on a separate non-data path

    • Solution supports communications between management agents and the manager device

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks




Understanding snmp
Understanding SNMP

  • Request/response-based protocol used to

    • Transport management messages between an SNMP agent and an SNMP manager

  • SNMP version 1 (SNMPv1)

    • Uses plain text passwords

  • SNMP version 2 (SNMPv2)

    • Includes two improvements: protocol enhancements and security enhancements

  • SNMP version 3 (SNMPv3)

    • Addresses shortcomings of previous versions

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Understanding snmp continued
Understanding SNMP (continued)

  • SNMPv1 consists of the following basic elements:

    • Management Information Base objects

    • SNMP agents

    • SNMP managers

    • SNMP messages

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Management information base objects
Management Information Base Objects

  • Management Information Base (MIB)

    • Database of manageable objectsfor a device

  • Structure of Management Information (SMI)

    • Defines object formats in any MIB using a particular form of notation called Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)

  • ASN.1

    • Language used to describe a type of object and the object identifier (OID)

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Management information base objects continued
Management Information Base Objects (continued)

  • OID

    • Sequence of non-negative integers that traverses an object tree

  • Subordinates

    • Branches of the object tree

  • In SNMP

    • Object is identified by the path used to get to a specific device identifier on an object tree

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks






Remote monitoring
Remote Monitoring

  • Used to monitor and administer remote segments of a distributed network

  • Places agents, called network probes, at various locations on the distributed network

  • Probes

    • Standalone devices that contain a NIC, a processor, memory, and software

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Rom ethernet
ROM Ethernet

  • First version of RMON

    • Ethernet based

    • Has nine distinct groups of objects

      • Ethernet statistics, History control

      • Alarm, Host

      • HostTopN, Matrix

      • Filter, Packet capture

      • Event

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Snmp agents
SNMP Agents

  • SNMP agent software

    • Placed on devices that can be managed by SNMP managers

  • SNMP agents

    • Answer to SNMP manager’s queries for information about the objects in agent’s MIB

  • SNMP managers

    • Query SNMP agents for the information maintained about MIB objects

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Snmp messages
SNMP Messages

  • SNMP managers and agents communicate over UDP with a specific set of commands

    • GET-REQUEST

    • GET-RESPONSE

    • GET-NEXT

    • SET

    • TRAP

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks



Snmp security
SNMP Security

  • SNMPv1

    • Offers only a simple password system, and cannot be considered truly secure

  • Basic community names

    • Read-Only (or Monitor) community name

    • Read/Write (or Control) community name

    • Alert (or Trap) community name

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Installing and configuring snmp agents and consoles
Installing and Configuring SNMP Agents and Consoles

  • Installing a network management console is more complex than installing agent software

  • Many proprietary consoles that differ greatly from one another

  • Console configuration also is fairly complex

  • For many packages, completing an initial configuration may take six months or longer

    • Configuration is never truly finished

    • Typically require dedicated resources and constant maintenance

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Snmp consoles tools utilities and key files
SNMP Consoles, Tools, Utilities, and Key Files

  • Lion’s share of market belongs to three products

    • HP OpenView’s Network Node Manager (NNM) Advanced Edition

    • IBM’s Tivoli NetView

    • Computer Associates’ Unicenter

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Integrating snmp with other management environments
Integrating SNMP with Other Management Environments

  • Common modules

    • PING

    • Database change control modules

    • Dynamic topological maps

    • Inventory modules

    • Service-level tracking

    • To effectively use data gathered via SNMP

      • Other managed environments usually have reporting capabilities

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Troubleshooting snmp
Troubleshooting SNMP

  • Community names

    • Must match on both the SNMP agent and the network management station

    • Case sensitive

    • Three levels of community strings

      • Read-Only (Monitor)

      • Read/Write (Control)

      • Alert (Trap)

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Summary
Summary

  • Network management

    • Involves placing specific software components, called management agents, into managed devices

  • Network management systems rely on two kinds of activities to perform management tasks

    • The ability of managed devices to issue alerts when specific events occur

    • The ability of management entities to poll managed devices regularly

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Summary continued
Summary (continued)

  • Most NMSs

    • Provide various methods for out-of-band management

  • Discipline of network management

    • Described in the OSI network management model

  • For IP-based networks

    • SNMP carries management-related messages and data among network management agents and entities

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Summary continued1
Summary (continued)

  • SNMP’s management data

    • Resides in a database of manageable objects called a Management Information Base

  • Order is important

    • When loading MIBs into a management station

  • Remote Monitoring MIB

    • Used to monitor and manage remote segments on a distributed network

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


Summary continued2
Summary (continued)

  • SNMP messages

    • Use UDP for transport and IP for network access

  • Ensuring SNMP security requires

    • Changing default community names

    • Managing the transit of SNMP messages across organizational network Boundaries

  • Troubleshooting SNMP requires

    • Good working knowledge of local network conditions

Monitoring and Managing IP Networks


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