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How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans?. Living near water was important because it helped in nourishment, hygiene, trade, travel, agriculture, and provided jobs.

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How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

How did physical geography impact

the lives of early humans?

Living near water was important because it helped in nourishment, hygiene, trade, travel, agriculture, and provided jobs.

Climate determined what conditions the early people faced. It also determined where they could live and on what routes they could travel.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

HomoSapiens

Also called cro-magnons, they were similar to us, but had distinct physical differences.

Such as, they had a much bigger skull and used the hair on their bodies to keep them warm.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

How long ago were the first

humans on earth?

The first humans in east-central Africa were here 100,000 to 400,000 years ago.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

How did early humans survive?

They were nomads. They traveled from place to place to follow the animals and find ripening fruit. They would use stone, bone, and wood to make their tools out of. The nomads adapted to the weather. They would make jackets from the animal skins and get under cliffs and in caves during the long winters.

By: Ross Franklin


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Where did the first humans

originate and where did they spread to?

The first humans lived in East Africa. They then migrated north and east in to Europe and Asia. They lived in small hunting and food gathering bands numbering about 20-30 people. The men hunted and fished and the women picked fruits and berries. They all contributed to each other.

By: Ross Franklin


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Paleolithic Age

  • Old Stone Age

  • They were Nomads ( People who follow their food )

  • Used stone, wood, and bones for tools

  • For clothes they wrapped in animal skins

  • They took refuge in caves or under rocky overhangs during the long winter

  • Learned how to build fires for warmth and to cook

By: Ross Franklin


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Mesolithic Age

  • Middle Stone Age

  • First wooden boat

By: Ross Franklin


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Neolithic Age

  • They learned to farm and by producing their own food, they could remain in one place.

  • Farmers settled into permanent villages and developed a new range of skills and tools.

  • People learned to domesticate animals.

  • They herded the animals to good grasslands or penned them in rough enclosures.

  • Animals provided people with a source of protein.

  • They created the first calendars.

  • They learned to weave cloth from animal hair or vegetable fibers.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Nomads

  • Paleolithic people– they traveled from place to place.

  • People depended wholly on their environment for survival.

  • They found ways to adapt there surroundings.

  • They made simple tools and weapons out of the materials at hand-stone, bone, or wood.

  • To endure the cold, they invented clothing.

  • They took refuge in caves or under rocky overhangs during the long winters.

  • They also learned to build fires for warmth and cooking.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Clans

  • Shang kings were likely the heads of important clans.

  • Group of families who claimed a common ancestor.

  • Clans controlled most of land.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Cave art

  • Portray animals such as deer, horses, and buffaloes.

  • Some cave paintings show stick-figure people.

  • Paintings often lie deep in the caves, far from a band’s living quarters.

  • A early religious beliefs.

  • Hundred of painted animals that appeared to prance over the calcite-covered walls and ceilings.

  • Cave paintings have been part of animist religious rituals.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

How and when did agriculture develop?

  • Agriculture developed as a way to have food in the winter months when animals hibernated and were scarce.

  • The first crops grown were most likely grains and seeds found from different plants and trees.

  • First traces of agriculture show up as early as the middle stone age

  • Agriculture spread through diffusion rather than invention, as neighboring bands would cage or steal seeds and plants to try and start farming that appeared easier than hunting and moving around a lot.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

How did agriculture and the domestication of animals affect humans?

  • Nomads no longer had to move around to get food

  • Once agriculture was developed the domesticated animals helped to pull plows and wagons to trade with neighboring tribes

  • Development of civilizations and cities

  • Religious ceremonies (more intense), temples, and shrines.

  • Development of laws and government over time.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Advantages of New Stone Age

  • New civilizations

  • Iron and bronze weapons

  • Advances in Agriculture (plows, domestications of animals.)

  • Government development over time (laws, leaders)

  • Temples and advanced religious ceremonies.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Archeology

the study of past cultural behavior, from the beginnings of the human species to events that happened yesterday, through the material remains, or artifacts, that people leave behind


What is history

What is history?

  • History is the knowledge of the past gained through the study of written records.


What is anthropology

What is anthropology?

  • Anthropology is the study of the origins and

  • development of people and their societies


Stonehenge

Stonehenge

  • A group of standing stones on Salisbury Plain in southern England. Dating to c. 2000-1800 B.C., the megaliths are enclosed by a circular ditch and embankment that may date to c. 2800. The arrangement of the stones suggests that Stonehenge was used as a religious center and as an astronomical observatory.


19 what were the first four major river valley civilizations

19.What were the first four major river valley civilizations?

  • Indus River- Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa

  • Huang He and Yangzi- China

  • Tigris and Euphrates- Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent

  • Nile- Egypt


20 why did the first permanent civilizations develop around major rivers

20.Why did the first permanent civilizations develop around major rivers?

  • Good irrigation systems, easier trade, water on demand, farming, and stable food source.


21 when did these early civilizations exist

21.When did these early civilizations exist?

  • 3200 B.C.- 256 B.C.


The hebrews the phoenicians the kush

The Hebrews, The Phoenicians, The Kush

  • The Hebrews settled in Israel

  • The Phoenicians occupied the string of cities along the Eastern Mediterranean coast, in the area which today is Lebanon and Syria

  • The Kush settled on the south of Africa


What was their government like

What was their government like?

  • They had very strict law and rules

  • Trade was a very resourceful, they relied on it a lot

  • They were all near water resources


Code of hammurabi

Code of Hammurabi

  • This, the earliest known written legal code, was composed about 1780 B.C. by Hammurabi, the ruler of Babylon. This text was excavated in 1901; it was carved on an eight foot high stone monolith. The harsh system of punishment expressed in this text prefigures the concept of 'an eye for an eye'. The Code lays out the basis of both criminal and civil law, and defines procedures for commerce and trade. This text was redacted for 1,500 years, and is considered the predecessor of Jewish and Islamic legal systems alike


The 10 commandments

The 10 Commandments

The Ten Commandments were given to Moses, the great leader of the Hebrews, over 3,000 years ago after the Hebrews were delivered from slavery in Egypt. While the Law of Moses is made up of over 600 rules, the Ten Commandments were a brief list of rules from which the others were developed.


26 what are the eight features of these early civilizations

26.) What are the eight features of these early civilizations?

1.) Cities

2.) Organized Central Governments

3.) Complex religions

4.) Job Specialization

5.) Social Classes

6.) Arts/ Architecture

7.) Public Works

8.) Writing


27 what early religious traditions developed in ancient civilizations

27.) What early religious traditions developed in ancient civilizations?

They started out being polytheistic and later on they became monotheistic.

They had a God for everything. Later some societies religions evolved into having just one God.


28 what is monotheism

28.) What is monotheism?

Monotheism is the belief of one God.


Polytheism

Polytheism

  • The belief in multiple gods is probably the result of an earlier belief in vaguely defined spirits, demons and other supernatural forces. These belief systems are similar to animism, ancestor worship and totemism. However, in polytheism, these supernatural forces are personified and organized into a cosmic family. This "family" becomes the nucleus of a particular culture's belief system. The family of gods was used to explain natural phenomena and to establish a culture's role in the universe. Typically, the number of gods would expand as the culture's belief system developed, eventually resulting in a hierarchical system of deities. Over time, the lesser gods would diminish in stature or vanish altogether.


What are the beliefs of judaism

What are the beliefs of Judaism?

  • Judaism is a monotheistic religion. The Jewish People believe there is one God who created and rules the world. This God is omnipotent (all powerful), omniscient (all knowing) and omnipresent (in all places at all times). God is also just and merciful. Judaism believes the Land of Israel was part of the covenant made between God and the Jewish People at Mount Sinai. Since the time of Abraham, there has been a continual Jewish presence in the Land of Israel.


Abraham

Abraham

  • Abraham was the first of the Hebrew patriarchs of the Old Testament. To test Abraham's faith, God commanded him to make a burnt offering of his son, Isaac. Torn between great love for his son and his desire to obey God's command, Abraham decided that his duty to God ultimately took precedence. He bound Isaac, laid him on the altar and drew his knife. At that moment an angel appeared and grasped Abraham's hand saying, "Now I know that you are a god-fearing man. You have not withheld from me your son." Greatly relieved, Abraham saw a ram caught in a thicket which he sacrificed instead.


Moses

Moses

  • Hebrew prophet

  • Founder of Israel

  • Moses killed an Egyptian who murdered a Hebrew

  • Moses renewed the covenant; binding agreement

  • Moses led the Israelites in their escape from Egypt


Jerusalem

Jerusalem

  • Arabic capital & largest city of Israel

  • A holy city for three of the world’s major religions: Judaism, Christianity, & Islam


Exile diaspora

Exile/ Diaspora

  • The scattering of people

  • Jewish communities outside Israel

  • Jews outside Israel considered themselves in exile.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Torah

Jewish holy book. Similar to Christian Bible.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

How did Judaism influence Western civilization?

  • It influenced Christianity and Islam, two other major world religions

  • Jews spread across the world and taught their faith

  • Similarities between Christianity and Judaism

    • Monotheistic-belief in one God

    • Belief in the SAME God

    • Same history/same prophets/Ten Commandments


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Pictograms

Drawings used to represent a word. The earliest writings were made of these.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Hieroglyphics

Egyptian form of picture writing. Used to keep important records in ancient Egypt.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Cuneiform

Cuneiform comes form Latin words Cuneus which means “wedge” and Forma which means “shape.” Pictograms, or drawings representing actual things, were the basis for cuneiform writing. Cuneiform was written on clay tablets, and then baked hard in a kiln. Cuneiform was adapted by the Akkadians, Babylonians, Sumerians and Assyrians to write their own languages and was used in Mesopotamia for about 3000 years . Cuneiform was created by the Sumerians.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Who created the first alphabet?

The Phoenicians created the first alphabet.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

What is the importance of the Nile River?

Its yearly flooding provided the region with silt, or rich soil, from which it could grow crops. It also provided the Egyptians with a way to trade and travel. The Nile was also a key part of Egyptians religion. It was seen to give and take away life with its great floods.


What cultural contributions did the egyptians make

What cultural contributions did the Egyptians make?

  • The Egyptians were polytheistic, They believed in an after life so they would mummify the dead and buried their dead with things they would need in the after life. They built pyramids for the pharaohs, so they would have everything they needed in the afterlife. The Egyptians had a system of writing called hieroglyphics. They made a form of paper called papyrus. They used medicine that we still use to day, they made a calendar. They also had statues, paintings, poems.


How did persia govern its empire

How did Persia govern its empire?

  • They had a ruler who would make laws collect taxes. They split their empire into several different regions, each of which had its own governor.


Cyrus the great

Cyrus the Great

  • Conquered the largest empire, Persia was stretched from Asia minor to India, Turkey Iran, Egypt, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.


Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism

  • A new religion that said there is one wise god named ahora Mazda he ruled the world. He was at constant battle with Ahriman the prince of lies and evil. Zoroaster taught that all individuals would be judged for their actions. Those who done good would enter paradise those who done bad would be condemned to eternal suffering.


What was the most important contribution of the babylonians

What was the most important contribution of the Babylonians?

  • The Hanging Gardens which is known as one of the wonders of the ancient world. The gardens were probably made by planting trees and flowering plants on the steps of a huge ziggurat. According to legend, Nebuchadnezzar had the gardens built to please his wife, who was homesick for the hills where she had grown up.


What physical geographic factors influenced the development of indian civilization

What physical geographic factors influenced the development of Indian civilization?

  • First of all, the Indian subcontinent is divided into three major zones: the well-watered northern plain, the dry triangular Deccan, and the coastal plains on either side of the Deccan. Plus, this fertile region is watered by mighty rivers like the Indus, which gives India’s its name, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra. These rivers and their tributaries carry melting snow from the mountains to the plains, making agriculture possible.


What impact did the aryans have on india

What impact did the Aryans have on India?

  • Due to the acculturation, the people shared a common culture rooted in both Aryan and Dravidian traditions. By this time, the Indian people had developed a written language called Sanskrit. Priests now began writing down the sacred texts. The Aryans, despite the new written language, they preserved a strong oral traditions. They continued to memorize and recite ancient hymns, as well as long epic poems.


Describe the caste system

Describe the Caste System

  • The caste system or social group is into which people are born and which they cannot change. Indians use the word jati to describe their social system. The Portuguese, who reached India in the late 1400’s used the word caste, which other Europeans adopted.


How was the caste system central to the indian culture

How was the caste system central to the Indian culture?

  • The caste system was central to the Indian culture because it provided stability and order to their lives.

  • Also, every caste member had their own place in society and believed that the law of karma determined their caste.

  • People in the caste system depended on and helped one another, if they were in the same level of society.

  • People with diverse customs lived side by side in harmony.


What were the contributions of the gupta empire

What were the contributions of the Gupta Empire?

  • The Gupta rule was a period of great cultural achievements.

  • The system of Arabic numerals was developed and put into practice.

  • Exports of cotton cloth, pottery, and metalware were abundant.

  • Doctors and surgeons performed simple surgeries, set broken bones, began using herbs and other remedies to treat illnesses, and administered vaccinations for smallpox.


What were the characteristics of the hindu religion

What were the characteristics of the Hindu religion?

  • Hindus believed in more than one God.

  • The ultimate goal of existence for Hindus was to achieve moksha (a union with Brahman, a spiritual force).

  • Hindus believed in reincarnation.

  • Hindus believed that everything in existence had a rank or a status in life.

  • A primary moral principle of Hinduism was ahimsa, or nonviolence. They believed that all people and things should be respected.


Reincarnation

Reincarnation

  • The Egyptians thought the soul transmigrated from body to body and this was a reason why they embalmed the body in order to preserve it so that it could journey along with ka, an animating force that was believed to be counterpart of the body, which would accompany it in the next world or life. Ka might be considered equivalent to the term of soul.


Reincarnation continued

Reincarnation… continued

  • The belief is thought to have been an necessity among primitive peoples. Certainly long before ancient Egypt peoples believed in transmigration of the soul. If they were not sophisticated enough to understand the concept of a soul, then they may have simply called it life. An individual or object which moved had life, and the one which did not, did not have life. This is analogous to the belief of animism.


Reincarnation continued 2

Reincarnation….continued #2

  • Gradually the concept of a soul developed with a further realization that the soul departed the body at death and entered the body at birth. Soon it was thought the soul leaving a dead body would seek another body to enter, or enter an animal of a lower life form. It was also thought the soul left the body during sleep. This soul was pictured as vapors that entered and left through the nostrils and mouth.


Karma

Karma

  • In Buddhist teaching, the law of karma, says only this for every event that occurs, there will follow another event whose existence was caused by the first, and this second event will be pleasant or unpleasant according as its cause was skillful or unskillful.' A skillful event is one that is not accompanied by craving, resistance or delusions; an unskillful event is one that is accompanied by any one of those things. (Events are not skillful in themselves, but are so called only in virtue of the mental events that occur with them.)


Karma1

Karma

  • Therefore, the law of Karma teaches that responsibility for unskillful actions is born by the person who commits them.

  • Let's take an example of a sequence of events. An unpleasant sensation occurs. A thought arises that the source of the unpleasantness was a person. (This thought is a delusion; any decisions based upon it will therefore be unskillful.) A thought arises that some past sensations of unpleasantness issued from this same person. (This thought is a further delusion.) This is followed by a willful decision to speak words that will produce an unpleasant sensation in that which is perceived as a person.


Karma2

Karma

  • Have you ever heard someone say it's there karma, or they have bad computer karma? They are referring to the sum of there actions in the past working out in the present. Karma can be accumulated and takes time to bear fruit. When you plant a seed it usually takes some time for it to grow into a fruit-bearing tree. Another aspect is that the tree bears many fruit. So there is a delay in time and a multiplication in result.Karma also works on multiple levels. Your emotions and thoughts also cause effects on a emotional and mental level. When looking at a situation karmaically this should also be taken into account.


Vedas and upanishads

Vedas and Upanishads

  • The word Veda means knowledge, and the Vedas are considered the most sacred scripture of Hinduism referred to as sruti, meaning what was heard by or revealed to the rishis or seers. The most holy hymns and mantras put together into four collections called the Rig, Sama, Yajur, and Atharva Vedas are difficult to date, because they were passed on orally for about a thousand years before they were written down. More recent categories of Vedas include the Brahmanas or manuals for ritual and prayer, the Aranyakas or forest texts for religious hermits, and the Upanishads or mystical discourses.


Vedas and upanishads1

Vedas and Upanishads

  • The hymns of the Rig Veda are considered the oldest and most important of the Vedas, having been composed between 1500 BC and the time of the great Bharata war about 900 BC. More than a thousand hymns are organized into ten mandalas or circles of which the second through the seventh are the oldest and the tenth is the most recent. The Hindu tradition is that even the Vedas were gradually reduced from much more extensive and ancient divine revelations but were perverted in the recent dark age of Kaliyuga. As the only writings from this ancient period of India, they are considered the best source of knowledge we have; but the ethical doctrines seem to have improved from the ancient hymns to the mystical Upanishads.


Vedas and upanishads2

Vedas and Upanishads

  • The SamaVeda contains the melodies or music for the chants used from the RigVeda for the sacrifices; almost all of its written verses are traceable to the RigVeda, mostly the eighth and ninth books and most to Indra, Agni, or Soma. These are considered the origin of Indian music and probably stimulated great artistry to make the sacrifices worthwhile to their patrons who supported the priests. The SamaVeda helped to train the musicians and functioned as a hymnal for the religious rites.


Vedas and upanishads3

Vedas and Upanishads

  • Though also following many of the hymns of the RigVeda, the YajurVeda deviates more from the original text in its collection of the ritual formulas for the priests to use in the sacrifices, which is what yaja means. It explains how to construct the altars for new and full-moon sacrifices and other ceremonies. The Yajur Veda has two collections or samhitas called White and Black, the latter being more obscure in its meanings.


Vedas and upanishads4

Vedas and Upanishads

  • The latest and fourth Veda is in a different category. For a long time many referred to only three Vedas, by which complete ceremonies could be conducted with the Righotr reciting, the Samaudgatri singing, and the Yajuradhvaryu performing the ritual. Even later the Atharvan Brahmin's part was often performed unaccompanied by the other three priests. Also much of it draws from the customs and beliefs of pre-Aryan or pre-Vedic India. The AtharvaVeda is much longer than the Sama and Yajur and only about a sixth of it is from the RigVeda.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

How did Hinduism influence Indian Society?

  • Hinduism has had a long and continuous evolution and in the process has influenced all other major world religions.

  • Indian or Hindu civilization has been molded and shaped in the course of its history more by religious than by political, or economic, influences.

  • The fundamental principles of social, political, and economic life were welded into a comprehensive theory which is called Religion in Hindu thought.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

What are the Characteristics of Buddhism?

  • The first characteristic of Buddhism is Karma.

  • Karma- action or deed, any moral or immoral violation.

  • This is the most important doctrine and the most difficult. It is also the one to be easily misunderstood.

  • The second characteristic of Buddhism is conditioned Genesis.

    Condition Genesis- unchangeable truth of life and the universe.

  • Conditioned Genesis is based on the Law of Cause and Effect.

  • The third Characteristic of Buddhism is Sunyata.

    Sunyata- emptiness.

    Sunyata is used by Mahayanist to explain the existence of this world and universe.

  • The fourth Characteristic of Buddhism is the Three Dharma Seals.

    Three Dharma Seals- three characteristics of existence.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Siddhartha Guatemala

  • Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Guatemala.

  • He lived in Northern India from 560 B.C to 480 B.C.

  • After his death a cult formed and they focused on stupas and holy sites.

  • After he died 500 monks were held at the Rajagrha and all the Buddha sermons and the rules of the decibel we remembered and recited.

  • In century 2 A.D. they made a school called the Madhyamikc School.


Four noble truths

Four Noble Truths

  • The Four Noble Truths:

  • The Truth of Suffering (Dukkha)

  • The Truth of the Cause of Suffering (Samudaya)

  • The Truth of the End of Suffering (Nirodha)

  • The Truth of the Path Leading to the End of Suffering (Marga)


Eightfold path to enlightenment

Eightfold Path to Enlightenment

  • Though the Eightfold Path is the supreme method of achieving enlightenment and to becoming a better person, it is very difficult for a normal person to be able to practice without this necessary aspect of Buddhism.

  • It is organized into three categories: wisdom, virtue, and concentration


What was asoka s role in spreading buddhism

What was Asoka’s role in spreading Buddhism?

  • Asoka was the grandson of Chandragupta who was the founder of the Mauryan dynasty

  • Asoka adopted the peaceful aspects of Buddhism and declared that there forth his conquests should be conquests of religion.

  • From then on Asoka spread the word of the Buddhist religion throughout the empire and into China.


Why was the great wall of china built

Why was the Great Wall of China built?

  • During the Shang and Zhou dynasties, separate walls were built between Chinese regions which were fighting with each other.

  • The walls were also built to protect China from outside invaders.

  • Emperor Shi Huangdi of the Qin dynasty thought of the idea of the Great Wall and ordered his workers to connect the old walls with new ones to protect them from invasions (mainly the Mongols)


Silk roads

Silk Roads

  • There was a network of market towns along the road and since silk was in such high demand, many other trade routes connected and/or branched off of the Silk Road.

  • The Silk Road wasn’t the safest place (mountains, robbers, desserts) but it allowed new ideas to spread from place to place such as paper and glass making

  • The Silk Road was the most important trade route before the discovery of the sea route to India. It stretched along the edges of deserts and mountains from China to Rome, connecting China to the west.


Mandate of heaven

Mandate of heaven

  • The concept that the king’s rule was based on the blessing of heaven and that if a king rules unwisely, heaven would not like it and give the mandate to someone else.

  • This concept was first used on the Zhou dynasty in China.


Contributions of china to civilization

Contributions of China to Civilization

  • The Chinese developed a smallpox vaccine, invented the spinning wheel, and pioneered in the use of arches in bridge building.

WOW!


What is confucianism

What is Confucianism?

  • Confucians believe that in society there are five key relationships: Father to son, elder brother to young brother, husband to wife, ruler to subject, and friend to friend. They also believed that had certain duties and responsibilities they had to stay with, like how superiors should care for their inferiors while inferiors show loyalty to their superiors.


What is confucianism1

What is Confucianism?

  • Confucianism spread because his ideas and philosophies were used in everyday life Chinese rulers relied on it to pick Confucian scholars as officials and the Confucian emphasis in filial piety bolstered traditional customs


What is daoism

What is Daoism

  • Daoism was not concerned with bringing order to human affairs.Instead Daoists sought to live in harmony with nature.Daoists rejected conflict and strife.They wanted to end the conflict between human desires and the simple ways of nature.Daoists thought the best government was the one who governed the least.


Yin yang

Yin/Yang

  • Gained control of a corner of northern China, along the Huang He.

  • During this period, Chinese civilization first took shape.

  • Kings led other noble warriors in battle.

  • Social classes were royal families, noble warriors, artisans and merchants, then peasants

  • Yin and Yang were opposite forces that worked to balance each other.


Impact of confucianism and taoism on chinese society

Impact of Confucianism and Taoism on Chinese Society

  • Confucianism and Taoism changed the whole view of Chinese society.

  • It influenced people to become more educated.

  • More than a third of the world’s population came under the influence of these ideas.

  • Chinese civilizations spread, hundreds of millions of people in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam accepted these beliefs.


Mountains and seas helped greek political and social development

Mountains and Seas helped Greek political and social development

  • Mountains divided Greece into parts which made up the Greek city-states.

  • The seas provided great harbors for ships. Which was for trade. Greeks became skilled sailors, carrying cargoes of olive oil, wine, and marble around the eastern Mediterranean.

  • Mountains and seas led to the expansion of Greece.

  • Trade help build a better economy


Greek city states

GREEK CITY-STATES

  • First people to settle in Greece was the Minoans in 1750B.C.

  • The Mycenae took over Greece in about 1400B.C.

  • Settled on the Balkan peninsula

  • The Greeks who farmed the valleys or settled on inlands did not create a very large empire

  • Were not very united because of the many mountains any seas that they had to cross to get to each other

  • The two major city states were Athens and Sparta

  • The city states steadily disappeared at the end of the Peloponnesian war

  • Their economies were formed around ship building, trade, and the growth of a few agricultural products that could be grown on their land (olives, grapes)


Features of greek city states

FEATURES OF GREEK CITY STATES

  • Were very successful sailors

  • Thrived through sea trade with each other

  • Was also successful fishermen

  • Had many deposits of silver, gold, iron, and marble

  • Raided olive oil, wine, marble, gold and other materials that was in there cities

  • Architects made many magnificent buildings

  • Mainly the Parthenon


Athens

ATHENS

  • Athens moved from monarchy to aristocracy to democracy to a tyrant

  • Males were the only ones able to participate in government

  • There were tens of thousands of slaves throughout Athens yet Athens offered the most freedom in the Greek city states

  • Boys were the only ones who could go to school and that was only if there family could afford it

  • Men received military training

  • ‘ten golden years’ were the years after the Persian wars when Athens made many of their lasting cultural contributions.

  • The end of Athens, in terms of real power, was a century or so after the Peloponnesian war


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Sparta : A Nation of Soldiers

  • Spartans were Dorians who had conquered Laconia

    • They lived in the Peloponnesus, the southern part of Greece

  • They had helots, which were people who were state-owned slaves – they made them work the land

    • Spartans felt a need for a strong military state because they feared a possible revolt from the helots who greatly outnumbered the Spartans.

Government

  • Government included two kings and a council of elders who advised these monarchs. They also had an assembly of all citizens who approved major decisions.

  • Spartan assembly of citizens – male, native born Spartans, and over the age of 30.

  • Assembly also elected five ephors – officials who held real power and ran day-to-day affairs.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Spartan Women

Spartan Childhood

  • Continually prepared for military state

    • future mothers were required to be healthy to have a healthy child.

    • newborns were examined at birth, the sickly were left to die.

  • Girls also had a hard upbringing

  • They were expected to produce healthy sons for the army so they were required to exercise to strengthen their bodies.

  • Women had to obey fathers or husbands and were treated fully with their rights, like that they were able to inherit property.

  • Women ran the family estates while the men were occupied with war.

  • At the age of 7, boys began their training.

    • they moved into barracks where they were allowed a course diet, hard exercise and rigid discipline.

    • They were given only one piece of clothing to wear year round and they were made to sleep outside on the hard ground.

    • they developed cunning to supplement their diets because they were encouraged to steal food – if they were caught, they were beaten

Sparta and its Neighbors

  • Sparta isolated itself from other Greeks.

  • They did not like trade or wealth .

    • They forbade citizens to travel

    • They had little use for new ideas or the arts.

    • There were no other city-states that put to use military skills as much as Sparta did.

  • At the age of 20, men could marry but still had to live in the barracks for 10 more years and eat there for another 40 years.

  • At the age of 30, men would endure more training and then enter the assembly.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Why did the Greeks feel the need to colonize new areas?

  • Before 750 B.C., the Greeks were already living near many seas and had become skilled sailors by carrying cargo across the eastern Mediterranean.

  • By 750 B.C., rapid population growth forced many Greeks to leave their valleys and head overseas. Scattered colonies started to take root around the Mediterranean from Spain to Egypt.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

How did Greek mythology help explain the

- Stories of gods and goddesses helped to explain the values and way of life of the Greek people.

- Each of their gods was said to preside over a certain field of nature or human affairs.

- For example, their god Zeus presided over the affairs of all gods and humans.

- Aphrodite controlled the love affairs of humans, Ares was the god of war, and Athena was the goddess of wisdom.

- Later, some Greeks thinkers came to believe that the universe was regulated and not controlled by these gods. They believed that the universe has natural laws.

natural world and disasters that happened to poeple?


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

What impact did Greek mythology have on later cultures?

  • Alexander the Great founded many new cities in which Greek soldiers, traders, and artisans settled.

  • They built Greek temples and filled them with Greek statues that portrayed their gods and goddesses. Local people then started coming to the cities and absorbed all these Greek ideas.

  • The Romans shared the Italian peninsula with other people such as the Greeks and Etruscans (who actually controlled them). The Romans adopted the idea of having gods and goddesses.

  • - Like the Greek god Zeus, the Romans had Jupiter. The Roman goddess Juno was like the Greek goddess Hera. The Roman god Neptune resembled the Greek god Poseidon and instead of the Greek god Ares, the Romans worshipped Mars.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Zeus

  • Zeus was the youngest son of Cronus and Rheia.

  • He was the supreme ruler of mount Olympus.

  • Zeus (like his father before him) deposed his aged father from the throne of eternity.

  • As Kronos was about to slay his father, Uranus, he was warned that his own son would someday depose him.

  • Kronos swallowed the first of his children, but Rheia was smart and tricked Kronos substituted a stone for the infant and Kronos swallowed it down.

  • Zeus was hidden and raised in secret until he was old enough to fulfill his destiny.

  • One day he ambushed Kronos while out hunting. Zeus kicked Kronos in the stomach so hard the aged god vomited up the stone and the five divine, undigested gods and goddesses.

  • In gratitude, and bowing to destiny, Zeus was unanimously declared leader of the immortals.

  • Zeus made his domain the mountain tops and clouds, where he could survey and vitalize all creation.

  • Zeus married his sister Hera.

  • She was jealous and vengeful of her husbands affections


Apollo

Apollo

  • Apollo was the sun of Zeus and Leto.

  • Apollo was the god of music, arts, archery, and divination.

  • He represents order, harmony, and civilization in a way that most other Olympian deities cannot quite equal.

  • Apollo is most often associated with the cultivated arts of music and medicine.

  • His role as the leader of the Muses establishes him as a patron of intellectual pursuits.

  • Apollo was the son of the Olympian Zeus.

  • The brother of the goddess Artemis.

  • Daphne was Apollo's first love.

  • Apollo, as with Zeus his father, had many love affairs with goddesses and mortals.

  • The most famous mortal loves of Apollo was Hecuba, she was the wife of Priam, the king of Troy.

  • Asclepius, the god of healing, was also Apollo's offspring

  • Apollo also, as did his father Zeus, fall in love with one of his own gender, Hyacinthus, a Spartan prince.

  • According to one legend, it was Apollo who helped either Cretan or Arcadian colonists found the city of Troy.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Hera

  • The queen of the Olympian deities

  • She is a daughter of Cronus and Rhea, and wife and sister of Zeus.

  • Hera was mainly worshipped as a goddess of marriage and birth.

  • The children of Hera and Zeus are Hephaestus, Hebe, Ares.

  • Thus they were born, not out of love but out of lust and hatred.

  • Hera was constantly being jealous of Zeus's various amorous affairs.

  • She punished her rivals and their children, among both goddesses and mortals, with implacable fury. She placed two serpents in the cradle of Heracles

  • Sometimes when he got angry, he chained her to the mountain of Olympus by fastening anvils to her feet.

  • He either hid his illegitimate children, or he changed them into animals. This was to keep Hera from hurting them.

  • Peloponnesus, where she was worshipped as the town goddess.

  • The peacock and the cow are her sacred animals.

  • Hera is portrayed as a majestic, solemn woman.

  • Her Roman counterpart is Juno.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Artemis

  • In earlier times Artemis was identified as the earth goddess, now she is normally referred to as the goddess of wild life and the patroness of hunters

  • Of all the animals her most sacred was the bear.

  • She is symbolized by a bow and a deer, even though her favorite animal was the bear.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Athena

  • Athena was the goddess of crafts, domestic arts, and those of war. Now she is regarded as the goddess of wisdom.

  • She was the patron goddess of Athens, Greece.

  • Her symbol is the owl.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Aphrodite

  • Aphrodite is the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility.

  • She is also known as the protector of sailors.

  • This beautiful goddess is often associated with a dove or a goose.


How did democracy develop in athens

How did democracy develop in Athens?

  • The principle of democracy all started in Athens when Aristotle’s Constitution of the Athenians was written. From the base of this constitution we wrote our constitution, with the principles of Aristotle’s constitution. Pericles was the main person who instituted democracy in Athens.


Direct democracy

Direct Democracy

  • Direct democracy is about “originating” ideas as much as it is about “approving” them. In parliamentary democracy, people are never asked for their own ideas - they are only asked to “approve” or “disapprove” of ideas already prepared for them. In a direct democracy everyone participates.


Pericles

Pericles

  • Pericles was born in Athens in about 495 BC to a family of wealth and position

  • He opened Athenian democracy to the ordinary citizen, he built the magnificent temples and statues on the Acropolis, and he created the Athenian empire.


Oligarchy

Oligarchy

Early form of government where the civilization is ruled by the small elite, usually from the business class of merchants and artisans.


How were the societies of athens and sparta different

How were the societies of Athens and Sparta different?

Athens is known for being the major city of education and democracy in Greece while Sparta was more military based. The boys were taken at a young age to start training. The citizens feared revolts from their state owned slaves called helots. Spartan women held more rights than Athens women, Spartan women had the right to own land and had to be physically fit. Athens was known for its excellent navy and trade was a major part of their economy while Sparta was known for its excellent military or on land combat.


Solon

Solon

  • Athenian ruler who also helped in the development of democracy.

  • He extended citizenship rights to more people, outlawed debt slavery, gave people more power and brought economic reforms


Draco

Draco

  • Athenian ruler who helped in the development of democracy

  • He was responsible for codifying the laws of Greece for the first time they were called draconian laws.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

What were the three stages of government before democracy spread in Athens?

  • Monarchy- a government where a king or a queen has essential power.

  • Aristocracy- a government where elite landowners ruled.

  • Oligarchy- a government where a small group usually in the business class holds the most power.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

What was the importance of the Persian Wars to the development of Greek culture?

Victory in the Persian Wars brought Athens to be one of the most powerful city-states. They eventually formed the Delian League. Which brought all of the Greek city-states to an alliance in defense. Athens dominated the league and other Greek city-states did not like Athens having all of the power. When the other city-states protested, Athens came back with force. Eventually Sparta and Persia took over Athens and the other city-states and that lead to the downfall of Greece. So Greek culture developed through the Persian Wars by coming together and joining as one to form the Delian League and later down falling.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

MARATHON

At Marathon, Darius I sent an astounding force from Aegean to punish Athens. The Persians landed at Marathon in 490 B.C. Even though the Persians out numbered the Athenians greatly, Athens ended up crushing Persia in hand to hand combat. Also after the battle of Marathon a man ran from the battle scene the equivalence of a Marathon to Athens. Once he got there to share the news he collapsed.


The battle of salamis

TheBattleofSalamis

  • Part of the Persian wars ( Persians vs. Athenians )

  • Athenians pulled Persian navy into the Salamis straight, one year later the Persian boats sank; on land the Greeks defeated the Persians

  • The last major battle of the Persian wars


What effect did the peloponnesian wars have on greek power and influence

What effect did thePeloponnesian warshave on Greek power and influence?

  • Athens was not totally destroyed, but it was severely weakened

  • Sparta was even too weak to hold off attacks from outsiders

  • This begins the decline of Greece


P a r t h e n o n

Parthenon

  • Ancient Greek temple dedicated to the Greek goddess *Athena* Parthenos

  • Doric Columns

  • Built under the leadership of Pericles (447-432 BC)

  • Stands on the Acropolis, high above Athens, Greece


Aeschylus

Aeschylus

Creator of Greek theatre/drama

Wrote many playwrights

He fought in the at Athens in the “Marathon” to defeat Persia.

His earliest work was “The Persians”

He added two characters, whereas, before there had only been one, and he could show intrigue and conflict.

He was born of a noble family

He wrote tragedies.

Courtesy of Meredith <3


Sophocles

Sophocles

  • He made his first appearance at the City Dionysia in 486 B.C. when he was at the mere age of 28.

  • Born in Athens 495 B.C.

  • He was the son of a wealthy merchant.

  • He wrote over 120 plays

  • He won 18 times at the City of Dionysus

  • He preformed in many of his own plays

  • Despite his great playwrights, he did do other things, he served for many years as an ordained priest.

  • He added the third actor

  • He wrote Antigone, a great work which is still used today

  • He died at 91.

Courtesy of Meredith <3


Homer

Homer

  • He was born on an island in Asia Minor

  • He was a Greek poet

  • He wrote the Iliad, which was the story of the siege of Troy.

  • He wrote the Odyssey—The romantic tale of Odysseus struggling to get home from the war.

  • He is believed to be born around 850 B.C.

  • He went from village to village telling his stories orally.

Courtesy of Meredith <3


Herodotus

Herodotus

  • Often called the father of history

  • Herodotus was the Greek historian who chronicled the Persian wars, which involved the Greek city-states Vs. Persia.

  • Wrote the History, provides accurate details about other civilizations of the time.


Thucyidides

Thucyidides

  • Born in 460 B.C and died in 400 B.C

  • The Greek historian who chronicled the Peloponnesian wars in which he himself fought in.

  • His book,The History of The Peloponnesian War, provides accurate views on battles, historical names, and more.


Phidias

Phidias

  • Born in 500, died in 432.

  • Lived during the “classic” age of Greece under Pericles.

  • A famous Athenian sculptor who made the statue of Athena in the Parthenon in Athens.

  • Also made the huge statue of Zeus in the Temple of Zeus in Olympia.


Doric columns

Doric Columns

  • The simplest formof the columns.

  • NO scrolls, and NO flowers or any decoration

  • Shorter and wider than other columns with flat tops

  • Buildings include the Parthenon.


Ionian columns

Ionian Columns

  • The second most decorative of the columns.

  • Ionic columns are taller, and more slender than Doric columns.

  • They are characterized by having scrolls at the tops of them.


Corinthian columns

Corinthian Columns

  • The most decorated of the columns.

  • Contains decorated scrolls at the top along with flowers.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Archimedes

  • He was a Greek mathematician, physicist, and inventor.

  • He made inventions that applied to the principles of physics.

  • He used the lever and pulley.

  • He is famous for his work in geometry on the circle, sphere, cylinder, and parabola.

  • He is also well known for his work in physics, mechanics, and hydrostatistics.

  • He developed Archimedes’ principle and Archimedes’ screw.

  • He worked on creating a mathematical expression to express extremely large numbers.

  • He also worked on calculating the value of π.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Hippocrates

  • Lived around 400 B.C.

  • He was a Greek physician who studied illnesses and looked for cures.

  • He created the Hypocratic oath which set the ethical standards for doctors and is still in use today.

  • Doctors promise to “ help the sick according to my ability and judgment but never with a view to injury and wrong” and to protect the patient’s privacy.

Euclid

  • Hellenistic mathematician that wrote The Elements, a book that became the basis for modern geometry.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Pythagorus

  • Hellenistic mathematician that devised the Pythagorean Theorem (a²+b²=c²).

  • This formula is used to calculate the relationship between the sides of a right triangle.


Socrates

Socrates

  • 469-399 B.C.

  • Wrote nothing

  • Most of what we know about him comes from Plato

  • Plato was his student

  • Thought knowledge was a living, interactive thing

  • Philosophy was to question people


Socrates1

Socrates

  • Elenchus-method of questioning (cross-examination)

  • Dialect-idea that truth needs to be pursued by examining a person’s position through questioning

  • Unconcerned with physical or metaphysical questioning (Sophist)


Plato

Plato

  • Socrates most famous student

  • Founded his own school “The Academy” in 385 (most famous school at the time)

  • Most famous pupil was Aristotle

  • Wrote dialogues between Socrates

  • Examined basic ethical issues

  • Formed his own philosophy (more teaching)


Plato1

Plato

  • “The Republic” is his most famous dialogue

  • Deals with how to live a good life, justice in the Senate, and justice for an individual

  • Divides human beings into innate intelligence, strength, and courage

  • Believed in aristocracy (rule by the best)

  • Different societies (Producers, Auxiliaries, Guardians)


Aristotle

Aristotle

  • Teacher was Plato

  • Taught Alexander the Great

  • Opened his own school the “Lyceum”

  • Studied there for twelve years

  • Disagreed on everything with Plato

  • Wrote about poetics, rhetoric, ethics, politics, meteorology, embryology, physics, mathematics, analogy, etc


Aristotle1

Aristotle

  • Evidence-examined what people said, wrote, or did to solve a problem

  • Studied over five hundred species of plants and animals

  • Read one hundred and fifty eight constitutions of different governments

  • Inductive reasoning-to observe as many possible examples of a specific subject


Aristotle2

Aristotle

  • Categorized knowledge by their objects and relative certainty

  • Knowledge is characterized by precise explanations or probability

  • Thought that everything was always moving and changing


What effect did major greek thinkers have on western philosophy

What Effect Did Major Greek Thinkers Have on Western Philosophy?

  • Major Greek thinkers used methods to find truth, accepting nothing less than that, and also had opinions about society, making Western philosophy similar.

  • Romans thought highly of the Hellenistic philosophy.


Hellenistic culture

Hellenistic Culture

  • During the Hellenistic age many cultures blended together, which led to new schools of thought, advances in learning and medicine.

  • Schools of thought-Zeno founded Stoicism which urged people to avoid desires and disappointments by accepting calmly whatever life brought. Stoicism later influenced many Roman and Christian thinkers.

  • Advances in learning- Pythagoras developed a formula to calculate the relation ship between sides of right triangles, Euclid wrote the elements which became the basis for modern geometry, Aristarchus argued that the earth rotated on an axis and orbited the sun which was a theory of heliocentric. Archimedes applied principles with physics and developed the pully.

  • Medicine- Hippocrates developed cures for illnesses and his oath set ethical standards for doctors to come.

  • During the Hellenistic period Rome emerged as a powerful new state after its conquest of Asia minor and replaced Greece and the Dominant power in the Mediterranean world


King phillip ii of macedonia

King Phillip II of Macedonia

  • Philip II of Macedonia ruled from 359-336 B.C.E. Without the military and political efforts of Philip, Alexander would never have been as successful as he was.

  • Philip came to power in 359 B.C.E. after the Macedonians had just suffered a defeat at the hands of the Illyrians. Macedonia was in political and military turmoil, and Philip immediately set about bringing the people of Macedonia under his control. After exacting revenge on the Illyrians by defeating them in 358 B.C.E., Philip sought to bring all of Upper Macedonia under his control and make them loyal to him. His primary method of creating alliances and strengthening loyalties was through marriage. The most important marriage for Philip was to Olympias, from the royal house of Molossia. By 357 B.C.E., they were married, and she gave birth to Alexander the next year.


Alexander the great

Alexander the Great

  • Alexander was 20 years old when he became king.

  • Alexander’s empire extended from Greece to Egypt and Macedonia to Persia.

  • His greatest achievement was the spread of Greek and Hellenistic culture and he did that byconquering other countries.


The growth of the roman empire

The Growth of the Roman Empire

  • Rome is located in the middle of the Mediterranean, on the Italian Peninsula.

  • Because of it’s location, Rome was connected to all the major trade routes around the Mediterranean

  • Being in the middle of the Mediterranean, Rome’s strategic location contributed to its rise in wealth and power.


What was roman mythology based on

What was Roman mythology based on?

The Greek Gods and Goddess

  • Greek Zeus= Roman Jupiter

  • Greek Hera= Roman Juno

  • Greek Poseidon= Roman Neptune

  • Greek Ares= Roman Mars


What impact did roman mythology have on later civilizations

What impact did Roman mythology have on later civilizations?

  • Roman mythology played a huge role in developing culture and traditions in later civilizations. The art and literature based on this mythology later influenced writers and artists who created many paintings and sculptures to represent important mythological figures.

  • A good example is the Byzantine empire that occurred shortly after the fall of the Rome. The Byzantine empire was extremely influenced by the traditions of ancient Roman mythology. It has inspired many to write poems, plays, and even operas.

  • Without the heavy influence of Roman mythology, the world would be a very different place.


Jupiter

Jupiter

“God of Light and Sky”

  • The supreme god in Roman mythology - equivalent to the Greek god Zeus

  • Was originally the God of storms, thunder, and lightning

  • Gradually became the highest God and the protector of the Roman people

  • The protector of the state and its laws

  • Had a temple on the capitol

  • Generals honored Jupiter with sacrifices


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Juno

“Queen of Olympia”

  • The wife and sister of the God Jupiter - equivalent to the Greek God Hera

  • The protector of women especially marriage and childbirth

  • A special counselor and protector of the Roman state

  • Special festival called Matronalia was held on March 1st and dedicated to her

  • Month of June may have been named after her


Apollo1

Apollo

“God of agriculture and of light and truth”

  • The son of Zeus and Leto

  • The God of agriculture and cattle and of light and truth

  • The powers and functions of the sun God Helios were given to him

  • An excellent musician, especially on the lyre

  • A swift athlete, said to be the first winner of the Olympic games

  • His twin sister Artemis was the protector of young women, while he was the protector of young men


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

122. Diana - Roman goddess of hunting and childbirth.

123. Minerva - Roman goddess of wisdom, learning, war, and crafts.

124. Venus - Roman goddess of love and beauty.

125. Patricians - members of the land-holding upper class of Rome.


Plebeians

Plebeians

The farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders who made up the bulk of the population.

  • they had little influence

  • The efforts of the plebeians to gain power shaped politics in the early republic

  • The plebeians protested that citizens couldn’t know the laws, because they were not written down.


How did one become a citizen of rome

How did one become a citizen of Rome?

  • Must live in Rome

  • Must be a member of the upper or middle class

  • Or emperor could grant you citizenship


How did the roman republic become more democratic in its decision making

How did the Roman republic become more democratic in its decision making?

  • It granted citizenship rights to more people.

  • The Senate granted more power to bodies that represented the common people.


129 131

129-131

  • 129:Roman Senate- In the early republic the most powerful part of the government was the senate. All of the members were patricians- people of the landholding upper class. Each year two consuls were elected by the senate. In the event of war the senate would elect a dictator to take complete control of the government.

  • 130:Consuls- Once a year the senate elected two consuls. The consuls job was to supervise the business of the government and command the armies. Consuls could only serve one term. The consuls had to consult with the senate, thus giving the Roman gov’t a system of checks on power in the gov’t.

  • 131:Twelve Tables of Rome- The plebians protested to the Roman gov’t that they could not know the laws because they were not written down. The gov’t then put the laws on 12 tablets and put in the marketplace.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

.

  • Rome’s victories in the Punic Wars allowed Rome to extend there land in the Mediterranean by defeating Carthage who held onto Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia. They were the only strong power in the region.

  • Hannibal- A Carthaginian general who let Carthage to invade Italy and be defeated in 2/3 of the Punic Wars

  • Gaul- A land that was taken over in one of Caesar’s conquests. Gaul is present day France.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Gaul

  • Present day France

  • Julius Caesar set out on a conquest to conquer this area in 59 B.C and after nine years he completed his conquest

  • In 486 Clovis conquered Gaul

  • Later became part of Charlemagne’s empire


Why did the republic fail to survive challenges by julius caesar

Why did the Republic fail to survive challenges by Julius Caesar?

  • Julius Caesar was very powerful and the Republic was already in decline

  • He was popular among the people because of his many victories

  • With a strong army under his command, he was able to defeat Pompay and his supporters


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Rome gained control over busy trade routes

Conquered people became slaves and slave labor increased

Farmers went into debt and were forced to sell their land because their productivity rate was not as great as that of the slaves’ on the latifundia

Conquests gave Rome control over trade routes that brought many new riches to the city

New class of wealthy Romans emerged

Romans built mansions and enjoyed new luxuries

How did military conquests alter economic and social life

in Rome?

Economic

Social


What were some causes of the decline of the roman republic

What were some causes of the decline of the Roman Republic?

  • Civil wars erupted due to disagreements over whether the senate or a political leader should hold the most power

  • Slave uprisings and revolts

  • Soldiers gave their first loyalty to their commanders

  • Julius Caesar rose to power


Julius caesar veni vidi vici

Julius Caesar-”Veni, vidi, vici”

  • Dictator and absolute ruler of Rome

    • He kept senate and other features of the republic after he conquered Rome

  • Reforms

    • Public works

    • Granted more citizenship

    • New calendar—Julian calendar

  • Stabbed to death in March 44BC


Octavian caesar augustus

Octavian—Caesar Augustus

  • Absolute Power

  • End of the republic

  • Government reforms

    • Stabilized government

    • Had civil service to enforce laws

    • Allowed self-government to cities and provinces of Rome

  • Economic reforms

    • Census for better taxing

    • Postal service

    • New coins for easier trading


Marc antony

Marc Antony

  • Julius Caesar’s chief general

  • Joined with Octavian to find Caesar’s murderers

    • The two quarreled for power

  • 31 BC—Octavian defeated Antony and his powerful ally, Queen Cleopatra of Egypt


What was pax romana roman peace

What was Pax Romana?—”Roman Peace”

  • The 200-year span that began with Augustus and ended with Marcus Aurelius

  • Roman rule brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity from the Euphrates River to Britain

  • This when most of Rome’s cultural contributions were made.


Social economic and political impacts of the pax romana

Social, Economic, and Political Impacts of the Pax Romana

  • Social-People moved with the Roman Empire, spreading ideas and knowledge. Ideas from Greece and Judea had an impact on Rome

  • Economic-Trade spread throughout lands in Africa and Asia. Egyptian farmers in the Nile Valley gave grain to the Romans. Ivory and gold came from other parts of Africa.

  • Political-Roman rule brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity to lands in the Euphrates river into Britain.


Constantine and theodosius

Constantine and Theodosius

  • Emperor Constantine continued Diocletian’s reforms. He granted toleration to Christians. He built a new capital named Constantinople. Constantinople made the eastern portion of the empire the center of power.

  • Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire.


How did christianity become rooted in the roman empire

How did Christianity become rooted in the Roman Empire?

  • Many religions were practiced in the Roman Empire. Christianity was one that appealed to many of the citizens of Rome. Peter and the other disciples preached to the city of Rome about Christianity. As Christian churches were established throughout Rome, more people started to convert. By A.D. 395, Christianity became Rome’s official religion.


What are the beliefs and traditions of christianity

What are the beliefs and traditions of Christianity?

  • One God.

  • Jesus Christ was the Son of God.

  • Promised spiritual salvation and eternal life to anyone who believed Jesus was the Son of God.

  • Taught the need for justice, morality, and service to others.

  • “Love your neighbor with all your heart, with all your mind, and with all your soul.”


Jesus of nazareth

Jesus of Nazareth

  • Jesus was born about 4 B.C. in Bethlehem.

  • He was a descendant of King David of Israel.

  • Mary give birth to Jesus.

  • Jesus worked as a carpenter until he was 30.

  • He preached his message until he was 33.

  • Jesus recruited 12 apostles to aid him in his mission. One of which was Peter.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

149. How did Christianity spread?

Jesus disciples and some of his followers spread from Jerusalem teaching people about Jesus, his teachings, and his crucifixion and resurrection.

150. What was the impact Christianity had on the late Roman Empire?

Emperor Constantine declared Christianity as the major religion of the Roman Empire. When the empire split into the Byzantine and the Holy Roman Empire life was centered around the church. The main political power and social center was the church. It then spread to Asia and Eastern Europe to the Islamic countries.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

151. Pantheon

A domed temple in Rome that had altars for many of the gods they worshipped.

152. Colosseum

A large round building which consisted of three levels of arches in the Roman Forum where gladiators fought each other and executions were held as entertainment for the people of Rome.


Aqueducts and ptolemy

Aqueducts and Ptolemy

  • Aqueducts man-made conduit for carrying water. In a more restricted sense, aqueducts are structures used to conduct a water stream across a hollow or valley. In modern engineering "aqueduct" refers to a system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and supporting structures used to convey water from its source to its main distribution point.

  • Ptolemy was the Macedonian general who, as one of the Diadochi, or Successors, of Alexander, acquired Egypt. From him was established the Ptolemaic Dynasty that ruled for three centuries, until the murder of Caesarian (Ptolemy XV), the 17 year old son of Cleopatra and Julius Caesar, by order of Octavian in 30 B.C.

  • Although Ptolemy and his successors were and remained Greeks, they adopted many Egyptian customs, ruling in the tradition of the ancient Egyptian Pharaohs. They also involved themselves in incestuous marriages in a like manner of the Pharaohs. The Ptolemaic kings, all fifteen of whom were named Ptolemy, often married their sisters, who were commonly named Cleopatra, from the Greek kleos patris meaning famous parents.

www.crystalinks.com/romeaqueducts.html & http://www.keyway.ca/htm2003/.htm


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

The Fall of the

Western Roman Empire

  • The Western Roman Empire fell because of no strong ruler. There was power but no strong ruler to unite all the land. The attacks by the Huns from Mongolia pushed people into the empire that the government did not want and made it hard to defend the empire because they never new who was in the empire borders. Their economy was weak; the tax burden was too heavy for the people to carry.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

The Division of the

Roman Empire

  • The Roman Empire was split into and eastern and western half.

  • The empire was split because it was thought to make it cheaper and easier to govern because of its large size.

  • Virgil- wrote The Aeneid which told Rome’s past.


Latin and romance languages

Latin and Romance Languages

  • Every great Western society sees itself as better for having held on to inherited Roman traditions. As well as having served as the language of an empire that once ruled over a fourth of the world's population, today, the variant named Church or Ecclesiastical Latin is the official language of the Vatican, and language instructors the world over hold onto it as though it were still very much alive. Its vocabulary has been borrowed into every major European language, and its roots are the basis of scientific and technological vocabulary. One noticeable characteristic of Latin is the heavier reliance on inflections to convey the meaning and use of a word than seen in its daughter languages.

  • The Romance languages are a group of closely related vernaculars descended from the LATIN LANGUAGE, a member of the Italic branch of INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES.  The designation Romance is derived from the Latin phrase romanica loqui, "to speak in Roman fashion," which attests to the popular, rather than literary, origins of the languages.

  • The Romance languages that have acquired national standing as the official tongues of their countries are French, with approximately 98 million speakers living principally in France, Belgium, Switzerland, Canada, and parts of Africa;  Italian, with 65 million speakers in Italy, Switzerland, and parts of Africa;  Portuguese, with 137 million speakers in Portugal, Brazil, and parts of Africa and Asia;  Spanish, with 231 million speakers in Spain, Latin America, and parts of the Caribbean;  and Romanian, with 25 million speakers in Romania and other parts of the Balkans.

http://www.angelfire.com/md/Orastie/Romance.html


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

How did the location of Constantinople lead to its development as a major city?

Constantinople became a major city by its close location to the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. It was a major city that held trade routes to Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa. Because of its excellent harbors and close location, Constantinople was a bustling marketplace for centuries. The harbors also make it rich in many natural resources that can be traded. Because it was a peninsula, and was surrounded by water on three sides, it was easily reached by traders of wheat from Egypt, silk from China, gems from India, spices from Southeast Asia, and furs from the Northern Viking lands. Justinian also set up a project to beautify Constantinople, including Constantinople’s crown jewel, the Hagia Sophia. Justinian also set up a commission to collect and revise the laws of ancient Rome. He called this the Corpus Juris Civilis.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Justinian

Justinian, who ruled from 527 to 565, wrote the first set of laws codified on a tablet for citizens to see. He also brought the Byzantine Empire to its largest size. He was determined to retake lands stolen from the Byzantine Empire in Rome. Led by Bellisarius, his army reconquered Africa, Italy, and Southern Spain. The fighting weakened his treasury and defense in the Empire, and his successors later lost these lands.

Justinian’s Code of Law

Justinian’s code of laws was the first set of laws codified (written down) on large stone tablets for all villagers to see. The tablet was erected in the center of town in order to give all villagers a good understanding of the law. The laws were written down after remarks by villagers who were uncertain if they were breaking the law, and had no way of finding out. By codifying the laws on tablets, he further improved the rights and duties of villagers, and set the path for future governments’ laws to be more widely known by the people.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

How did Justinian Expand the Influence of the Byzantine Empire?

Justinian expanded the influence of the Byzantine Empire in many ways. He expanded the Byzantine Empire to its largest size, blending its culture with culture far and wide. Although these lands were eventually lost to invaders, the Byzantine influence stayed for centuries. His code of laws and public display of laws influenced laws in Europe and other parts of the world and was the first to publicly display laws, a concept that would continue throughout history.


Mosaics

Mosaics

  • A form of art using many small pieces of tile to form a picture or form of art work.

  • This form of art was commonly used on the floors and walls of churches and buildings.

  • Typical of Byzantine Art


Hagia sophia

Hagia Sophia

  • Justinian had an enormous church built in Constantinople.

  • It had enormous arches and the interior glowed with many colors of tile and paint.

  • The church was a part of a project to restore roman glory.


Greek orthodox christianity

Greek Orthodox Christianity

  • It is one of three major branches of Christianity.

  • It is monotheistic.

  • It has spread throughout western Europe and Africa.

  • Constantinople became one of the major areas of Greek Orthodox Christianity– would influence Russia.


What were some differences between the church in the west and the church in the east

What were some differences between the church in the West and the church in the East?

  • In the East the patriarch was recognized as the highest church official and the pope was the highest church official in the West

  • The Byzantine clergy kept his right to marry unlike the Western clergy

  • The Eastern church recognized Easter as the chief holiday where as in the West Christmas was the main holiday


What was the result of the schism of 1056

What was the result of the schism of 1056?

  • The result of the schism of 1056 was the eastern patriarch and the western pope both excommunicated each other, resulting in a permanent split between the eastern and western churches.


The cyrillic alphabet

The Cyrillic Alphabet

  • About 863, two Greek monks, Cyril and Methodius, adapted the Greek alphabet so they could translate the Bible into Slavic languages. This Cyrillic alphabet became the written script used in Russia and Ukraine to the present.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Question # 169

Why did the Byzantine Empire have such a large effect on the growth of Russia and Eastern Europe?

The Byzantine Empire had a large effect on the growth of Russia and Eastern Europe because many Russian nobles converted to Byzantine Christianity and declared themselves heirs to the many cultural and political aspects of the Empire. They also their adopted the art, music, and architecture.

Byzantine missionaries converted many people in both Russia and Eastern Europe into Byzantine Christianity.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Question # 170

Why did Moscow develop as the center of Russian power?

Moscow developed as the center of Russian power because it was located near key river trade routes. Soon Moscow also became the capitol for Russia’s Orthodox Church.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Question # 171

Why did no dominant culture develop in Eastern Europe?

Due to Eastern Europe’s easily migrated geography it became a cultural crossroads. Traders passed through and people came to seek new homes in the region. This diversity kept Eastern Europe from having one specific dominant culture.


What area did islam have influence over

What area did Islam have influence over?

  • Islam had influence over Saudi Arabia.


Who founded islam in what city did he found it

Muhammad founded Islam.

He founded Islam on the Arabian peninsula in the city of Mecca.

Who founded Islam? In what city did he found it?


Where did islam spread to after its founding

Where did Islam spread to after its founding?

  • Islam spread through India, Asia, through the Middle East, into eastern Europe, and into northern Africa.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

BELIEFS OF ISLAM

  • Monotheistic religion

  • Founded by Muhammad in the 600s on the Arabian Peninsula

  • Belief in Allah

  • Islam means “submission”

  • Holy Book was the Quran

  • Five Pillars of Islam

  • Major cities included Mecca and Medina

  • Hijra: Muhammad’s journey from Mecca to Medina to help promote Islam

  • Theocrocies: type of government most countries have with Islam as their major religion


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

CONTINUED BELIEFS OF ISLAM

  • Split between the Sunni’s and the Shi’ites

    • Sunni’s believed that the successor to Muhammad should be chosen by the Muslim community (85%)

    • Shi’ites believed that the successor should come from Muhammad’s family (15%)


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

MUHAMMAD

  • Founded Islam in the 600s on the Arabian Peninsula

  • Born in Mecca

  • Hijjra: Muhammad’s journey from Mecca, where no one believed what he taught, to Medina, where he began to build up Islam

  • Known as God’s Prophet

  • A huge controversy developed over who would become the successor to Muhammad; Abu Bakr was chosen


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM

1: Declaring your faith

2: Daily prayer (5 times a day)

3: Giving charity to the poor

4: Fasting during the holy month of the Ramadan

5: Pilgrimage to Mecca


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

THE QURAN

  • Holy Book of Islam

  • Contained the word of God and Muhammad


Islam spread to a halt

Islam Spread To A Halt

  • In 732 A.D. the Muslims were defeated at the Battle of Tours causing the end to Islam’s conquest into Europe. Even though they kept control of Spain, Egypt and the Byzantine Empire for many centuries to come they never got anymore land than what they had conquered before the Battle of Tours.


Separation within islam

Separation Within Islam

  • After the prophet Muhammad’s death the Muslims spilt into two the Sunni and the Shi’ites. The cause of the split was over how the new caliph should be decided, the Sunni’s felt that the caliph should be a respected member of the Muslim community. The Shi’ites felt that the Caliph should only be one of Muhammad’s descendants. After all of the arguing had ended there was a split between the two and the Shi’ites went their way wile the Sunni went theirs. For many years the two sides waged in war with the Sunni always being more dominant.


Dome of the rock

Dome of the Rock

  • The Dome of the Rock is a a very holy place in Jerusalem it was built around 700 above a rock believed to be the spot where Muhammad had risen into heaven after his death.


What muslims thought of christians

What Muslims thought of Christians.

The Muslims had no problem with the Christians up until the crusades, people of Islam accepted Christians more so than other religions because they were “people of the book.” they both also believed in the same god. After the crusades that opinion changed when the Christians sacked many Muslim towns and cities, which could easily change your opinion of anyone. The crusades went on for approximately another 400 years


The spread of the arabic language

The spread of the Arabic language

  • the Arabic language spread with the Islamic religion.

  • Considering the Quran had to be read aloud in original Arabic everyone who embraced the religion had to learn how to read and speak Arabic.

  • Islam spread further than the borders of the once glorious Rome, thus most of the people within the effect of the spread of Islam learned to speak Arabic

  • Sense all Islamic people could speak the same language it resulted in unity in the earlier days of Islam, sadly as time went on and conditions worsened that sense of unity started to crumble.


Geography s effect on islam

Geography’s effect on Islam

  • The geography of Arabia and most of the middle east and Africa is flat and filled with deserts thus the spread of Islam was not effected much by physical barriers besides the vastness of Islam’s reach which extend from Asia to Europe, and even down into the far reaches of the African plains

  • Islam was also not hindered by any surrounding empires or kingdoms considering they were all too weak to stop the spread of Islam. Islam was only stopped in its advance into Europe by the French in the battle of Tours.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

What were some cultural contributions of the Muslim civilization?

*Economy; set up a vast network form Northern Africa through the Middle East into Asia: established the first ‘check’ system.

*Art and Architecture; Dome of the Rock; Calligraphy; no portraits of Allah in their artwork/ it was against religious law.

*Literature; Book of Kings; Thousand and One Nights

*Language; Arabic language spread with trade and conquest of new areas

*Education; Arab universities draw the best medieval European scholars; advances in medicine , math, science, and astronomy; Arabic Numerals


Why did the church grow in importance during the middle ages

Why did the Church grow in importance during the Middle Ages

The church grew in importance in the Middle Ages because developed its own body of laws. Cannon law applied to religious teachings, the clergy, marriages, and morals. Punishment consisted of either excommunication or interdict. The most severe and most terrifying was excommunication, they could not receive the sacraments or a Christian burial. A powerful Noble who opposed the church could face the interdict, an order excluding an entire town, region, or kingdom from receiving most sacraments and Christian burial.


How did monasteries help preserve the ancient traditions of the greeks and romans

How did monasteries help preserve the ancient traditions of the Greeks and Romans?

Monasteries helped preserve the ancient traditions of Greeks and Romans by having complete service to the church; focusing on education and learning; and they had to obey church rules, obedience, chastity, and poverty.


The crowning of charlemagne

The Crowning of Charlemagne

The significance of Charlemagne being crowned the Emperor of the Romans was that a Christian pope had crowned a German king successor to the Roman emperors. Charlemagne laid down the ground for desperate power struggles between future Roman Catholic popes and German emperors. Also, the crowning of Charlemagne helped widen the split between the eastern and western Christian worlds.


Charlemagne

Charlemagne

  • About 800, Western Europe saw a moment of unity when the grandson of Charles Martel built and empire reaching across France, Germany, and part of Italy.

  • Charlemagne loved battle and spent much of his 46-year reign fighting the Muslims in Spain, Saxons in the north, Avars and Slavs in the east, and Lombards in Italy. His conquests reunited much of the old Roman Empire.


Clovis

Clovis

  • In 486, Clovis, The king of Franks, conquered the former Roman province of Gaul. He ruled his new lands according to the Frankish custom and did not preserve much of the Roman legacy in Gaul.

  • He took an important step when he converted to Christianity, the religion of the people in Gaul. Not only did he earn their support, but he also gained a powerful ally in the Christian Church of Rome.


How did the power of the church and the government become intermingled during the middle ages

How did The power of the church and the government become intermingled during the Middle Ages?

  • The pope declared papal supremacy ( which is declaring yourself basically the ruler of all.)

  • The church handed out sacraments ( which are the sacred rites of the church) to villages.

  • The church developed it’s own laws, which were the Canon Laws. It applied to religious teachings, clergy, marriages, and morals. If you disobeyed any of the laws faced a wide range of penalties.

  • The most feared penalty was that of being excommunicated. Excommunication is where you could not receive the sacraments, or have a Christian burial.

  • If you were a ruler of your village you could face the interdict, which is where the whole town, region, or kingdom wouldn’t receive sacraments or a Christian burial. This could cause a revolt with the town people.


How did feudalism develop in europe

How did Feudalism develop in Europe?

  • (from page 186 of your History books under “The emergence of Feudalism”)

    in the face of invasions by Vikings, Muslims, and Magyars, kings and emperors were too weak to maintain law and order. People needed protection for themselves, their homes, their land. In respond to this basic need for protection, a new system evolved, known as Feudalism.


What is feudalism

What is Feudalism?

Feudalism was a loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords. The relationship between Lord and vassals was established by a feudal contract. A lord granted the vassal a fief (an estate). Some ranged from a few acres to hundreds of square miles. IN that fief included peasants which worked the land, and any buildings or towns on that land. The lord promised to protect the vassal and the vassal pledged loyalty to his lord, 40 days of military service, certain money payments, and advice..

The feudal society was as follows: Monarch- Powerful Lords (dukes and counts) – Vassals- Serfs (Peasants)


Continued

Continued..

The manor, or lord’s estate, was the heart of the economy. Most manors had a few villages and surrounding lands. The peasants lived and worked on the manor. Most peasants were bound to the land, they couldn’t be bought or sold, still they weren’t free. They couldn’t leave without the lord’s permission and if the manor was granted a new lord they stayed with the manor.

The peasants jobs were the work several days a week farming the lands, repaired roads, bridges, and fences.

They had to pay a fee when they got married, when they inherited their father’s acres, or when they used the local mill to grind grain.


What were some common obligations between different classes in a feudal society

What were some common obligations between different classes in a feudal society?

  • A vassal had to pay his lord certain money payments, and the peasants had to pay the lord a fee for when they got married, when they inherited their father’s estate, or when they used the local mill.

  • In some cases the same man was both vassal and lord- vassal to a more powerful lord above him and lord to a less powerful vassal below him..so everyone was holding fiefs and pledging loyalty, which made things very complex.

  • The Lord controlled the land and divided it among Vassals. Vassals took care of the peasants and provided the lord with 40 days of military service, certain money payments, and advice. The peasants took care of the land. So everyone had a job in Feudal society.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

1. Why was movement between groups in feudalism so difficult?

It’s difficult because there isn’t much education and status are usually very concrete and hard to change to and fro from. Most people were poor and couldn’t buy a higher social status.

2. How did Charlemagne help revive the idea of the old Roman Empire?

The Holy Roman Empire was founded by Charlemagne with the support of Pope Leo III.

3. Where did Angles, Saxons, Vikings, and Magyars have their areas of influence?

Germany and Eastern Europe and Scandanavia

4. What were the major trade routes of the world during medieval times?

The Silk Road was a major trade route. As well as Constantinople being a major trading city.

By: Deena Beck


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Japan

Shinto

Religion and Geography

  • Shinto was a popular religion in Japan.

  • Shinto focused on the power of the natural spirits around us.

  • All though it was popular in Japan it did not spread to other countries.

Geography

  • Since Japan is located on a string of Islands it was separated from the influences of other countries for along time.

  • Japan’s mountains also served to further isolate it from the rest of the world.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Trade and Diversity

Trade's Impact

China's Influence

  • Throughout the centuries trade has spread Ideas across the globe.

  • Centers of trade are cultural mixing pots where goods, ideas, languages and religions are exchanged. This is one way that Greek culture could be found so far from Greece. This is also how the printing press came from Asia to Europe.

  • Through trade gunpowder made its way from China to Europe. Also West Africa came to believe in Islam, while East Africa came to believe in Christianity through trade.

  • Because of China’s close proximity to Japan it had a major influence on it.

  • Through trade and travel with Japan Buddhism crossed over from China into Japan.

  • Japan also used China’s confusionist ideas and applied them to their government.

  • Also the Chinese and Japanese languages are similar to one another.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

# 203-206 By: Cynthia Bremner

203. How did Shinto and Buddhism affect the development of Japan’s culture?

Shinto and Buddhism affected the development of Japan’s culture with the way that is stressed the importance of natural forces. Also, Buddhism and Shinto affected the development of Japan’s culture because Shrines dotted the Japanese countryside.


204 axum

204. Axum

  • A sub-Saharan African Kingdom between 900 BC-600AD

  • Located near the Nile River

  • Traded with Constantinople-traded Rhino horns and spices

  • Influenced by Christianity


205 zimbabwe

205. Zimbabwe

  • A sub-Saharan African Kingdom between 900-1500

  • Close to two major rivers and the Indian Ocean-Both good locations to trade

  • Had gold resources and profitable links for trade

  • Manufactured jewelry and iron tools


206 ghana

206. Ghana

  • Located near the Niger River-trade was key

  • Had natural resources like gold that European nations wanted

  • Influenced by Islam

  • 1st employed Muslims as scribes

  • Later used Muslim philosophies and ideas to run their government


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

MALI

1200’s A.D.

Had mansas, or kings, who expanded their influence over both the gold-mining regions to the South and the salt supplies of Taghaza.

Greatest emporer was Mansa Musa who converted to Islam and based his systems of justice on the Quran.

Had valuable trade routes and traded with people for food/salt.

Converted to Islam.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Songhai

1400’s A.D.

Broke away from Mali.

Sonni Ali made it the largest kingdom of Africa.

Set up a bureacracy with departments for faming, the army, and the treasury.

Had a vast trade network.

Converted to Islam to gain military support.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Religions of the Sub-Saharan Civilizations

In the sub-saharan civilizations, there were polytheistic religions.

However, many of these African civilizations converted to Islam, partly for the military support and allies.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Daily Life of

the Sub-Saharan Civilizations

Life in the Sub-Saharan Civilizations was heavily based on trade.

They traded gold for salt and other foods that they needed.


Mayan aztec and incan civilization

Mayan, Aztec, and Incan Civilization

Mayan

Occupied Yucatan Peninsula

Many different civilizations in one area with a similar culture

Main city was Chichen Itza

Had one ruler that had control over the city-states

Each city-state had its own ruler

Arts included sculptures, carvings and paintings

Polytheistic

Incan

-Occupied current day Peru in the Andes Mountains

-The one emperor had complete control over all the people

Their main industry was farming crops like maize on step terraces

Had an extensive system of roads that linked all of their villages together

Main city was Machu Picchu

Polytheistic

Aztec

-Occupied current day Mexico Valley

-The emperor was chosen by priests/nobles

-The most militaristic of the early American Civilizations

-Created the sun stone (calendar)

-They used Chinampas, which were floating pieces of land that grew crops using the water that surrounded them, to farm

-Their main city was Tenochtitlan

-They built pyramids to honor their gods

-Polytheistic


Major cities of early american civilizations

Major Cities of Early American Civilizations

Chichen Itza

-Major city of the Mayan Empire

-Located on the Yucatan Peninsula

-Many temples were built there such as El Castillo, The Temple of The Warriors, The Observatory, The Nunnery, The Ball Court, and Cenote

-Used step terraces to farm on the mountains

Tenochtitlan

-Major city of the Aztec Empire

-They were conquered by the Spaniard army of Cortez

-Located on an island in a salt lake in the Mexico Valley

-Used Chinampas to farm on their lake

-Had pyramids like The Temple of The Moon and The Temple of The Sun

Machu Picchu

-Major city of the Incan Empire

-Located in the Andes Mountains of Peru

-Grew crops like maize using step terraces


Cultural contributions

Cultural Contributions

William of Normandy

He wins the english throne in 1066 and blends Anglo Saxon and Norman traditions.

He was the first powerful leader of Britian.

The Magna Carta

The Magna Carta was signed by King Johnin 1215 and contained three main principles:

It extended the rights of the common englishmen.

King John was not above the law.

Monarchs’ power was limited.

Common Law

This was a system of law based on court rulings and traditions .

It was the basis for English law.


Contributions of early american civilizations

Contributions of Early American Civilizations

The Mayans

  • This civilization developed a helpful system of farming.

  • Their major city is Chichen Itza

    The Aztecs

    This civilization is the most militaristic of the three

    They were polytheistic and made economy from farming.

    The Incas

    The Mayans’ major city is Machu Picchu.

    They made an extensive system of roads which connected all of their villages.

    All of these civilizations made achievements with advances in math,medicine and calendars


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Hugh Capet

-Hugh Capet was a French king (ruled from 987 to 996) who controlled estates around Paris and Orlean.

-Founder of the Capetian Dynasty

-Declared that the French thrown was by election and not heredity

-He was devoted to the Church


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Parliament

-Edward 1 established English Parliament

-First arose during the 13th century.

-included a House of Commons, a House of Lords, a Cabinet System.

-also, put in groups of nobles, churchmen, and “commons” (simple knights and townsmen)


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

The Rise of Nationalism During the Hundred Years War

-The Hundred Years War split apart France and England. The war gave France independence and a sense of nationality.

-During The Hundred Years War, England looked to Parliament for help. Also, they looked at trade as a new way of traveling and adventure.

-Also, France started to grow and develop, bringing new inventions such as the cannon and longbow.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Democracy in England

During the 11th-13th centuries, the causes for the development of democratic principles were…

-the fall of the Roman Empire

-the Church of England had great power in the form of taxes and -the rise of the economy

-the stability of the feudal system provided a sense of physical protection

land, also controlling most of the people’s power.

By: Christine Ficor :)


Phillip iv

Phillip IV

*From France

*He taxed the church

*Phillip engineered the move of the church from Rome to Southern France


Joan of arc

Joan of Arc

  • In 1429, a peasant woman persuaded Charles VII to let her lead the French army against the English.

  • She led the French to several victories.

  • She was taken captive and tried for witchcraft.

  • Joan was then burned at the stake.


Ferdinand and isabella

Ferdinand and Isabella

**In 1469, Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon.

**The two powerful monarchs combined their forces and Granada fell (1492).

**Isabella ended religious toleration and set up a court to try people accused of heresy.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

How did the first Spanish monarchs help convert Spain from a mostly Muslim area to a Christian nation?

*During the next 200yrs., Christian forces pushed slowly southward.

*In 1085, christian warriors recaptured the city of Toledo.

*Muslim influences helped shape the arts and literature of Christian Spain.

*By 1300, Christians controlled the entire Iberian Peninsula except for Granada.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

  • Ivan the Great

  • Set up an absolute rule type of government

  • He used the Byzantine Empire and their court rituals as a model

  • Crusades

  • Started when the Muslim Turks invaded the Byzantine Empire

  • Pope Urban ll gave a speech to rally Christian knights and gain support for the crusades

  • Christian knights captured Jerusalem in1099

  • After 200 years of fighting, the Muslims, led by Saladin, took control of Jerusalem

  • Then the Christians tried but failed to retake Jerusalem (Saladin’s prosperous achievement)


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

  • Crusades Cont.

  • After negotiations, Saladin did reopen the holy city to Christian pilgrims

  • Later, crusaders stop fighting the Muslims and began to battle other Christians

  • The crusaders looted Constantinople, meanwhile Muslim armies overran Christian states and took the last Christian outpost

  • Pope Urban ll

  • He got the majority of Christians to support the crusades

  • He did that by giving a speech which raised the morale for fighting in the crusades


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

  • Jerusalem

  • Had a connection with the Holy Land

  • Because of that, it was fought over by many religions

  • Eventually became a center for the Islamic, Jewish, and Christian religions.


Effects of the crusades

Effects of The Crusades

The Crusade left a trail of biter religious hatred

Both Christians and Muslims committed a poling atrocities to both religions

it caused cultural diffusion and spread religions and cultures


Byzantine empire

Byzantine Empire

  • Constantinople which was key trade route center to Asia and Europe

  • The Hagia Sophia

  • The blind of cultures of ancient Greek, Roman, and Christian influences and other traditions of the Mediterranean world

  • In the 1090s the emperor requested for western help to defeat the Turks who had closed the Turks Pilgrimages

  • In 1453 ottoman forces surrounded the city of Constantinople, after a sage lasting 2 months they broke through

  • The Byzantine heritage was an enduring symbol Roman civilization

  • Their art consisted of Mosaics and religious art


Mongol invasions

Mongol Invasions

  • In the early 1200’s, a young leader united the Mongols. He took the title Genghiz Khan.

  • Between 1236 and 1231, Batu, the grandson of Genghiz, and led Mongol armies into Russia.

  • The golden horde of the Mongols ruled Russia for the next 240 years.

  • The Mongol conquest brought peace to a lot of area to the land between china and Eastern Europe and had many trade routes along this region


The seljuk civilization

The Seljuk civilization

  • Seljuk Turks migrated into the middle east from central Asia

  • They adopted Islam and built a large empire across the Fertile crescent

  • By 1055, a Seljuk sultan controlled Baghdad.

  • As they pushed into Asia Minor, they threatened the Byzantine empire.

  • Reports of Seljuk interference with Christian pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem lap pope Urban the II in 1095 to call for the first crusade


To whom when did constantinople fall

To whom & when did Constantinople fall?

  • In 1453, Ottoman forces surrounded the city of Constantinople. After a siege lasting two months ottoman forces were victorious.


How did the crusades further widen the split between the east west

How did the Crusades further widen the split between the east & west?

  • During later crusades trade rivalry sparked violence between the Byzantine empire and Venice. In the 4th crusade, Europeans attacked Constantinople, and Western Christians ruled the city for 50 years.


How did the crusades bring people together and pull people further apart

How did the Crusades bring people together and pull people further apart?

  • The crusades helped bring Christians together by giving them a similar enemy to fight and it did the same for Muslims. However it split the two religions further apart.


How did the black death impact europe economically socially

How did the black death impact Europe economically & socially?

  • Production declined as the work force died. The wages for surviving workers soared so did inflation. Socially, the plague caused terror in Europe and some people thought that the plague was punishment from God, Christians blamed Jews, and some turned to witchcraft and magic to cure themselves.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

239. How did church scholars begin to interpret and value ancient learning?

Scholars began translating ancient works, and they set off a revolution in the world of learning. Christian scholars, also known as scholastics, tried to resolve the challenge of conflict between faith and reason. Their method used reason to support Christian beliefs. This method is known as scholasticism.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

240. What were some new business practices of the late medieval time period that helped to increase trade/ money economy?

To meet the needs of the changing economy, Europeans developed new ways of doing business.

Partnership- merchants put their money in together to finance a large-scale business that would have been too costly for any individual trader .Insurance- Merchants developed insurance to help reduce business risks. For a small amount of money, an underwriter would insure the merchant’s shipment. If the shipment was lost or destroyed, the underwriter paid the merchant most of its value. If the goods arrived safely, the only thing the merchant would be losing is the insurance payment.

Bill of exchange- A merchant would use this if he was traveling to a different city where different money was used. This made it so the merchant wouldn’t have to travel with gold coins, which could be easily stolen. He would deposit his money with a banker, who would then issue him a bill of exchange, which the merchant exchanged for cash in a distant city.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

241. Barter: to exchange a set of goods or services for another. This was used in barter economy the early civilizations, before money economy came to power.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

242. How did the northern Italian cities of Florence, Venice, and Genoa develop their economic and political importance?

The Renaissance began Italy because it was the center of the Roman empire, and it was a logical place for a rebirth of the arts. It contained architectural remains, statues, coins, and inscriptions, which were all visible reminders of Romanesque art.

In the city states, such as Florence, Venice, and Genoa, there was a wealthy and powerful merchant class that further promoted the cultural rebirth. These merchants exerted both political and economic leadership, and their attitudes and interests helped to shape the Italian Renaissance. Therefore, the Italian city-states grew into prosperous centers of manufacturing and trade.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Machiavelli

  • Q. Who is Machiavelli and what were his ideas on power?

  • Machiavelli was for a while a diplomat from Florence and observed kings and princes in foreign regions. He wrote a book expressing his ideas on how leaders should rule their countries.

  • This of course brings us to our second question: what were his ideas on power? Differing from others, he favored such things as it is better to be feared then loved. His perspective was that if needed, cruelty was ok, to put their subjects and keep then line.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

The Prince

Q. What was The Prince?

A. Machiavelli wrote a book with his views on how rulers should act. The Prince, published in 1513, was this book. This book had ideas that were strange to many people, but made much since in politics.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Art and Literature of the Renissance

Q. How did art and literature differ in the renaissance than in the middle ages?

A. In the middle ages, art and literature revolved around the church. In fact, most things did. When the Renaissance came, it brought upon some incredible art and literature that had nothing to do with the church. Some of it though was in the style the Greeks and Romans favored.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Some of the artists and writers

The renaissance brought upon some great artists and thinkers, bringing us out of the time of little education. Such writers as castiglione and Machiavelli wrote things concerning politics, while those of Shakespeare and Cervantes were taking the plays of human emotion, such as comedies and tragedies.

On the other hand, the artists most well known in Italy, the three musketeers of art, being Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael were working well with such pieces as the Mona Lisa <L>, the Sistine chapel <M>, and the school of Athens <R>. Then there were the artists of the north, such as Duer, with his engraved art, the van Ecyk’s and their invention of the oil paints, and of course Pieter Bruegel.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Leonardo Da Vinci

  • Leonardo was born in 1452 on his father's family estate at Vinci, near Florence.

  • Leonardo was accepted into the painters' guild at Florence in 1472 and then he stayed there for the next 10 years.

  • In 1482 Leonardo was hired by the duke of Milan, Ludovico Sforza, to be artist and engineer in residence. In this capacity he was constantly kept busy as a painter and sculptor, though many of his paintings and all of his sculptures remained unfinished.

  • During the years 1513 to 1516, Leonardo was in Rome at the invitation of Cardinal Giuliano de' Medici. The world’s greatest artists of the time were at work in Rome for the church. Donato Bramante was building St. Peter's Basilica, Michelangelo was working on the tomb of Pope Julius, and Raphael was painting the rooms of the pope's apartments.

  • On May 2, 1519, Leonardo died at Cloux and was buried in the palace church. The whereabouts of Leonardo's remains is no longer known.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Michelangelo

  • Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni was born on March 6, 1475. His birthplace, Caprese, Italy, was a tiny village that belonged to the nearby city-state of Florence.

  • Between 1508 and 1512 Michelangelo painted the vaulted ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome with hundreds of figures that made up his vision of the world's creation. He worked on a scaffold 60 feet (18 meters) above the floor and covered 10,000 square feet (930 square meters) of surface. Most of the time he painted while he lay on his back in a tight, cramped position.

  • More than 20 years after he completed his ceiling frescoes for the Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo began his enormous fresco 'The Last Judgment'. This is a vast painting that covers the entire wall of the chapel behind the altar.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Petrarch

  • Petrarch was born in Arezzo, Tuscany, on July 20, 1304.

  • Petrarch produced a number of writings. The most celebrated are the poems collectively called 'Rime', which tell of the great love of his life.

  • Among his other works are 'Africa', an epic poem about the Second Punic War.

  • By 1367 he had settled in Padua. He died in nearby Arqua on July 19, 1374.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Humanism

"Man is the measure of all things," said the Greek philosopher Protagoras in the 5th century BC. This statement serves to clarify the two primary definitions of humanism. First of all, humanism was a movement that arose during the 14th century in Italy. The time in which humanism flourished was called the Renaissance, which means "rebirth“. Humanism derives from the Latin word humanitas. The word obviously means "humanity," but in relation to humanism it signifies more. Humanism arose in the cities of northern Italy--in Florence, Venice, Pisa, Milan, Rome, and others--just as they were becoming potent economic forces. Neither religion nor God was rejected by the humanists. Their goal was to remove religion as a prime domination in their lives and to establish it as an institutions in society.


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

When the Renaissance moved farther north into Europe…

  • Humanists emphasized religious themes

  • The people were demanding books be written in vernacular rather than Latin

  • Books were being printed from printing presses

  • People were enjoying Shakespeare, Rabelais, & Cervantes


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

JohannGutenberg

  • Created the printing press which was able to mass produce books

  • This meant that printed books were cheaper and easier to make

  • As a result of the printing press, more people were able to read


How did physical geography impact the lives of early humans

Erasmus

  • The Dutch Priest who translated the Bible into vernacular

  • Wrote The Praise Folly, which he used to expose the behaviors of the people of his era

Sir Thomas More

  • English humanist who wrote the book Utopia

  • In this book he describes the perfect place, in which there was no crime and all are well educated

  • We use the word utopian do describe any ideal society


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