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How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans?. Living near water was important because it helped in nourishment, hygiene, trade, travel, agriculture, and provided jobs.
the lives of early humans?
Living near water was important because it helped in nourishment, hygiene, trade, travel, agriculture, and provided jobs.
Climate determined what conditions the early people faced. It also determined where they could live and on what routes they could travel.
Also called cro-magnons, they were similar to us, but had distinct physical differences.
Such as, they had a much bigger skull and used the hair on their bodies to keep them warm.
humans on earth?
The first humans in east-central Africa were here 100,000 to 400,000 years ago.
They were nomads. They traveled from place to place to follow the animals and find ripening fruit. They would use stone, bone, and wood to make their tools out of. The nomads adapted to the weather. They would make jackets from the animal skins and get under cliffs and in caves during the long winters.
By: Ross Franklin
originate and where did they spread to?
The first humans lived in East Africa. They then migrated north and east in to Europe and Asia. They lived in small hunting and food gathering bands numbering about 20-30 people. The men hunted and fished and the women picked fruits and berries. They all contributed to each other.
By: Ross Franklin
By: Ross Franklin
By: Ross Franklin
the study of past cultural behavior, from the beginnings of the human species to events that happened yesterday, through the material remains, or artifacts, that people leave behind
The Ten Commandments were given to Moses, the great leader of the Hebrews, over 3,000 years ago after the Hebrews were delivered from slavery in Egypt. While the Law of Moses is made up of over 600 rules, the Ten Commandments were a brief list of rules from which the others were developed.
2.) Organized Central Governments
3.) Complex religions
4.) Job Specialization
5.) Social Classes
6.) Arts/ Architecture
7.) Public Works
They started out being polytheistic and later on they became monotheistic.
They had a God for everything. Later some societies religions evolved into having just one God.
Monotheism is the belief of one God.
Jewish holy book. Similar to Christian Bible.
Drawings used to represent a word. The earliest writings were made of these.
Egyptian form of picture writing. Used to keep important records in ancient Egypt.
Cuneiform comes form Latin words Cuneus which means “wedge” and Forma which means “shape.” Pictograms, or drawings representing actual things, were the basis for cuneiform writing. Cuneiform was written on clay tablets, and then baked hard in a kiln. Cuneiform was adapted by the Akkadians, Babylonians, Sumerians and Assyrians to write their own languages and was used in Mesopotamia for about 3000 years . Cuneiform was created by the Sumerians.
The Phoenicians created the first alphabet.
Its yearly flooding provided the region with silt, or rich soil, from which it could grow crops. It also provided the Egyptians with a way to trade and travel. The Nile was also a key part of Egyptians religion. It was seen to give and take away life with its great floods.
Condition Genesis- unchangeable truth of life and the universe.
Sunyata is used by Mahayanist to explain the existence of this world and universe.
Three Dharma Seals- three characteristics of existence.
Sparta and its Neighbors
- Stories of gods and goddesses helped to explain the values and way of life of the Greek people.
- Each of their gods was said to preside over a certain field of nature or human affairs.
- For example, their god Zeus presided over the affairs of all gods and humans.
- Aphrodite controlled the love affairs of humans, Ares was the god of war, and Athena was the goddess of wisdom.
- Later, some Greeks thinkers came to believe that the universe was regulated and not controlled by these gods. They believed that the universe has natural laws.
natural world and disasters that happened to poeple?
Early form of government where the civilization is ruled by the small elite, usually from the business class of merchants and artisans.
Athens is known for being the major city of education and democracy in Greece while Sparta was more military based. The boys were taken at a young age to start training. The citizens feared revolts from their state owned slaves called helots. Spartan women held more rights than Athens women, Spartan women had the right to own land and had to be physically fit. Athens was known for its excellent navy and trade was a major part of their economy while Sparta was known for its excellent military or on land combat.
What were the three stages of government before democracy spread in Athens?
What was the importance of the Persian Wars to the development of Greek culture?
Victory in the Persian Wars brought Athens to be one of the most powerful city-states. They eventually formed the Delian League. Which brought all of the Greek city-states to an alliance in defense. Athens dominated the league and other Greek city-states did not like Athens having all of the power. When the other city-states protested, Athens came back with force. Eventually Sparta and Persia took over Athens and the other city-states and that lead to the downfall of Greece. So Greek culture developed through the Persian Wars by coming together and joining as one to form the Delian League and later down falling.
At Marathon, Darius I sent an astounding force from Aegean to punish Athens. The Persians landed at Marathon in 490 B.C. Even though the Persians out numbered the Athenians greatly, Athens ended up crushing Persia in hand to hand combat. Also after the battle of Marathon a man ran from the battle scene the equivalence of a Marathon to Athens. Once he got there to share the news he collapsed.
Creator of Greek theatre/drama
Wrote many playwrights
He fought in the at Athens in the “Marathon” to defeat Persia.
His earliest work was “The Persians”
He added two characters, whereas, before there had only been one, and he could show intrigue and conflict.
He was born of a noble family
He wrote tragedies.
Courtesy of Meredith <3
Courtesy of Meredith <3
Courtesy of Meredith <3
The Greek Gods and Goddess
“God of Light and Sky”
“Queen of Olympia”
“God of agriculture and of light and truth”
122. Diana - Roman goddess of hunting and childbirth.
123. Minerva - Roman goddess of wisdom, learning, war, and crafts.
124. Venus - Roman goddess of love and beauty.
125. Patricians - members of the land-holding upper class of Rome.
The farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders who made up the bulk of the population.
Conquered people became slaves and slave labor increased
Farmers went into debt and were forced to sell their land because their productivity rate was not as great as that of the slaves’ on the latifundia
Conquests gave Rome control over trade routes that brought many new riches to the city
New class of wealthy Romans emerged
Romans built mansions and enjoyed new luxuries
How did military conquests alter economic and social life
Jesus disciples and some of his followers spread from Jerusalem teaching people about Jesus, his teachings, and his crucifixion and resurrection.
150. What was the impact Christianity had on the late Roman Empire?
Emperor Constantine declared Christianity as the major religion of the Roman Empire. When the empire split into the Byzantine and the Holy Roman Empire life was centered around the church. The main political power and social center was the church. It then spread to Asia and Eastern Europe to the Islamic countries.
A domed temple in Rome that had altars for many of the gods they worshipped.
A large round building which consisted of three levels of arches in the Roman Forum where gladiators fought each other and executions were held as entertainment for the people of Rome.
www.crystalinks.com/romeaqueducts.html & http://www.keyway.ca/htm2003/.htm
Western Roman Empire
How did the location of Constantinople lead to its development as a major city?
Constantinople became a major city by its close location to the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. It was a major city that held trade routes to Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa. Because of its excellent harbors and close location, Constantinople was a bustling marketplace for centuries. The harbors also make it rich in many natural resources that can be traded. Because it was a peninsula, and was surrounded by water on three sides, it was easily reached by traders of wheat from Egypt, silk from China, gems from India, spices from Southeast Asia, and furs from the Northern Viking lands. Justinian also set up a project to beautify Constantinople, including Constantinople’s crown jewel, the Hagia Sophia. Justinian also set up a commission to collect and revise the laws of ancient Rome. He called this the Corpus Juris Civilis.
Justinian, who ruled from 527 to 565, wrote the first set of laws codified on a tablet for citizens to see. He also brought the Byzantine Empire to its largest size. He was determined to retake lands stolen from the Byzantine Empire in Rome. Led by Bellisarius, his army reconquered Africa, Italy, and Southern Spain. The fighting weakened his treasury and defense in the Empire, and his successors later lost these lands.
Justinian’s Code of Law
Justinian’s code of laws was the first set of laws codified (written down) on large stone tablets for all villagers to see. The tablet was erected in the center of town in order to give all villagers a good understanding of the law. The laws were written down after remarks by villagers who were uncertain if they were breaking the law, and had no way of finding out. By codifying the laws on tablets, he further improved the rights and duties of villagers, and set the path for future governments’ laws to be more widely known by the people.
Justinian expanded the influence of the Byzantine Empire in many ways. He expanded the Byzantine Empire to its largest size, blending its culture with culture far and wide. Although these lands were eventually lost to invaders, the Byzantine influence stayed for centuries. His code of laws and public display of laws influenced laws in Europe and other parts of the world and was the first to publicly display laws, a concept that would continue throughout history.
Why did the Byzantine Empire have such a large effect on the growth of Russia and Eastern Europe?
The Byzantine Empire had a large effect on the growth of Russia and Eastern Europe because many Russian nobles converted to Byzantine Christianity and declared themselves heirs to the many cultural and political aspects of the Empire. They also their adopted the art, music, and architecture.
Byzantine missionaries converted many people in both Russia and Eastern Europe into Byzantine Christianity.
Why did Moscow develop as the center of Russian power?
Moscow developed as the center of Russian power because it was located near key river trade routes. Soon Moscow also became the capitol for Russia’s Orthodox Church.
Why did no dominant culture develop in Eastern Europe?
Due to Eastern Europe’s easily migrated geography it became a cultural crossroads. Traders passed through and people came to seek new homes in the region. This diversity kept Eastern Europe from having one specific dominant culture.
1: Declaring your faith
2: Daily prayer (5 times a day)
3: Giving charity to the poor
4: Fasting during the holy month of the Ramadan
5: Pilgrimage to Mecca
The Muslims had no problem with the Christians up until the crusades, people of Islam accepted Christians more so than other religions because they were “people of the book.” they both also believed in the same god. After the crusades that opinion changed when the Christians sacked many Muslim towns and cities, which could easily change your opinion of anyone. The crusades went on for approximately another 400 years
What were some cultural contributions of the Muslim civilization?
*Economy; set up a vast network form Northern Africa through the Middle East into Asia: established the first ‘check’ system.
*Art and Architecture; Dome of the Rock; Calligraphy; no portraits of Allah in their artwork/ it was against religious law.
*Literature; Book of Kings; Thousand and One Nights
*Language; Arabic language spread with trade and conquest of new areas
*Education; Arab universities draw the best medieval European scholars; advances in medicine , math, science, and astronomy; Arabic Numerals
The church grew in importance in the Middle Ages because developed its own body of laws. Cannon law applied to religious teachings, the clergy, marriages, and morals. Punishment consisted of either excommunication or interdict. The most severe and most terrifying was excommunication, they could not receive the sacraments or a Christian burial. A powerful Noble who opposed the church could face the interdict, an order excluding an entire town, region, or kingdom from receiving most sacraments and Christian burial.
Monasteries helped preserve the ancient traditions of Greeks and Romans by having complete service to the church; focusing on education and learning; and they had to obey church rules, obedience, chastity, and poverty.
The significance of Charlemagne being crowned the Emperor of the Romans was that a Christian pope had crowned a German king successor to the Roman emperors. Charlemagne laid down the ground for desperate power struggles between future Roman Catholic popes and German emperors. Also, the crowning of Charlemagne helped widen the split between the eastern and western Christian worlds.
in the face of invasions by Vikings, Muslims, and Magyars, kings and emperors were too weak to maintain law and order. People needed protection for themselves, their homes, their land. In respond to this basic need for protection, a new system evolved, known as Feudalism.
Feudalism was a loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords. The relationship between Lord and vassals was established by a feudal contract. A lord granted the vassal a fief (an estate). Some ranged from a few acres to hundreds of square miles. IN that fief included peasants which worked the land, and any buildings or towns on that land. The lord promised to protect the vassal and the vassal pledged loyalty to his lord, 40 days of military service, certain money payments, and advice..
The feudal society was as follows: Monarch- Powerful Lords (dukes and counts) – Vassals- Serfs (Peasants)
The manor, or lord’s estate, was the heart of the economy. Most manors had a few villages and surrounding lands. The peasants lived and worked on the manor. Most peasants were bound to the land, they couldn’t be bought or sold, still they weren’t free. They couldn’t leave without the lord’s permission and if the manor was granted a new lord they stayed with the manor.
The peasants jobs were the work several days a week farming the lands, repaired roads, bridges, and fences.
They had to pay a fee when they got married, when they inherited their father’s acres, or when they used the local mill to grind grain.
It’s difficult because there isn’t much education and status are usually very concrete and hard to change to and fro from. Most people were poor and couldn’t buy a higher social status.
2. How did Charlemagne help revive the idea of the old Roman Empire?
The Holy Roman Empire was founded by Charlemagne with the support of Pope Leo III.
3. Where did Angles, Saxons, Vikings, and Magyars have their areas of influence?
Germany and Eastern Europe and Scandanavia
4. What were the major trade routes of the world during medieval times?
The Silk Road was a major trade route. As well as Constantinople being a major trading city.
By: Deena Beck
Religion and Geography
203. How did Shinto and Buddhism affect the development of Japan’s culture?
Shinto and Buddhism affected the development of Japan’s culture with the way that is stressed the importance of natural forces. Also, Buddhism and Shinto affected the development of Japan’s culture because Shrines dotted the Japanese countryside.
Had mansas, or kings, who expanded their influence over both the gold-mining regions to the South and the salt supplies of Taghaza.
Greatest emporer was Mansa Musa who converted to Islam and based his systems of justice on the Quran.
Had valuable trade routes and traded with people for food/salt.
Converted to Islam.
Broke away from Mali.
Sonni Ali made it the largest kingdom of Africa.
Set up a bureacracy with departments for faming, the army, and the treasury.
Had a vast trade network.
Converted to Islam to gain military support.
In the sub-saharan civilizations, there were polytheistic religions.
However, many of these African civilizations converted to Islam, partly for the military support and allies.
the Sub-Saharan Civilizations
Life in the Sub-Saharan Civilizations was heavily based on trade.
They traded gold for salt and other foods that they needed.
Occupied Yucatan Peninsula
Many different civilizations in one area with a similar culture
Main city was Chichen Itza
Had one ruler that had control over the city-states
Each city-state had its own ruler
Arts included sculptures, carvings and paintings
-Occupied current day Peru in the Andes Mountains
-The one emperor had complete control over all the people
Their main industry was farming crops like maize on step terraces
Had an extensive system of roads that linked all of their villages together
Main city was Machu Picchu
-Occupied current day Mexico Valley
-The emperor was chosen by priests/nobles
-The most militaristic of the early American Civilizations
-Created the sun stone (calendar)
-They used Chinampas, which were floating pieces of land that grew crops using the water that surrounded them, to farm
-Their main city was Tenochtitlan
-They built pyramids to honor their gods
-Major city of the Mayan Empire
-Located on the Yucatan Peninsula
-Many temples were built there such as El Castillo, The Temple of The Warriors, The Observatory, The Nunnery, The Ball Court, and Cenote
-Used step terraces to farm on the mountains
-Major city of the Aztec Empire
-They were conquered by the Spaniard army of Cortez
-Located on an island in a salt lake in the Mexico Valley
-Used Chinampas to farm on their lake
-Had pyramids like The Temple of The Moon and The Temple of The Sun
-Major city of the Incan Empire
-Located in the Andes Mountains of Peru
-Grew crops like maize using step terraces
William of Normandy
He wins the english throne in 1066 and blends Anglo Saxon and Norman traditions.
He was the first powerful leader of Britian.
The Magna Carta
The Magna Carta was signed by King Johnin 1215 and contained three main principles:
It extended the rights of the common englishmen.
King John was not above the law.
Monarchs’ power was limited.
This was a system of law based on court rulings and traditions .
It was the basis for English law.
This civilization is the most militaristic of the three
They were polytheistic and made economy from farming.
The Mayans’ major city is Machu Picchu.
They made an extensive system of roads which connected all of their villages.
All of these civilizations made achievements with advances in math,medicine and calendars
-Hugh Capet was a French king (ruled from 987 to 996) who controlled estates around Paris and Orlean.
-Founder of the Capetian Dynasty
-Declared that the French thrown was by election and not heredity
-He was devoted to the Church
-Edward 1 established English Parliament
-First arose during the 13th century.
-included a House of Commons, a House of Lords, a Cabinet System.
-also, put in groups of nobles, churchmen, and “commons” (simple knights and townsmen)
-The Hundred Years War split apart France and England. The war gave France independence and a sense of nationality.
-During The Hundred Years War, England looked to Parliament for help. Also, they looked at trade as a new way of traveling and adventure.
-Also, France started to grow and develop, bringing new inventions such as the cannon and longbow.
During the 11th-13th centuries, the causes for the development of democratic principles were…
-the fall of the Roman Empire
-the Church of England had great power in the form of taxes and -the rise of the economy
-the stability of the feudal system provided a sense of physical protection
land, also controlling most of the people’s power.
By: Christine Ficor :)
*He taxed the church
*Phillip engineered the move of the church from Rome to Southern France
**In 1469, Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon.
**The two powerful monarchs combined their forces and Granada fell (1492).
**Isabella ended religious toleration and set up a court to try people accused of heresy.
How did the first Spanish monarchs help convert Spain from a mostly Muslim area to a Christian nation?
*During the next 200yrs., Christian forces pushed slowly southward.
*In 1085, christian warriors recaptured the city of Toledo.
*Muslim influences helped shape the arts and literature of Christian Spain.
*By 1300, Christians controlled the entire Iberian Peninsula except for Granada.
The Crusade left a trail of biter religious hatred
Both Christians and Muslims committed a poling atrocities to both religions
it caused cultural diffusion and spread religions and cultures
239. How did church scholars begin to interpret and value ancient learning?
Scholars began translating ancient works, and they set off a revolution in the world of learning. Christian scholars, also known as scholastics, tried to resolve the challenge of conflict between faith and reason. Their method used reason to support Christian beliefs. This method is known as scholasticism.
240. What were some new business practices of the late medieval time period that helped to increase trade/ money economy?
To meet the needs of the changing economy, Europeans developed new ways of doing business.
Partnership- merchants put their money in together to finance a large-scale business that would have been too costly for any individual trader .Insurance- Merchants developed insurance to help reduce business risks. For a small amount of money, an underwriter would insure the merchant’s shipment. If the shipment was lost or destroyed, the underwriter paid the merchant most of its value. If the goods arrived safely, the only thing the merchant would be losing is the insurance payment.
Bill of exchange- A merchant would use this if he was traveling to a different city where different money was used. This made it so the merchant wouldn’t have to travel with gold coins, which could be easily stolen. He would deposit his money with a banker, who would then issue him a bill of exchange, which the merchant exchanged for cash in a distant city.
241. Barter: to exchange a set of goods or services for another. This was used in barter economy the early civilizations, before money economy came to power.
242. How did the northern Italian cities of Florence, Venice, and Genoa develop their economic and political importance?
The Renaissance began Italy because it was the center of the Roman empire, and it was a logical place for a rebirth of the arts. It contained architectural remains, statues, coins, and inscriptions, which were all visible reminders of Romanesque art.
In the city states, such as Florence, Venice, and Genoa, there was a wealthy and powerful merchant class that further promoted the cultural rebirth. These merchants exerted both political and economic leadership, and their attitudes and interests helped to shape the Italian Renaissance. Therefore, the Italian city-states grew into prosperous centers of manufacturing and trade.
Q. What was The Prince?
A. Machiavelli wrote a book with his views on how rulers should act. The Prince, published in 1513, was this book. This book had ideas that were strange to many people, but made much since in politics.
Q. How did art and literature differ in the renaissance than in the middle ages?
A. In the middle ages, art and literature revolved around the church. In fact, most things did. When the Renaissance came, it brought upon some incredible art and literature that had nothing to do with the church. Some of it though was in the style the Greeks and Romans favored.
The renaissance brought upon some great artists and thinkers, bringing us out of the time of little education. Such writers as castiglione and Machiavelli wrote things concerning politics, while those of Shakespeare and Cervantes were taking the plays of human emotion, such as comedies and tragedies.
On the other hand, the artists most well known in Italy, the three musketeers of art, being Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael were working well with such pieces as the Mona Lisa <L>, the Sistine chapel <M>, and the school of Athens <R>. Then there were the artists of the north, such as Duer, with his engraved art, the van Ecyk’s and their invention of the oil paints, and of course Pieter Bruegel.
"Man is the measure of all things," said the Greek philosopher Protagoras in the 5th century BC. This statement serves to clarify the two primary definitions of humanism. First of all, humanism was a movement that arose during the 14th century in Italy. The time in which humanism flourished was called the Renaissance, which means "rebirth“. Humanism derives from the Latin word humanitas. The word obviously means "humanity," but in relation to humanism it signifies more. Humanism arose in the cities of northern Italy--in Florence, Venice, Pisa, Milan, Rome, and others--just as they were becoming potent economic forces. Neither religion nor God was rejected by the humanists. Their goal was to remove religion as a prime domination in their lives and to establish it as an institutions in society.
Sir Thomas More