Logistics aided battle command planning
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Logistics-Aided Battle Command Planning. Presented by: Christopher Matthews [email protected] U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Fort Monmouth, NJ. Talking Points. What? Why? How? Commentary. Background. Research, Development, Engineering Center (RDEC) RDECOM CERDEC Fort Monmouth, NJ

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Logistics aided battle command planning

Logistics-Aided Battle Command Planning

Presented by:

Christopher Matthews

[email protected]

U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC

Fort Monmouth, NJ


Talking points

Talking Points

  • What?

  • Why?

  • How?

  • Commentary


Background

Background

  • Research, Development, Engineering Center (RDEC)

    • RDECOM CERDEC Fort Monmouth, NJ

  • Command & Control Directorate

    • Command & Control (C2)

    • Transitioning relevant, novel technologies to the warfighter faster

    • Emphasis on C2 decision-aid software

  • Development Team

    • 2 Programmers

    • 1 Pseudo-expert on tactical logistics


Logistics command control atd logc2

Logistics Command & Control ATD (LogC2)

  • Objective

    • Integrate logistics into the maneuver planning process

    • Faster OPTEMPO & reduced logistics footprint

    • Shorten Combat Service Support (CSS) planning times

  • Products/capabilities

    • Collaborative, cross-functional planning services

    • Optimization tools for increased maneuver sustainment efficiency

    • Adaptive, predictive consumption models and demand generation functionality

    • Near real-time running-estimate decision aid software

      • Dynamic re-planning

      • Execution monitoring


Maneuver sustainment planner msp

Maneuver Sustainment Planner (MSP)

Goals

  • Develop proof-of-concept prototype

    • Integrate logistic-planning impacts into the maneuver planning process

    • Develop a detailed logistics plan to support maneuver operations

    • Model maneuver activities and generate expected logistics demand as a function of platform, posture, and optempo

    • Showcase dynamic re-planning & execution-monitoring capability

  • Evaluate Cougaar and agent benefits for C2 planning


Msp why cougaar

MSP – Why Cougaar?

  • Perfect fit for the program

    • Maps elegantly to military force structures

    • Tailored for the planning domain

  • Essential, core planning capabilities included

    • Crucial plumbing (asynch msging, threading, wf engine)

    • Dynamic replanning & execution monitoring

    • Resource management components

  • Good design

    • Component-based architecture

    • Loosely coupled cognitive modeling

    • Logical Data Model (LDM)

  • Rapid software development

    • Amenable to incremental development

    • Substantial Reuse

    • Automated tools & helper programs


Msp overview

Plan

Detailed Logistics

Plan

MSP – Overview

Maneuver Planning Domain

  • Core Functionality

  • Import maneuver plan elements

  • Develop logistics plan (LogPlan)

    • Demand generation modeling for Class III, V, & IX*

    • Temporal asset utilization – military units & physical assets

  • Utilize dynamic re-planning capability**

  • Provide logistic feasibility feedback loop

MSP


Msp approach

MSP – Approach

  • Functional analysis & design

    • Agent Enumeration

    • Role/Relationship Analysis

    • Plugin Enumeration

    • Task Grammar

    • Asset/Property Requirements Analysis

    • Execution Monitoring and Dynamic Replanning Analysis

  • External system interfaces

    • Databases

    • Maneuver Command & Control (MC2) application

    • MSP Plan Viewer (GUI)

  • Cougaar Plugin development


Msp constraints

MSP – Constraints

  • No control over the maneuver plan

    • Maneuver Command & Control (MC2) system

      • Stove-piped system

      • Inaccessible models & methods

      • Large, unwieldy, coarse XML plan data

    • IMPACT: Atypical Cougaar implementation

      • Short-lived vs. 24x7

    • IMPACT: Demand generation

      • CASCOM Equipment Usage Profiles (EUP)

      • Identical to MC2

  • Inability to dynamically add agents

    • IMPACT: A priori knowledge of UTO

  • Time

    • IMPACT: Reduced functionality


Msp developmental items

MSP – Developmental Items

  • GUI Servlet

    • Asset utilization

    • Consumable information

    • Distributed LogPlan and corresponding maneuver tasks

    • UTO and tables of equipment (TOE)

  • Planning ontology

    • Task structure

    • Asset classes

    • Property groups

    • Agent roles & relationships


Msp developmental items1

MSP – Developmental Items

  • Plugins

    • Allocators

    • Expanders

    • Assessors

    • Hybrids

    • LDMs


Msp results

MSP – Results

  • Objective:

    • Tightly integrate maneuver & logistics planning

  • Result:

    • primitive feedback to maneuver planning domain

    • Maneuver impacts of LogPlan via “swivel chair”

  • Risk Area:

    • Interoperability with maneuver application

    • Time-intensive interface development required

  • Assessment:

    • Moderately successful

    • Can add functionality later


Msp results cont

MSP – Results (cont.)

  • Objective:

    • Develop detailed LogPlan for maneuver sustainment

  • Result:

    • Accurately modeled class III (fuel) demand generation

    • Successfully demonstrated the collaborative problem-solving behavior of Cougaar agents to develop a LogPlan

    • Considerable use of assumptions

  • Risk Area:

    • Impact of modeled assumptions

    • Generalized scoring functions

  • Assessment:

    • Highly successful

    • Assumptions can be removed w/ more detailed modeling or soldier-in-the-loop at critical decision points


Msp results cont1

MSP – Results (cont.)

  • Objective:

    • Incorporate dynamic replanning & execution-monitoring functionality

  • Result:

    • Dynamic planning demonstrated

    • Simulated execution-monitoring real-time updates

    • Dynamic replanning unfinished

  • Risk Area:

    • Time

    • Poor planning on our part (prioritization of SW tasks)

  • Assessment:

    • Fail

    • While execution-monitoring was included, dynamic replanning is more seductive


Msp level of effort cougaar

MSP – Level of Effort (Cougaar)


Msp agent interaction

Military

Combat

Units

Military

Combat

Units

Military

Combat

Units

Military

Combat

Units

Military

Combat

Units

Military

Combat

Units

Mvr Plan

MSP – Agent Interaction

Allocator

Expander

Allocator

Assessor

LDM

Mvr Plan

Task Generator

Maneuver Tasks

LDM

Allocator

Assessor

Expander

Retail

Refuel Requests

Notional

Logistics

Wholesaler

Wholesale

Refuel Requests

Allocator

Logistics

Broker

Retail

Refuel Requests

Forward

Support

Company

Wholesale

Refuel Requests

Base

Support

Company


Msp planning thread

Mvr Plan

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

MSP – Planning Thread

Expander

Bn 1-8

Infantry

Co C

1-8

Infantry

LDM

Allocator

Co A

1-8

Infantry

Maneuver Task

Generator

Allocator

Co B

1-8

Infantry

Assessor

Expander

Logistics

Broker

Notional

Logistics

Wholesaler

Abstract

Asset

Allocator

Allocator

64 FSB

BSC

64 FSB

FSC

Allocator


Msp task generation agent

Mvr Plan

MSP – Task Generation Agent

Bn 1-8

Infantry

Maneuver Task

Expander

LDMSQL

TaskListening Role

Maneuver

Task

Allocator

Maneuver Task

Generator

Unit

Initialization


Msp maneuver units

Assets/Property

Groups

MSP – Maneuver Units

Co A, Bn 1-8

Infantry

Subordinate Task

Subordinate

Task Expander

LDMSQL

Subordinate Role

Logistics

Task

Allocator

Bn 1-8

Infantry

OrgRTData

UTO

OrgReport


Msp planning thread1

Mvr Plan

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

MSP – Planning Thread

Expander

Bn 1-8

Infantry

Co C

1-8

Infantry

LDM

Allocator

Co A

1-8

Infantry

Maneuver Task

Generator

Allocator

Co B

1-8

Infantry

Assessor

Expander

Logistics

Broker

Notional

Logistics

Wholesaler

Abstract

Asset

Allocator

Allocator

64 FSB

BSC

64 FSB

FSC

Allocator


General assessment

General Assessment

  • Cons

    • Large overhead

    • Bandwidth intensive in tactical environment

    • Steep learning curve

    • Time-intensive source code reviews (the reuse issue)

    • Impacts of architecture upgrades

    • Scoring functions

      • Difficult to assess (apples v. oranges)

      • Difficult to accurately model

    • Dynamic modification to agent society

    • Some sparse documentation

      • .DEF file definitions

        • PropertyWriter, AssetWriter, MeasureWriter

        • Complex data types


General assessment cont

General Assessment (cont.)

  • Pros

    • Rapid software development

      • Provides logical roadmap for application design & development

    • Ideal for military planning systems

    • Domain independent

    • Open source software

    • Core planning & information management functionality

    • Well documented architecture & developer guides

    • Manageable application development

      • Incrementally move from general and intricate cognitive models

      • Configuration management easier

      • Loosely coupled behavioral components

    • Easy to incorporate real-time planning or running-estimate functionality

    • Large, knowledgeable support community


Wrap up

Wrap-up

  • Missed objectives

    • 1st time around…

    • 2nd time around…

  • Still requires substantial functional analyses investment

    • Reduces time-intensive coding

    • Allows development to focus on this process; the most important one

  • Vision & conventional wisdom

    • Can share niche planning communities and services

    • Repositories of reusable components

    • User community temperament

      • Fear

      • Politics

  • Success story

    • Crude,limited prototype

    • Cougaar experience & subject matter expertise


Questions

Questions?


Backup slides

Backup Slides


Msp planviewer snapshot

MSP – PlanViewer Snapshot


Msp planviewer snapshot1

MSP – PlanViewer Snapshot


Msp force structure scenario

MSP – Force Structure Scenario

Force XXI UTO

3 BDE, 4ID

HHC 3 BDE, 1CD

1-8 IN

64 FSB

1-68 AR

1-12 IN

HHC

Co A

Co B

Co C

HHC

Co A

Co B

Co C

HHC

Co A

Co B

Co C

HHC

BSC

FSC

Medical


Msp asset class hierarchy

ClassVIIMajorEndItem

AssetSkeleton

LogC2AssetAdapter

LogC2Asset

SelfPropelledGroundVehicle

MSP – Asset Class Hierarchy

Package = org.cougaar.glm.ldm.asset

Package = logc2.assets

All Assets in the logc2.assets package

are machine generated from the logc2props.def

and the logc2assets.def files. All ground vehicle

Assets will be of one of the types depicted here.

This class is hand generated (the only

one in the package.) This is needed so

That we can add functionality later to all

Assets w/o having to mod lots of classes.

Truck

SelfPropelledGroudWeapon

FuelTruck

Carrier

Open to view LogC2 Vehicle List


Msp roles relationships

MSP – Roles & Relationships

TaskGenerator

Military

Unit

Provider Customer

Maneuver Task

Generator

Subordinate

Superior

Combat

Unit

Combat

Unit

TaskListeners

Superior

Provider

Customer

Subordinate


Logistics aided battle command planning

TaskGenerator

Military

Unit

Maneuver Task

Generator

Combat

Unit

Combat

Unit

TaskListeners

Superior

Provider

Subordinate


Alp goals

ALP Goals

  • Technical Goals:

    • Distributed agent architecture research

    • Distributed information management research

    • Real-time information fusion research

  • Functional Goals:

    • Automated logistics plan generation

    • Real-time logistics situation assessment

    • End-to-end movement control

    • End-to-end rapid supply


Ultralog goals

UltraLog Goals

Expanding the ALP vision:

  • Military logistics domain

  • Enhance the Cougaar framework

    • Security – trusted systems under information warfare attacks

    • Scalability – stability for large, distributed network of agents

    • Robustness – high state of survivability in chaotic environments

    • System integration – combining all of above to achieve desired systemic effects


Agent development framework

Agent Development Framework

Cognitive Agent Architecture (Cougaar)

  • Darpa initiative

    • Advanced Logistics Program (ALP) (FY96 – FY01)

    • UltraLog Program (FY01 – FY04)

  • Features

    • Distributed, large-scale workflow engine

    • Open source Java software

    • Multi-Resolutional Logical Data Model (LDM)

    • Built-in dynamic re-planning & execution-monitoring capability

    • Asynchronous communication protocol

    • Classic publish/subscribe blackboard

    • Domain independent


Cougaar agent basics

Cougaar – Agent basics

Agent

Blackboard

(PLAN)

Subscribe

Publish

Plugins

Message Queue


Cougaar the distributed plan

Agent

Plan Element

(Allocation)

Plan Element

(Allocation)

Plan Element

(Allocation)

Blackboard

E

E

Estimated

AR

Estimated

AR

E

Estimated

AR

Reported

AR

Reported

AR

R

R

R

Reported

AR

Cougaar – The Distributed Plan

Asset

Asset

Asset

Task

Task

Task


Cougaar plugins

Cougaar - Plugins

LDM

Populating society with data from external

systems.

Allocator

Allocates tasks to other agents/assets.

Decomposes tasks into more manageable

Subtasks.

Expander

Assessor

Evaluates the projected and actual results of

allocated tasks

Provides the web-based front end for viewing activity within society.

GUI


Cougaar re planning concept

Data Source

Cougaar – Re-planning Concept

Dynamic Re-planning & Execution Monitoring

Self-Assessment

Task Allocations

Allocation Results

Rescinds / Reallocations

Real-Time

Data Fusion

• Negotiate between agents to iteratively improve plan

• Continually recheck assumptions : Constraints, Data, Policies, Metrics

• Updates from data sources as time progresses


Cougaar agent behavior

Cougaar – Agent behavior

Agent Relationships

Superior

Agent Roles

Provider Customer

Subordinate

Superior

Provider

Customer

Subordinate


Cougaar ultralog

Allocator

Expander

Assessor

Cougaar + UltraLog

UltraLog Society

Cougaar

Domain Agent

Specific PlugIns

Generic PlugIns

Generic Agent

=

+

+

  • Military specific processes

  • Interfaces to military systems

  • Specific to Logistics Domain

  • Basic building blocks

  • Easy to specialize

  • Domain independent


Plan element allocation

Plan Element

(Allocation)

Task-1

E

Estimated

AR

R

Reported

AR

Asset

Plan Element - Allocation


Plan element expansion

E

Estimated

AR

Plan Element - Expansion

Plan Element

(Expansion)

Task-1

R

Reported

AR

Workflow

Subtask-1.1

Subtask-1.2


Plan element aggregation

Plan Element - Aggregation

Task-1

Task-2

Plan Element

(Aggregation)

Plan Element

(Aggregation)

Composition

Task-3


Cougaar logical data model ldm

Cougaar – Logical Data Model (LDM)

  • Requirements

    • Support over 6 million items

    • Support efficient transport and distribution of objects

    • Support modification and extension during execution

  • Principles

    • Based on the properties of objects and not what they are

    • Represent all the properties of assets needed to reason about them

      • Over a range of granularities

      • Supporting their time-varying nature

      • Refering to specialized properties of assets

  • Implementation

    • Use prototypes and delegation to reduce classes needed

    • Prototype classes determine the required properties of all instances

    • Related properties are collected in Property Groups

    • Asset instances delegate properties to their Prototype instances


Cougaar ldm asset

Cougaar – LDM Asset


Cougaar ldm examples

VehiclePG

<property group>

ContainerPG

<property group>

Truck

<asset>

NIIN=

VehicleProp=

ContainerProp=

OtherProp

maxSpeedMPH=

fuelUseMPG=

fuelType=

maxWtSTON=

maxVolMTON=

ContainerPG

<instance>

ContainerPG

<instance>

MaxWtSTON= 8.0

MaxVolMTON= 6.0

MaxWtSTON= 6.0

MaxVolMTON= 4.0

Cougaar – LDM examples

LDM Classes

Asset Prototypes and

Property Groups

5-Ton Truck

<prototype>

VehiclePG

<instance>

NIIN= 123456999

VehicleProp

ContainerProp

MaxSpeedMPH=50

FuelUseMPG = 13

FuelType=“Diesel”

2.5-TonTruck

<prototype>

VehiclePG

<instance>

ContainerPG

<instance>

NIIN= 123456789

VehicleProp

ContainProp

MaxSpeedMPH=50

FuelUseMPG = 15

FuelType=“Diesel”

MaxWtSTON= 3.0

MaxVolMTON= 2.0

Truck-T770

5-Ton Truck

With Long Bed

Asset

Instances

Truck-T789

5-Ton Truck

Truck-T123

2-1/2 Ton Truck

Truck-T789

5-Ton Truck

Truck-T123

2-1/2 Ton Truck

Truck-T789

5-Ton Truck

VIN=“T789”

( )

Truck-T123

2-1/2 Ton Truck

VIN=“T123”

( )

VIN=“T770”

ContainerProp

Truck-T789

5-Ton Truck

VIN=“T789”

( )

Truck-T123

2.5-Ton Truck

VIN=“T123”

( )

VIN=“T789”

( )

VIN=“T123”

( )

VIN=“T789”

VIN=“T123”


References

References

  • Barger, Mark, & Wong, Jason. (2004). Cougaar Training Slides.

  • BBN Technologies. (Version 10.0). (2003). Cougaar Architecture Document.

  • BBN Technologies. (Version 10.0). (2003). Cougaar Developer’s Guide.

  • Berliner, Jeffrey, Thome, Michael, & Cerys, Daniel. (2003). Multi-Resolutional Knowledge Representation Using Prototypes and Properties.

  • “Cougaar Open Source Web Site”, http://www.cougaar.org.

  • “UltraLog Web Site”, DARPA, http://www.ultralog.net/.


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