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Preparatory activities of H 2 O maser astrometry towards LMC and SMC. Hiroshi Imai (Dept. Physics and Astronomy, Kagoshima University) VSOP-2 KSP Maser Working Group. VSOP-2 KSP-JP Maser Proposal: High resolution astrometry of H 2 O masers towards LMC and SMC version on 2009 September 4.

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preparatory activities of h 2 o maser astrometry towards lmc and smc

Preparatory activities of H2O maser astrometry towards LMC and SMC

Hiroshi Imai

(Dept. Physics and Astronomy, Kagoshima University)

VSOP-2 KSP Maser Working Group

slide2
VSOP-2 KSP-JP Maser Proposal: High resolution astrometry of H2O masers towards LMC and SMCversion on 2009 September 4
  • Scientific feasibility
  • Technical feasibility
  • Observation plan
    • Target sources, requested time
  • Team formation
unique targets for vsop 2 beam 100 as
Unique targets for VSOP-2 (θbeam〜100μas)
  • Significantly spatially resolved in the Milky Way

Sgr B2 H2O masers (~8 kpc): unresolved with VLBA

J1745-2820 (Sgr B2’ s position reference): resolved with VLBA

(Reid et al. 2009)

(B>1,500 km)

Gwinn (1988)

crowded h 2 o maser features
CrowdedH2O maser features

VSOP-2 beam

(for LMC @48 kpc)

H2O masers

in W3 IRS5 @2 kpc

(Imai et al. 2002)

scientific feasibility
Scientific feasibility
  • unique targets for VSOP-2 (θbeam〜100 μas)

Three major goals

  • galactic rotation and rotation deviation
  • dynamics of the Milky Way system
  • diagnosing interior of star burst activity

Trial: annual parallax (π~20μas)

solving fundamental parameters of galactic kinematics
Solving fundamental parameters of galactic kinematics

Free parameters in galactic kinematics (Np = 9)

  • dynamical center (Xg, Yg, Zg): scaled by distance D
  • secular motion (Vxg, Vyg, Vzg) : scaled by distance D
  • rotation axis (ig, PAyg) : linked with D
  • rotation parameter (Vrot (r=rg)) : linked with D

Observables from maser sources (3 × Nmaser)

  • 3D velocity vector (μx, μy, Vz)(x, y)

Freedom of best-fitting: Nf = 3 × Nmaser- Np >> 1

Estimation of location along line-of-sight

galactic rotation of lmc
Galactic rotation of LMC
  • Kinematic center: well known
    • α= 05h17m. 6, δ=-69°02’ [J2000] (Kim et al. 1998)
  • Systemic line-of-sight velocity: well known
    • Vsyshelio=279 km/s (Kim et al. 98), 274 km/s (Luks & Rohlfs 1992)
  • Rotation axis inclination: well known
    • 31°.3±3°.5 (Subramaniam & Subramaniam 2009)
    • 30°.7±1°.1 (Nikoraev et al. 2004)
    • 34°.7±6°.2 (van der Marel & Cioni 2001), 22°±6° (Kim et al. 1998)
  • Rotation axis position angle: varying with radius
    • 52°ー77° (e.g., Caldwell1986)
  • Rotation curve: depending on population
    • HI map: 60ー70 km/s @275’ (Kim et al. 1998)
    • HST images: 120±15 km/s @275’ (Piatek et al. 2009)
  • How large deviation from the rotation curve?
    • 10ー30 km/s in MW (Reid et al. 2009; Asaki et al. 2009)

⇒ 40―130 μas/yr @LMC/SMC

hst proper motion measurements after subtracting the center of mass space velocity
HST proper motion measurements(after subtracting the center-of-mass space velocity)

21 fields

Center (α,δ)=

(5h27m.6, -69°52.2’)

Piatek et al.

2008

galactic rotation curve of lmc
Galactic rotation curve of LMC

21 fields

Piatek et al.

2008

peculiar motions in lmc
Peculiar motions in LMC

21 fields

Residual from rotation

Piatek et al.

2008

dynamics of the milky way system d mw 50 kpc
Dynamics of the Milky Way system (DMW > 50 kpc)
  • Secular (proper) motion of LMC : roughly known
    • (μα, μδ)= (1.956±0.036, 0.435±0.036) [mas/yr] (Piatek et al. 2008)
    • (μα, μδ)= (1.94±0.29, -0.14±0.36) [mas/yr] (Kroupa & Bastian 1997)
  • Systemic line-of-sight velocity: well known
    • Vsyshelio=279 km/s (Kim et al. 98), 274 km/s (Luks & Rohlfs 1992)
  • LMC gravitationally bound

by the Milky Way?

    • Dependent on the Milky Way

rotation velocity

(V0~230 km/s or 250 km/s?)

    • LMC: gas rich galaxy

should be less interacted

with the Milky Way

Shattow & Loeb (2009)

3d internal motions of individual h 2 o maser sources
3D internal motions ofindividual H2O maser sources

10 km/s ⇒ 40μas/yr

⇒ 10μas/3 months

More than

20 proper motions

For kinematic model fitting

M33 @800 kpc

(Argon et al. 2004)

ΔT=14 yr

diagnosing interior of star burst activity
diagnosing interior of star burst activity

30 Dor (N157A, 159, 160)

  • 3D internal motions in individual H2O maser sources
    • Finding the youngest site of massive star formation
    • Dynamical time scale of the outflow interaction
  • 3D relative motions among H2O maser sources
    • GMC dynamics: cloud-cloud collision?
  • Past orbit to trace the possible trigger(?)

30 Dor (N157A) H2O masers

~3Jy ⇒ ~75 [email protected] kpc << H2O masers in W49N

pre lunch study preparation planning
Pre-lunch study/ preparation (planning)
  • Team leading
    • grant application (phase I ~2010, phase II ~2013)
    • international team formation (international workshop, VISC2)
    • training Ph.D. students
  • VSOP-2 action items
    • fixing possible observation schedule
    • tracing astrometry activity
    • VSOP-2 astrometric calibration
    • VLBI surveys with LBA (H2O masers, QSOs, deadline on Dec. 09)
    • VLBI astrometry demo with LBA
  • Scientific driving
    • dynamics of the Local Group
    • star formation in metal-poor environment
pre lunch study preparation running
Pre-lunch study/ preparation (running)
  • Team leading
    • planning data analysis procedures (H. Imai)
    • international team formation (H. Imai, Y. Hagiwara)
    • pre-launch surveys: H2O masers (H. Imai, Y. Katayama)
    • pre-launch surveys: extragalactic reference sources

(H. Imai, Y. Katayama, Y. Hagiwara, P.G. Edwards, C. Phillips, A. Brunthaler)

  • VSOP-2 action items
    • observation planning with FAKESAT (N. Mochizuki, Y. Hagiwara)
    • astrometry simulation (Y. Asaki)
    • VLBI data analysis script (H. Imai)
    • VLBI demonstration (A. Brunthaler, C. Phillips)
  • Scientific driving
    • galaxy dynamics for disc galaxies (K. Wada, H. Nakanishi)
    • star formation and star burst in LMC (N. Mizuno)
h 2 o masers in lmc
H2O masers in LMC

Katayama & Imai (2008)

h 2 o masers in smc
H2O masers in SMC

Katayama & Imai (2008)

ch 3 oh masers
CH3OH masers?
  • 4 sources (Green+2009)
    • Brightest: 3.8 J in IRAS 05011-6815
    • >0.3 Jy

N11/MC18

N105/MC23

N160a/MC76

atca k q reference source survey instruments and observations
ATCA K/Q reference source surveyinstruments and observations
  • Project code: C2049
  • 6 telescope @K-band5 telescopes @Q band
  • June 12 for ~8 hours for K–band
  • June 13 for ~6 hours for Q-band, for ~3 hours for K-band
  • CABB (Compact Array Broadband Backend)
    • 2 GHz band width, RCP&LCP, 2 IFs
    • 19 & 23 GHz or 43 & 45 GHz
  • 2 min/scan
  • 15 baselines (10 baselines) × 2ー3 scans for imaging
atca k q reference source survey source selection
ATCA K/Q reference source surveysource selection
  • AT20G (14 targets)
    • > 3° except

PKSJ0515−6721, PMN J0440−6952 (but weak)

    • 15 sources included in current survey
  • Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) @0.84 GHz
  • Parkes-MIT-NRAO Radio Survey (PMN) @4.85 GHz
  • 106 targets at K-band
  • 〜60 targets at Q-band from K-band targets
snap shot detection confirmation
Snap-shot detection confirmation
  • Quick look of phase stability in 10 sec integration integration: 1σ ~ 2 mJy @K-band

63 sources detected in K-band quick look

45 sources detected in K-band quick look

  • QSO? HII region ?
    • 1 pc HII region (Te~8000 K, τ~0.1) ⇒TB~ 55σ (1σ~18 K)
    • Coordinates found by mapping
    • Compact structure confirmed with VLBI (next year)
technical feasibility
Technical feasibility

See Y. Asaki’s simulaiton (Asaki et al. 2007)

  • (u,v) plane coverage
  • antenna fast switching
  • targetーreference separation (<1°)
  • ASTRO-G orbit accuracy

Other issues

  • scheduling for astrometry
  • maser feature structure
  • maser feature lifetime
when should be observed
When should be observed?
  • Peaks of the annual parallax ellipse: 3 seasons/year
  • Tracing maser trajectory: 3 epochs/seasons
  • Longer time baseline: 3 years

Most suitable:

18 epochs/3 years

Sgr B2 H2O

maser astrometry

with VLBA

(Reid+2009)

how is seen
How is seen?

galactic rotation vector

depending on the location

in LMC

(~400μas/yr)

collaboration with lba
Collaboration with LBA
  • eVLBI network completed
    • Remote (internet) operation
    • Software correlation
  • Slow antenna slew (0°.2/s in Parkes)
  • Going to ASKAP (1.4ー1.7GHz)
  • SKA high-band after 2020
team formation international
Team formation (international)
  • Team leader (P.I.) and steering committee ~5 persons
    • grant application/proposal submission
    • planning data analysis procedures
    • international team formation
    • pre-launch study coordinator
  • VSOP-2 cores ~10 persons
    • planning observations based on ASTRO-G flight schedule
    • planning observations based on ground radio telescopes
    • simulating astrometric accuracy
    • controlling data correlation and data calibration
    • VLBI data analysis
  • Scientific drivers ~10 persons
    • galaxy dynamics for LMC
    • dynamics of the Local Group
    • star formation and star burst in LMC/SMC
scientific feasibility of mc astrometry
Scientific feasibility of MC astrometry
  • unique targets for VSOP-2 (θbeam〜100 μas)
    • Most feasible at 10 kpc < D < 50 kpc (Asaki’ talk)

Three major goals

  • galactic rotation and rotation deviation
    • 21 ⇒ ~30ー40 proper motions
  • dynamics of the Milky Way system
  • diagnosing interior of star burst activity
    • “local” gas dynamics (bubble, cloud collision)
    • YSO outflow activity

Trial: annual parallax (π~20μas)

requested hours of observations
Requested hours of observations

~700 hours

  • Annual parallax measurements in LMC

N113 (〜50 Jy) ー J0518-6935 (〜40 mJy) Δθ=0°.51

In-beam astrometry possible with new reference?

HII-1186 (〜3Jy) ― J0440-6952 (〜160 mJy) Δθ=1°.34

04521-6928 (〜3Jy) ― J0440-6952 Δθ=1°.08

In-beam astrometry possible with new reference?

6 hours × 18 epochs × 3 sources =324 hours

  • Proper motion measurements in LMC (maserーQSO)

6 hours × 7 epochs × 6 sources =252 hours

  • Proper motion measurements in SMC (maserーQSO)

S7 (〜5 Jy) ー J0028-7045 (〜80 mJy) Δθ=0°.20

6 hours × 7 epochs × 2 sources =84 hours

  • Star burst region (30 Dor, maserーQSO, in-beam masers)

6 hours × 7 epochs × 1 sources =42 hours

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