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Lipids: Fats & Oils . Key term- Lipid . The name lipid is used to describe a range of substances. Some of the most important of these are triglycerides, usually known as fats and oils . Types of Lipids. Lipids with fatty acids Waxes Fats and oils (trigycerides) Phospholipids

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Key term lipid
Key term- Lipid

  • The name lipid is used to describe a range of substances. Some of the most important of these are triglycerides, usually known as fats and oils


Types of lipids
Types of Lipids

  • Lipids with fatty acids

    Waxes

    Fats and oils (trigycerides)

    Phospholipids

    Sphingolipids

  • Lipids without fatty acids

    Steroids


Lipids
Lipids

  • Made up of C, H and O

  • Can exist as fats, oils and waxes

  • They are insoluble in water

  • They are a good source of energy (38kJ/g)

  • They are poor conductors of heat

  • Most fats & oils are triglycerides


A triglyceride contains four subunits glycerol and three fatty acids
A triglyceride contains four subunits : glycerol and three fatty acids

Glycerol- an alcohol

Fatty Acids


2 types of fatty acid
2 types of fatty acid fatty acids

Why are unsaturated fatty acids usually liquid at room temperature, whereas saturated fatty acids are usually solid?


Triglycerides
Triglycerides fatty acids

  • 3 fatty acid molecules joined to a glycerol

  • Each fatty acid consists of an acid COOH group joined to a long hydrocarbon chain consisting of carbon and hydrogen

  • The length of the hydrocarbon chain varies but in many of the fatty acids in triglycerides there are between 14 and 16 carbon atoms


Ester bonds
Ester Bonds fatty acids

Triglyceride


Phospholipids
Phospholipids fatty acids

  • These are very similar to triglycerides except that one of the fatty acids is replaced with a phosphate group


Phosphate group on the head of the molecule means the charge on the molecule is unevenly distributed. It is polar and hydrophilic

The hydrocarbon tails do not have an uneven charge distribution. They are non-polar and hydrophobic.


Bilayer
Bilayer on the molecule is unevenly distributed. It is polar and hydrophilic

If placed in water phospholipids will arrange themselves in a double layer with the hydrophilic heads pointing outwards and the hydrophobic tails pointing inwards.

This double layer forms the phospholipid bilayer and is the basis of cell membranes


Functions of lipids
Functions of lipids on the molecule is unevenly distributed. It is polar and hydrophilic

  • Protection of vital organs

  • To prevent evaporation in plants & animals

  • To insulate the body

  • They form the myelin sheath around some neurones

  • As a water source (respiration of lipids)

  • As a component of cell membranes


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