Lecture fourteen
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Lecture Fourteen. Subordination (II). Adverbial clauses. Adverbial clauses of time After, as, once, since, until, when, while, immediately, directly, instantly, the moment/minute, every time, next time Buy your ticket as soon as you reach the station.

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Lecture Fourteen

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Lecture fourteen

Lecture Fourteen

Subordination (II)


Adverbial clauses

Adverbial clauses

  • Adverbial clauses of time

  • After, as, once, since, until, when, while, immediately, directly, instantly, the moment/minute, every time, next time

  • Buy your ticket as soon as you reach the station.

  • My family, once they saw the mood I was in, left me completely alone.

  • She looked both ways before she crossed the road.

  • Drop by whenever you get the chance.

  • We came in just as it started to rain.

  • Wait until you’re called.

  • My sister came directly she received my message.

  • I’ll tell you the moment you came.


Lecture fourteen

  • No sooner … than, hardly/scarcely/barely … when

  • She had no sooner heard the news than she fainted.

  • No sooner had she heard the news than she fainted.


Lecture fourteen

  • Adverbial clauses of place

  • Where, wherever

  • Where the fire had been, we saw nothing but blackened ruins.

  • They went wherever they could find work.

  • Everywhere, anywhere

  • We’ll go anywhere you direct us.

  • I found flowers everywhere I looked.


Lecture fourteen

  • Adverbial clauses of condition

  • If you put the baby town, she’ll scream.

  • Unless the strike has been called off, there will be no trains tomorrow.

  • You may leave the apartment at the time, provided that you give a month’s notice or pay an additional month’s rent.

  • In case you want me, I’ll be in my office till lunchtime.

  • Assuming that the movie starts at eight, shouldn’t we be leaving now?


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  • If he changed his options, he’d be a more likeable person.

  • If you had listened to me, you wouldn’t have made so many mistakes.

  • Had you listened to me, …

  • If it were to rain, the ropes would snap. They are far too tight.

  • Were it to rain, …

  • If a serious crisis should arise, the public would have to be informed of its full implications.

  • Should a serious crisis arise, …

  • If only you would help me next week, I would not be so nervous.


Lecture fourteen

  • Adverbial clauses of concession

  • Although he had just joined, he was treated exactly like all the others.

  • No goals were scored, though it was an exciting game.

  • Fail though I did, I would not abandon my goal.

  • Naked as I was, I braved the storm.

  • While I don’t want to make a fuss, I feel I must protest at your interference.

  • Whereas the amendment is enthusiastically supported by a large majority in Senate, its fate is doubtful in the House.

  • Even if you dislike ancient monuments, Warwick Castle is worth a visit.


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  • Adverbial clauses of contrast

  • Whereas, while

  • Mr Larson teaches physics, while Mr. Corby teaches chemistry.

  • I ignore them, whereas my husband is always worried about what they think of us.


Lecture fourteen

  • Adverbial clauses of cause

  • He’s thin because he hasn’t eaten enough.

  • Since the weather has improved, the game will be held as planned.

  • As Jane was the eldest, she looked after the others.

  • Much has been written about psychic phenomena, for they pose fascinating problems that have yet to be resolved.

  • Seeing/now that it is about to rain, we had better leave now.

  • As long as you’re here, why don’t we discuss our plan?


Lecture fourteen

  • Adverbial clauses of result

  • So (that), so… that, such … that, with the result that

  • We paid him immediately, so (that) he felt contented.

  • I took no notice of him, so (that) he flew into a rage.

  • I was in the bath, with the result that I didn’t hear the knock at the door.


Lecture fourteen

  • Adverbial clauses of pupose

  • The school closes earlier so (that) the children can get home before dark.

  • The jury and the witness were removed from the court in order that they might not hear the arguments of the lawyers on the prosecution’s motion for an adjournment.


Lecture fourteen

  • Adverbial clauses of manner

  • As just as, as if (though), like

  • You must do the exercises as I show you.

  • Mary was behaving as though she hadn’t grown up.

  • She’s doing her work the way I like it done.

  • I shall wear my coat how I like.


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  • He visited China, and his interest in Chinese culture was developed.

  • After he visited China, his interest in Chinese culture was developed.

  • Having visited China, he was more interested in Chinese culture.

  • After his visit to China, his interest in Chinese culture was developed.

  • His visit to China developed his interest in Chinese culture.


Relative clauses

Relative clauses

  • Restrictive relative clauses

  • Non-restrictive relative clauses

  • Cf. The girl who lives next door is now travelling in Scotland.

  • Mr Brown, who lives next door, is now travelling in Scotland.

  • Cf. This is the book (which/that) I bought at a bookstore at Cambridge.

  • Ann returned my book to the library by mistake, which I bought at a bookstore at Cambridge.


Relative words

Relative words

  • in restrictive relative clauses

  • He is the man who lives next door to us.

  • The woman who/whom/that/() we talked about has just given birth to quintuplets successfully.

  • The woman about whom we talked has just given birth to quintuplets successfully.

  • That was the kind of person which/that/() he was.

  • These are the babies which need inoculation.

  • This is the doggie who seems ill.


Lecture fourteen

  • He drives a car that/which can travel 150 miles an hour.

  • The project which/that/() they have been workingon for two years is a total failure.

  • The project on which they have been working for two years in a total failure.

  • All, everyting, something, anything, nothing, none, little, few, much

  • All that glitters is not gold.

  • There is something that/() I want you to do.

  • That’s all that/() I want to tell you.


Lecture fourteen

  • The only thing that interests me in the book is the beautiful photos.

  • This is the best book that has appeared this year.

  • The first point that/() I’d like to make is …

  • These were the last words that/() he uttered.

  • Those who smoke cigarettes ae rising their health.


Lecture fourteen

  • That is the place where/in which they stayed for the night.

  • I’ll never forget the Sunday when/on which he first arrived.

  • Nobody knew the reason why she turned down his proposal.


Lecture fourteen

  • the place at which he stayed

  • which he stayed at

  • that he stayed at

  • he stayed at

  • where he stayed

  • that he stayed

  • he stayed


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  • the day on which he married

  • which he married on

  • that he married on

  • he married on

  • when he married

  • that he married

  • he married


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  • The reason (?) for which he refused to come

  • why he refused to come

  • that he refused to come

  • he refused to come


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  • The woman whose daughter you met is Mrs. Brown.

  • The house whose roof was damaged has now been repaired.

  • The house the roof of which was damaged has now been repaired.

  • The house of which the roof has now been repaired.


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  • In non-restrictive relative clauses

  • Bruce Wellis, who came on holiday with us, is now in London.

  • My brother, who(m) you met yesterday, is a member of NBA all-star team.

  • The treatment, which is being tried by researchers at four hospitals, has helped many patients.

  • He was a man of considerable inherited wealth, which he ultimately spent on his experiments.


Double relative clauses

Double relative clauses

  • The book presetns ways of referring to the future that are fairly established and that all students of English should know.

  • This is the only book I bought which challenges this common belief.


Embedded relative clauses

Embedded relative clauses

  • She has an adopted child who she says was an orphan.


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