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Digital Photography DeCal. EECS98/198 Spring 2010 Nathan Yan Kellen Freeman. Digital Photography DeCal – important notes!. 1. Administrivia at the end of lecture 2. I tend to talk fast… – sorry! >__< 3. I tend to mumble and stutter… – sorry! >__<

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Digital photography decal

Digital Photography DeCal

EECS98/198Spring 2010

Nathan YanKellen Freeman


Digital photography decal

Digital Photography DeCal – important notes!

1. Administrivia at the end of lecture

2. I tend to talk fast…

– sorry! >__<

3. I tend to mumble and stutter…

– sorry! >__<

4. No such thing as a dumb question

5. Website is http://www.photodecal.org

-lectures, assignments, news!


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How it works

All cameras, film or digital, work the same:

Photons are projected onto a photo-sensitive plane which records the light information


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How it works

By confining light to only photons which pass through a certain point, we begin to resolve “detail”

Image processor


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History of Camera Development

  • Many pinhole-type cameras dating back to the 11th century

  • Joseph Niépce recorded the first photograph in 1826, using a photo-sensitive silver/chalk mixture (8 hour exposure)

  • Development of recording mediums more responsive to light: wet plates, dry plates

  • George Eastman introduces photographic film in 1885, and debuts the “Kodak” camera in 1888 – a cheap and easy to operate camera that began to popularize cameras

  • Oskar Barnack developed the Leica camera in 1925, which popularized 35mm film standard

  • Ihagee introduced the first single-lens reflex (SLR) camera, Exakta, in 1933, allowing photographers to view image “through the lens”

  • Auto-focus developed in the Konica C35AF in 1977


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History of Digital Camera Development

  • Began with charged couple device (CCD) sensors that recorded to analog media

    • Steve Sasson produced the first such camera for Kodak in 1975

      • Solid state CCD that recorded output onto cassette tape

      • Resolution: 10,000 pixels, or 0.01 megapixels

  • First practical use in 1984, for journalism

    • Canon RC-701 recorded images onto "video floppies"

    • During 1984 Olympics images could be transmitted via telephone lines, and image quality (780x585, 0.4MP) was acceptable for newsprint

  • JPEG image compression standard introduced in 1988

  • First true digital camera: Fuji DS-1P debuted in 1988, recording a digitized image file to onboard memory

  • First camera with live image feed to LCD: Casio QV-10 in 1995

  • First "professional" digital SLR camera natively designed: 2.74MP Nikon D1 in 1999

  • First affordable "consumer" digital SLR: 6MP Canon Digital Rebel 300D in 2003 - $1000

  • First electronic viewfinder, interchangeable lens (EVIL): Panasonic G1 in 2008


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The Imaging Sensor

Input:

Light «photons»

Output:

Electrical signals


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Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Photowell


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Bucketloads of Electrons!

Many electrons

Voltage: High

Implication: Many photons detected, bright exposure

Result: bright image

Few electrons

Voltage: Low

Implication: Few photons detected, dark exposure

Result: dark image

Max electrons

Voltage: Max

Implication: Max photons detected, brightest exposure

Result: White image

No electrons

Voltage: Zero

Implication: No photons detected, darkest exposure

Result: Black image


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From detectors to image sensors


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Aperture

Bigger aperture = more light!


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Shutter speed

Longer shutter speed (exposure time) = more light collected!


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ISO is a “sensitivity” – higher ISO means more signal (brightness) for the input (light) you actually get

Amplified electrical signal

Amplifier

Voltage Measurement

Electrical signal

Accumulated charge

ISO sensitivity


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Digital Multiplication

Use software to multiply the pixel values

x010

x010

x100

2x

4x

8x

16x

x000

x111

x111

x100

x000

x111

x111

x111

x100

x111

x111

x110

x111


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Shutter speed

Aperture

Amplified electrical signal

Si

Voltage Reading

Photons

Signal Amplification

Si

Si

Quantum efficiency

Electrical signal

Amplifier

Analog-to-Digital Converter

Accumulated charge

Photoelectrons

101010100100

Photons

Digital representation of electrical signal

Electrons

Voltage Signal

Image processor

Image file

Digital Multiplication

Image Brightness


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Exposure "Stops"


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Class Enrollment:

Lecture

1 unit P/NP

Tuesday 6-7pm in 160 Kroeber (here)

98 CCN: 25320

198 CCN: 25574

Grading:

Score 50% (cumulative) on weekly quizzes


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Photo Basics:

Week 1:

-Anatomy of a Digital Sensor

-Conversion process of light into images

-Aperture, shutter speed, ISO sensitivity in sensor model

Week 2:

-Side-effects of exposure parameters

-Autoexposure/metering

-Controlling exposure parameters in program modes


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Low-light photography:

Week 3

-Analyzing blur

-Blur reduction technology/techniques

Week 4

-Defining noise

-Sources of noise

-Noise vs. detail

Week 5

-Noise reduction methods

-Creative usage of blur


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Lighting:

Week 6

-Why flash is usually bad

-Advanced flash techniques

-Flash stop-action

-Direction and intensity of light

Week 7

-Dynamic, tonal range limitations

-Balancing detail vs. contrast

Week 8

Spring Break – no class

Week 9

-Expanding dynamic range

-Shrinking dynamic range

Week 10

-White balance

-Black and white conversion


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Lenses:

Week 11

-Focal length and angle of view

-Subject distance and perspective

Week 12

-Focusing

-Autofocusing systems

-Depth of field

Week 13

-Lens characteristics

-Resolving power

-Diffraction

-Chromatic aberrations

-Distortion

-Software workarounds


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Optional Section Enrollment:

Discussion (Optional)

1 unit P/NP

Tuesday 5-6pm in 115 Kroeber

Grading:

Complete all semi-weekly assignments

Into to Photojournalism(Optional)

1 unit P/NP

Thursday 5-6:30pm in 251 Dwinelle

Grading:

Complete all semi-weekly assignments

Complete documentary/photostory project

To apply:

check on photodecal.org later tonight (~11pm)

Email ([email protected]) and I will send you link

Questionnaire due Thursday 11:59pm, will respond with CCN by Friday


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