Lecture fourteen
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Lecture Fourteen. Subordination (II). Adverbial clauses. Adverbial clauses of time After, as, once, since, until, when, while, immediately, directly, instantly, the moment/minute, every time, next time Buy your ticket as soon as you reach the station.

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Lecture Fourteen

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Lecture Fourteen

Subordination (II)


Adverbial clauses

  • Adverbial clauses of time

  • After, as, once, since, until, when, while, immediately, directly, instantly, the moment/minute, every time, next time

  • Buy your ticket as soon as you reach the station.

  • My family, once they saw the mood I was in, left me completely alone.

  • She looked both ways before she crossed the road.

  • Drop by whenever you get the chance.

  • We came in just as it started to rain.

  • Wait until you’re called.

  • My sister came directly she received my message.

  • I’ll tell you the moment you came.


  • No sooner … than, hardly/scarcely/barely … when

  • She had no sooner heard the news than she fainted.

  • No sooner had she heard the news than she fainted.


  • Adverbial clauses of place

  • Where, wherever

  • Where the fire had been, we saw nothing but blackened ruins.

  • They went wherever they could find work.

  • Everywhere, anywhere

  • We’ll go anywhere you direct us.

  • I found flowers everywhere I looked.


  • Adverbial clauses of condition

  • If you put the baby town, she’ll scream.

  • Unless the strike has been called off, there will be no trains tomorrow.

  • You may leave the apartment at the time, provided that you give a month’s notice or pay an additional month’s rent.

  • In case you want me, I’ll be in my office till lunchtime.

  • Assuming that the movie starts at eight, shouldn’t we be leaving now?


  • If he changed his options, he’d be a more likeable person.

  • If you had listened to me, you wouldn’t have made so many mistakes.

  • Had you listened to me, …

  • If it were to rain, the ropes would snap. They are far too tight.

  • Were it to rain, …

  • If a serious crisis should arise, the public would have to be informed of its full implications.

  • Should a serious crisis arise, …

  • If only you would help me next week, I would not be so nervous.


  • Adverbial clauses of concession

  • Although he had just joined, he was treated exactly like all the others.

  • No goals were scored, though it was an exciting game.

  • Fail though I did, I would not abandon my goal.

  • Naked as I was, I braved the storm.

  • While I don’t want to make a fuss, I feel I must protest at your interference.

  • Whereas the amendment is enthusiastically supported by a large majority in Senate, its fate is doubtful in the House.

  • Even if you dislike ancient monuments, Warwick Castle is worth a visit.


  • Adverbial clauses of contrast

  • Whereas, while

  • Mr Larson teaches physics, while Mr. Corby teaches chemistry.

  • I ignore them, whereas my husband is always worried about what they think of us.


  • Adverbial clauses of cause

  • He’s thin because he hasn’t eaten enough.

  • Since the weather has improved, the game will be held as planned.

  • As Jane was the eldest, she looked after the others.

  • Much has been written about psychic phenomena, for they pose fascinating problems that have yet to be resolved.

  • Seeing/now that it is about to rain, we had better leave now.

  • As long as you’re here, why don’t we discuss our plan?


  • Adverbial clauses of result

  • So (that), so… that, such … that, with the result that

  • We paid him immediately, so (that) he felt contented.

  • I took no notice of him, so (that) he flew into a rage.

  • I was in the bath, with the result that I didn’t hear the knock at the door.


  • Adverbial clauses of pupose

  • The school closes earlier so (that) the children can get home before dark.

  • The jury and the witness were removed from the court in order that they might not hear the arguments of the lawyers on the prosecution’s motion for an adjournment.


  • Adverbial clauses of manner

  • As just as, as if (though), like

  • You must do the exercises as I show you.

  • Mary was behaving as though she hadn’t grown up.

  • She’s doing her work the way I like it done.

  • I shall wear my coat how I like.


  • He visited China, and his interest in Chinese culture was developed.

  • After he visited China, his interest in Chinese culture was developed.

  • Having visited China, he was more interested in Chinese culture.

  • After his visit to China, his interest in Chinese culture was developed.

  • His visit to China developed his interest in Chinese culture.


Relative clauses

  • Restrictive relative clauses

  • Non-restrictive relative clauses

  • Cf. The girl who lives next door is now travelling in Scotland.

  • Mr Brown, who lives next door, is now travelling in Scotland.

  • Cf. This is the book (which/that) I bought at a bookstore at Cambridge.

  • Ann returned my book to the library by mistake, which I bought at a bookstore at Cambridge.


Relative words

  • in restrictive relative clauses

  • He is the man who lives next door to us.

  • The woman who/whom/that/() we talked about has just given birth to quintuplets successfully.

  • The woman about whom we talked has just given birth to quintuplets successfully.

  • That was the kind of person which/that/() he was.

  • These are the babies which need inoculation.

  • This is the doggie who seems ill.


  • He drives a car that/which can travel 150 miles an hour.

  • The project which/that/() they have been workingon for two years is a total failure.

  • The project on which they have been working for two years in a total failure.

  • All, everyting, something, anything, nothing, none, little, few, much

  • All that glitters is not gold.

  • There is something that/() I want you to do.

  • That’s all that/() I want to tell you.


  • The only thing that interests me in the book is the beautiful photos.

  • This is the best book that has appeared this year.

  • The first point that/() I’d like to make is …

  • These were the last words that/() he uttered.

  • Those who smoke cigarettes ae rising their health.


  • That is the place where/in which they stayed for the night.

  • I’ll never forget the Sunday when/on which he first arrived.

  • Nobody knew the reason why she turned down his proposal.


  • the place at which he stayed

  • which he stayed at

  • that he stayed at

  • he stayed at

  • where he stayed

  • that he stayed

  • he stayed


  • the day on which he married

  • which he married on

  • that he married on

  • he married on

  • when he married

  • that he married

  • he married


  • The reason (?) for which he refused to come

  • why he refused to come

  • that he refused to come

  • he refused to come


  • The woman whose daughter you met is Mrs. Brown.

  • The house whose roof was damaged has now been repaired.

  • The house the roof of which was damaged has now been repaired.

  • The house of which the roof has now been repaired.


  • In non-restrictive relative clauses

  • Bruce Wellis, who came on holiday with us, is now in London.

  • My brother, who(m) you met yesterday, is a member of NBA all-star team.

  • The treatment, which is being tried by researchers at four hospitals, has helped many patients.

  • He was a man of considerable inherited wealth, which he ultimately spent on his experiments.


Double relative clauses

  • The book presetns ways of referring to the future that are fairly established and that all students of English should know.

  • This is the only book I bought which challenges this common belief.


Embedded relative clauses

  • She has an adopted child who she says was an orphan.


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